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< would not have any thing of mine difplace a fingle Line of yours.

I.

Hafte, my Rain-Deer, and let us nimbly go

Our am'rous Journey through this dreary Wafte; Hafte, my Rain-Deer! fill ftill thou art too flow, Impetuous Love demands the Lightning's Hafte.

II.

Around us far the Ruby Moors are spread:
Soon will the Sun withdraw his chearful Ray;
Darkling and tir'd we fhall the Marshes tread,
No Lay unfung to cheat the tedious Way.

III.

The watry Length of thefe unjoyous Moors
Does all the flow'ry Meadows Pride excel;
Through thefe Ify to her my Soul adores,
Ye flow'ry Meadows, empty Pride, Farewel.
IV.

Each Moment from the Charmer I'm confin'd,
My Breaft is tortur'd with impatient Fires ;
Fly, my Rain-Deer, fy fwifter than the Wind,
Thy tardy Feet wing with my fierce Defires.

V.

Our pleafing Toil will then be foon o'erpaid,
And thou, in Wonder loft, fhalt view my Fair,
Admire cach Feature of the lovely Maid,

Her artless Charms, her Bloom, her sprightly Air.
VI.

But lo! with graceful Motion there fhe fwims,
Gently removing each ambitious Wave;

The crowding Waves tranfported clafp her Limbs:
When, when, ob when fhall I fuch Freedoms have!
VII.

In vain, ye envious Streams, fo faft ye flow,
To hide her from a Lover's ardent Gaze :

From every

Touch ye more transparent grow,
And all reveal'd the beauteous Wanton plays.

T

Tuesday,

No. 407.

Tuesday, June 17.

abeft facundis Gratia dictis,

Ovid. Met. 1. 13. V. 127.

Eloquent Words a graceful Manner want.

Μ

OST Foreign Writers who have given any Character of the English Nation, whatever Vices they ascribe to it, allow in general, that the People are naturally Modeft. It proceeds perhaps from this our National Virtue, that our Orators are obferved to make use of less Gesture or Action than thofe of other Countries. Our Preachers ftand ftock ftill in the Pulpit, and will not fo much as move a Finger to fet off the best Sermons in the World. We meet with the fame speaking Statues at our Bars, and in all publick Places of Debate. Our Words flow from us in a fmooth continued Stream, without thofe Strainings of the Voice, Motions of the Body, and Majefty of the Hand which are fo much celebrated in the Orators of Greece and Rome. We can talk of Life and Death in cold Blood, and keep our Temper in a Discourse which turns upon every thing that is dear to us. Though our Zeal breaks out in the finest Tropes and Figures, it is not able to ftir a Limb about us. I have heard it observed more than once by thofe who have seen Italy, that an untravelled Englishman cannot relish all the Beauties of Italian Pictures, because the Poftures which are expreffed in them are often fuch as are peculiar to that Country. One who has not feen an Italian in the Pulpit, will not know what to make of that noble Gefture in Raphael's Picture of St. Paul preaching at Athens, where the Apoftle is reprefented as lifting up both his Arms, and pouring out the Thunder of his Rhetorick amidst an Audience of Pagan Philofophers.

IT is certain that proper Geftures and vehement Exertions of the Voice cannot be too much studied by a publick Orator. They are a kind of Comment to what

he

he utters, and enforce every thing he says, with weak Hearers, better than the strongest Argument he can make ufe of. They keep the Audience awake, and fix their Attention to what is delivered to them, at the fame time that they fhew the Speaker is in earnest, and affected himself with what he fo paffionately recommends to others. Violent Gesture and Vociferation naturally shake the Hearts of the Ignorant, and fill them with a kind of Religious Horror. Nothing is more frequent than to fee Women weep and tremble at the Sight of a moving Preacher, tho' he is placed quite out of their Hearing; as in England we very frequently fee People lulled afleep with folid and elaborate Discourses of Piety, who would be warmed and transported out of themselves by the Bellowing and Distortions of Enthusiasm.

IF Nonsense, when accompanied with such an Emotion of Voice and Body, has fuch an Influence on Mens Minds, what might we not expect from many of thofe admirable Difcourfes which are printed in our Tongue, were they delivered with a becoming Fervour, and with the moft agreeable Graces of Voice and Gesture?

