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The New York News, weekly........... 5,000 copies. and away they go, and others come without
As I like to 25,000
ceremony to take their places. The Evangelist (Presbyterian, New School), weekly,
have sufficient time to masticate my food, I 15,000 copies.
generally found that three Americans could The Christian Advocate and Journal (Methodist) weekly,
dine in succession before I had finished my 35,000 copies. The Examiner and Chronicle (Baptist), weekly, 26,000 repast. Nearly twenty negroes were in atcopies.
tendance as waiters, and nothing could exThe circulation of the different news- ceed the gracefulness with whicb they repapers would no doubt be much affected by moved the chairs for visitors to sit down. One the late war. For instance, the circulation of the darkies seemed quite elated when he of the New York Tribune (weekly) rose to informed me that he was present at Fort 237,000 copies. The New York Daily News Sumter when the Union flag was raised, and having advocated the cause of the south, its then, turning with glee the
white of his eye, circulation in Richmond was nearly as large and exposing a set of beautiful white teeth, as it was in New York. Advertisements in
he said he really believed that they would American newspapers are charged for at a not have been able to raise the flag if he had much higher rate than they would be in Eng
not been present. land. For instance, an advertisement in the Went this day to New Haven, the semiweekly issue of the New York Tribune for capital of the state of Connecticut. The ono insertion is charged from 4s. to 6s. per day was beautifully fine, and the land and line, according to the place in the paper in sea views were splendid. I have often heard which it was to appear. I was quite asto-people speak disparagingly of the English nished to see people come to the office and railway carriages after having travelled in pay at this rate as cheerfully as possible, the American cars, and I remember when without any bargaining whatever, for it on board the steamer this was one of the seemed to be an understood thing that if the subjects discussed; and when I mentioned advertisement appeared it must be paid for what Dr. Mackay had said about the Ameriat the rate already named.
can cars, several persons laughed outright, New York presents a scene of continual and said I should find it quite different from bustle and change. At the hotel where I wbat Dr. Mackay had represented. So far staid one could no sooner become acquanted as my present experience is concerned, I with a person than he was off like a bird of think the balance of
advantage is on the passage no one knew where. Every day side of America. The carriages are well persons were leaving for different parts of lighted, comfortably cushioned, and, as the the Union, and every day fresh arrivals came. passenger can walk from one end of the On one day I counted no fewer than eighty- train to another, if the company in one carfive new visitors. The hotel is constantly riage be not such as he wishes to associate open, never being closed either by night or with he can take his seat in another, The by day the week round. On entering, the carriages are eminently adapted for the convisitor registers his name and address, and venience of social parties. In warm weather, if he happen to be travelling without luggage & person keeps passing from one end of the he will be expected to pay in advance; but train to the other carrying in one hand a if he have luggage the hotel bill will be made bright metal kettle filled with ioe-water, and out once a week, or earlier, should his time in the other a kind of cruet stand on which be more limited. A key will be given to him, are fixed tumbler glasses, so that passengers with label attached, having the number of may have a cooling draught at pleasure. the room he is to occupy, and it is well for Booksellers and others use the cars for the the visitor to see that his room is always disposal of their wares, and appear to drive locked when he leaves it, for in an hotel a flourishing business. The periodical deawhere hundreds of people go in and out lers distribute their magazines amongst the during the day, if anything be lost it will be
passengers, and after a little time they colalmost impossible to trace it out. The dining lect them in again, and if any passenger hall would seat about one hundred and wishes to retain the one in his possession ho twenty at table, and however full it might pays the usual price for it. By this means seem to be, like stuffing a carpet bag, there a great amount of periodical literature is was always room for more. I soon discovered brought into circulation.-On arrival at New the reason.