WE are told that the great Latin Orator very much impaired his Health by this laterum contentio, this Vehemence of Action, with which he used to deliver himfelf. The Greek Orator was likewise so very famous for this Particular in Rhetorick, that one of his Antagonifts, whom he had banished from Athens, reading over the Oration which had procured his Banifhment, and feeing his Friends admire it, could not forbear asking them, if they were so much affected by the bare reading of it, how much more they would have been alarmed, had they heard him actually throwing out fuch a Storm of Eloquence?

HOW cold and dead a Figure, in comparison of these two great Men, does an Orator often make at the Briti Bar, holding up his Head, with the most infipid Serenity, and ftroking the fides of a long Wig that reaches down to his Middle? The truth of it is, there is often nothing more ridiculous than the Gestures of an English Speaker; you fee fome of them running their Hands into their Pockets as far as ever they can thrust them, and others looking with great Attention on a piece of Paper that has noVOL. VI.

C

thing

thing written in it; you may fee many a fmart Rhetorician turning his Hat in his Hands, moulding it into feveral different Cocks, examining fometimes the Lining of it, and fometimes the Button, during the whole courfe of his Harangue. A deaf Man would think he was cheapning a Beaver, when perhaps he is talking of the Fate of the British Nation. I remember when I was a young Man, and used to frequent Weftminster-Hall, there was a Counsellor who never pleaded without a Piece of Packthread in his Hand, which he used to twist about a Thumb or a Finger, all the while he was speaking: The Wags of thofe Days used to call it the Thread of his Difcourfe, for he was not able to utter a Word without it. One of his Clients, who was more merry than wife, ftole it from him one Day in the midft of his Pleading; but he had better have let it alone, for he loft his Caufe by his Jeft.

I have all along acknowledged my felf to be a dumb Man, and therefore may be thought a very improper Perfon to give Rules for Oratory; but I believe every one will agree with me in this, that we ought either to lay afide all kinds of Gefture, (which feems to be very fuitable to the Genius of our Nation) or at least to make use of fuch only as are graceful and expreffive.

No. 408. Wednesday, June 18.

Decet affectus animi neque fe nimiùm erigere, nec fubjacere ferviliter. Tull. de Finibus. We fhou'd keep our Paffions from being exalted above measurė, or fervilely deprefs'd.

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Mr. SPECTATOR,

I

Have always been a very great Lover of your Speculations, as well in Regard to the Subject, as to your Manner of Treating it. Human Nature I always thought the most useful Object of human Reafon, and to make the Confideration of it pleasant and

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⚫ entertaining, I always thought the beft Employment of human Wit: Other Parts of Philofophy may perhaps 'make us wifer, but this not only answers that End, ⚫ but makes us better too. Hence it was that the Oracle pronounced Socrates the wifeft of all Men living, because he judiciously made choice of human Nature for the Object of his Thoughts; an Inquiry into which as 'much exceeds all other Learning, as it is of more Confequence to adjust the true Nature and Measures of Right and Wrong, than to fettle the Distance of the Planets, and compute the Times of their Circum•volutions.

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ONE good Effect that will immediately arife from a near Obfervation of human Nature, is that we shall 'ceafe to wonder at those Actions which Men are used ⚫ to reckon wholly unaccountable; for as nothing is pro<duced without a Caufe, fo by obferving the Nature and Course of the Paffions, we fhall be able to trace every Action from its firft Conception to its Death. We shall no more admire at the Proceedings of Catiline or Tiberius, when we know the one was actuated by a cruel Jealousy, the other by a furious Ambition; for the Actions of Men follow their Paffions as naturally as Light does Heat, or as any other Effect flows from its Caufe; Reason must be employed in adjusting the Paffions, but they must ever remain the Principles ' of Action.

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THE ftrange and abfurd Variety that is fo apparent ⚫ in Mens Actions, fhews plainly they can never proceed ⚫ immediately from Reafon; fo pure a Fountain emits no fuch troubled Waters: They muft neceffarily arise from the Paffions, which are to the Mind as the Winds to a Ship, they only can move it, and they too often deftroy it; if fair and gentle, they guide it into the • Harbour; if contrary and furious, they overfet it in the • Waves: In the fame manner is the Mind affifted or endangered by the Paffions; Reafon must then take the Place of Pilot, and can never fail of fecuring her • Charge if she be not wanting to herfelf; The Strength of the Paffions will never be accepted as an Excufe for complying with them; they were defigned for Subjection, and if a Man fuffers them to get the

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