The Americans will take a little Haven, I proceeded to the house of an old soup, a little fish, a little fowl, a little flesh, friend who had been in America more than a little pie, pudding, custard, tart, peach, twenty years. It was somewhat surprising &c., and almost as soon as one could say that, although more than a quarter of a Jack Robinson they have gulped it all century had elapsed since we had seen each down, or left large fragments on their plates, other, and no communication had passed
between us, I was recognised and made wel- much in the factory style, and have very come with the greatest cordiality. The little of architectural adornment; but there grape-gathering had taken place that day, is now in course of erection, in connection and the hops bad been spread to dry, so that with the college, a building which is demy arrival was just at the time of harvest. nominated “The School of Fine Arts," which
Sept. 21.-New Haven is considered by will be a most costly and splendid edifice. many persons to be the prettiest city in the The library contains about 72,000 volumes. United States, and this is just the time to -Visited the State House, &c. see it in its loveliest aspect. It is situate on Sept. 22.-Visited the Connecticut Iron the northerly shore of a fine broad bay, ex- Works, and examined a new sort of steam tending about four miles from Long Island engine called a “Cast Iron Grasshopper.” Sound. The barbour is spacious and con- Its peculiarity is that, instead of a perpenvenient, and vessels ply between Albany, dicular piston rod it works on the principle New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Barbadoes, of folding doors. The engine is twenty and the Windward Islands. The population horses' power, and only occupies three feet of the city is about 50,000, having doubled square. It is quite a new invention, this during the last ten years. Rows of magni- being the only one completed, and a patent ficent elm trees grow on the sides of the has already been obtained for it. The perstreets, forming quiet shaded avenues, son who invented it is not a mechanic, but a which call forth expressions of admira- | bookkeeper, and he has sold his patent right tion from all beholders. It bas long for 10,000 dollars. Saw the Music Hall, a been known as the City of Elms," and splendid building, and one peculiarity of it some describe it as the “Garden of New is that the gas is lighted by electricity, so Eugland." The private palatial residences that the lighting up of the entire building have an air of quiet comfort, ample space, is only the work of a moment. Visited the rural and architectural elegance, and horti- United States College of Business and Ficultural adornment, such few cities nance, in which are taught penmanship, possess. The classic groves and shades of bookkeeping, arithmetic, grammar, business Yale College, the pleasant surrounding correspondence, spelling and defining, comparks and avenues, and the interesting mercial definitions, commercial law, forscenery which continually opens to the view, warding and commission business, insurance afford glimpses of beauty calculated to give business, banking business, telegrapbing, a new impulse to the cultivation of taste. architectural drawing, surveying, navigation, Amongst its literary institutions, Yale Col- French, German, &c. The instuction is lege stands first in rank. It is said that it is communicated in the most practical manner, the principal university of America. The thus eminently fitting young men for the aclate war has, however, affected it most seri- tive duties of life. In addition to the above, ously, for a very large proportion of the stu- instructions are given to advanced students dents formerly came from the Southern States, with respect to railroad, express, and steamand now they are almost entirely withdrawn. boat business, algebra, geography, science of I have heard it said that this withdrawal has government, custom house business, science had a beneficial effect with respect to the of accounts, Spanish language, vocal and ingood order of the city, for many of the strumental music,oil painting, crayon sketchstudents from the South were very rude and
Certificates of competency are boisterous. On one occasion a number of given to those who successfully pass the orthem indulged in a lark by taking down deal of examination. A sound theoretical during the night some of the signboards and good preparatory business experience belonging to different tradesmen and bring- are secured by the method of instruction here ing them to the college, where they com- | adopted. Care is taken to secure religious menced chopping them up for firewood. and moral excellence in connection with inThe incensed tradesmen went to demand tellectual culture. I am not aware of any their sigos; but there is a college rule that similar establishment in England, nor, inno student is to be disturbed during prayer, deed, anything which is analogous to it. To and taking advantage of this rule, one of enter the college when the students are enthe students commenced praying aloud while gaged is like entering a miniature world of the others went on with their work of de- mercantile traffic, where strict discipline imstruction. In this prayer he was heard to parts business habits, and a full development say :-"A wicked and adulterous generation of character is almost infallibly secured. seeketh after a sign, and there shall no sign Nor are the advantages of such an institube givev unto it, but the sign of the Prophet tion confined to the sterner sex, for the ladies Jonas." The college edifices are built very are provided with a system of instruction as
comprehensive as that of the gentlemen, and in the telegraphing department they are even supposed to excel, great proficiency being generally obtained in about three or four months. Education for the young and the middle-aged in America is at the present time exciting an interest which was probably unknown before, and must ultimately be attended with results materially affecting the destinies of this great country.
Sept. 23.- Sometimes, since my arrival in this country, I have put questions to people relative to certain states in the American Union, and it has appeared as if I had been putting questions relative to a foreign land. It is not surprising that this should be the case when the vast area of the United States is taken into consideration. The great extent of some of the States in the Union is rendered more obvious by comparison. Ohio exceeds either Ireland, or Scotland, or Portugal; and equals Belgium, Scotland, and Switzerland together. Missouri is more than half as large as Italy, and larger than Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland. Missouri and Illinois are larger than England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales.
Sept. 24, Sunday.--Attended the first Baptist Church, and heard an interesting discourse by Dr. Phelps, his subject being “The Gospel Feast.' in the afternoon, heard Dr. Cleaveland, of the Third Congregational Society. This society is known here as the church is large, and respectably attended. This was the day for the dedication of deacons, which was done by the laying on of hands in the presence of the whole congregation. Dr. Cleaveland delivered a most appropriate discourse on the occasion, his text being, “ They that have used the office of a deacon well purchase for themselves a good degree."— Visited the City Cemetery in which are deposited the remains of many eminent men, including Webster, the lexicographer. The monuments were chiefly of white marble, and some of the sculptured representations were of a most beautiful description. In this graveyard I observed, for the first time, inserted in the monumental headstone a photograph of the deceased. I thought this was a most excellent plan of rendering permanent the shadow when the substance was gone.
Sept. 25.—Planted a vine in commemoration of my birthday. It was of the Isabella variety, which is now considered to be the best grape cultivated in the United States. In the afternoon, went to West Rock, a bold rocky eminence, 400 feet high, which gives a commanding view of the city, harbour,
lighthouse, Long Island Sound, &c. The day was splendidly fine, and the views were of an exquisite character. In this locality are still visible the remains of entrenchments thrown up by the Americans during the revolutiouary war, to resist the advance of the English under General Garth. Hamilton Park, in this vicinity, has been handsomely arranged, the grounds inside the racecourse having been excavated, so as to form a skating pond, the water being forced into it from the river by means of a steam pump.
Near this place also is the workhouse, which is very different from a workhouse in England, which is only such by name, while at New Haven it is a reality. The workhouse receives all persons who are in a condition of indigence, but, if capable, they are required to work, and at the present time the inmates earn the entire cost of the establishmeut, so that it has ceased to be a charitable institution. I visited the Judge's Cave, which is in a secluded part of the forest. The place possesses historical interest, inasmuch as General Edward Whalley, and General William Goffe, two of the judges whose names were affixed to the warrant for the execution of King Charles the I., took up their residence in this cave after the Restoration. They arrived at New Haven in the spring of 1661; and to protect their friends from the charge of having harboured regicides, they took up their abode in this gloomy cave, which was formed by three huge boulders, but it is now much different to what it was formerly, for, during a thunderstorm, the electric fuid struck the centre rock, and produced a great change. fissures sufficiently open for people to pass in and out, A party of Royalists arrived from England with an order to arrest the judges, but by means of concealment the order was never executed.
Sept. 26.-Went to Neck Bridge, on the Mill River, which derived its name from the fact that some of the regicides escaped detection by wading up to the neck in water. Visited Mr. Read's Garden, where there were excellentgrapes, melons, pumpkins, and a great variety of fruits and flowers not grown in England. There was not so much labour bestowed on the gardens here as is generally the case in Lancashire, nor do they appear to be as tastefully laid out. Mr. Read's garden is fifteen acres in extent, yet there are only four men employed in its cultivation, and as vegetation is here very rapid, it is utterly impossible for four men to keep down weeds and have the grounds in excellent condition. I was shown some Indian corn which was only planted in July, and now bad
attained a height of from six to eight feet. against the spire of one of the tall churches There were some beautiful humming birds in the city. A silver trumpet was publicly flying about, and culling honey from the presented to one of the companies present. flowers. Large and beautiful butterflies, the Probably, in a country where fires are frewings of which displayed the most splendid quent, it has been found necessary to discolours conceivable, were flying about in all cipline the fire brigade in such a manner that directions. There was very little difference in the greatest amount of power might be the size between the small humming birds and brought to bear
limited the large butterflies. In the evening was invited time. In the short period that I have been to visit a neighbour. It is quite usual here in this city a number of fires have occurred, if an Englishman comes into the locality for and a piano manufactory, which equals in him to be invited to pay visits, and a pleasant size the generality of cotton factories in interchange of conversation.generally follows. England, still exhibits its blackened ruins Biscuit and wine were banded round, and a produced by a conflagration. lively conversation, interspersed with vocal Sept. 28. — This evening went to a and instrumental music, occupied the re- “Surprise Party.” This is a designation mainder of the evening. On returning which is probably new to English ears, and home, mine host asked me what I thought therefore it is necessary to explain. When a of the comfort of working men's homes in couple get married and commence houseAmerica, and assured me that the person at keeping, the neighbours agree to pay a visit, whose house we had spent the evening was but keep it a perfect secret to the parties a working man. I thought that the homes themselves. I was invited to the house, but of working men in America were much more was strictly enjoined not to reveal the secret. comfortable than the homes of working After I had conversed with the good lady of men in England. Mine host, who had had the house and her husband a considerable twenty years' experience of America, fully time, a rap was heard at the door, and preconcurred in that opinion.
septly were ushered in more than fifty perSept. 27.-Witnessed a great fire-engine sons all masked, and attired in the most display. Fire insurance is quite an institu
fantastic dresses imaginable.
Amongst the tion in America, and everything relating to rest, one, I observed, was a ghost of large it excites general interest. Bands of music dimensions, but without head. The dressing and a procession, in which the different of the ghost had evidently been a work which companies of the fire brigade, dressed in required great care, the upper portion of the uniform, appeared, accompanied by their body being pillowed up in such a manner as brightly burnished engines, their fire-escapes, to add considerably to the stature. A small hose carriages, and everything relating to aperture was left sufficiently large for one fire department, caused a general stir in the eye to be able to see all that was going on. city, and it seemed to be quite a holiday occa- Then, as if the ghost-like whiteness was to sion. The fire-engines are what they are re- be brought into striking contrast, the negro, presented to be, for they are worked by as black as black can be, makes his appearsteam power. Each engine only requires
ance on the scene. As it was completely a three men to attend to it at one time. The masquerade, youth could be made to reprefollowing is the routine :-Three men are sent the feebleness of age, and age could reconstantly kept night and day ready at any present the agility of youth. Ladies took moment for action. The horses are on the for the nonce the dress of the gentlemen, spot, and almost in a moment they are and gentlemen assumed the attire of the ready to start for the place whence the alarm ladies, not even excepting the crinoline. issued. Highly combustible materials are The transformation was so complete that the ready for ignition, and in a few minutes family did not know who were their guests, (generally before it reaches the place where nor did the guests know each other. Everyit has to be employed), the steam-engine is thing was carried on in dumb show, but ready for work, and the mode of action is so there was evidently much prying to discover perfect that it not only pours a continuous the real persons, whose identity had become flow of water upon the fire, but it gives di- obscured by the masks and strange dresses rection signals, so that one mind secures as in which they appeared. After some time much unanimity of action as can be obtained the masquerade closed, the parties retiring by a skillful general on the field of battle. to a dressing room, and on their return Nothing can exceed the perfection of the there was a cordial greeting. They then proarrangements, and it was quite a treat to ceeded to the supper room, where a plen. witness the various maneuvres. Water teous repast was provided, consisting of beef, was forced by steam power to a great altitude custards, pies, &c. All the glasses on the
table were filled with water, and I was told We are tired of war on the old camp ground,
Many are dead and gone; that it was never customary on such occa
Of the brave and true who've left their homes, sions to have any intoxicating liquor. It Others been wounded long. ought to be stated that, as it could not be
We've been fighting to-day on the old camp ground, expected that persons would be prepared to Many are lying near; entertain, with becoming hospitality, 80
Some are dead, and some are dying,
Many are in tears. large a party without previous notice, a few of the guests made the necessary provision. Towards the midnighthour the party broke up, Supper being over, the rest of the evening congratulating each other about the happy was spent in lively conversation, and vocal meeting which had taken place. I inquired and instrumental music. In New Haven, if it never happened that persons on being almost every house possesses its piano, har- visited in such an unceremonious manner, monium or melodeon, and as vocal music were highly displeased, and I was assured forms part of the instruction imparted at that so far from being offended on account public schools, the consequence is that in of the liberty which was taken, the parties almost every miscellaneous party there will visited always regarded it as the highest mark be found persons having a cultivated taste of honour which the neighbourhood could for music. The songs were chiefly of a pa- confer. America is the country for social triotic character, among which was the fol- convivial parties, especially in the winter lowing, called
season. Perhaps the extreme coldness of
the atmosphere gives a zest for indoor THE PRISONER'S HOPE,
amusements, which is not felt in an equal deIn the prison cell I sit, Thinking, mother dear, of you,
gree in milder climates. There is what is And our bright and happy home, so far away;
termed the “ husking bee," a party which is And the tears they fill my eyes,
formed at the corn harvest when the husk Spite of all that I can do, Tho' I try to cheer my comrades and be gay.
has to be taken from the cob. The work Tramp, tramp, tramp! the boys are marching; being completed, they all sit down to supper,
Cheer up, comrades ! they will come, and after this, the evening is spent with
music and rustic games. Nothing can exof the free land in our beloved home, ceed the conviviality of such occasions, and Chorus: Tramp, tramp! &c.
they are always anticipated with the greatest In the battle-front we stood
pleasure. In addition to the “husking bee," When their fiercest charge they made,
there is also the “carpet bee," the" quilting And they swept us off, a hundred men or more; bee," and other sorts of “ bee,” the general
But before we reached their lines
effect of such gatherings being to promote an And we heard the cry of victory, o'er and o'er, excellent feeling one towards another Tramp, tramp, tramp! &c.
throughout the neighbourhood. An instance So within the prison cell,
occurred however, which had quite a contrary We are waiting for the day
effect. Some of the parlour games are preThat shall come to open wide the iron door: And the hollow eye grows bright,
cisely such as are common in England, but And the poor heart almost gay,
there are others wbich are purely of AmeriAs we think of seeing home and friends once more.
can origin, and amongst others is a game Tramp, tramp, tramp! &c.
called “marriage." It happened that a Some of the company were members of the young man amorously disposed towards a “Mendelssohn Society," a concert party of young lady made offers of love which met no considerable repute, and the song was beau- tender response.
His ardent attachment tifully sung. Another song which was in- abated not a jot in consequence of the slights troduced was the following:
which he received, and, as it was impossible We're tenting to-night on the old camp ground,
to accomplish his object by fair means, he Give us a song to cheer
determined to be successful by means of a Our weary hearts, a song of home,
mischievous hoax. A “ bee" took place, at And friends we love so dear,
which both parties were present, and when
the game of “marriage was played, he Many are the hearts that are weary to-night, and his loved one were most conspicuous,
Wishing for the war to cease,
for he performed the part of the bacheTo see the dawn of peace.
lor and she the spinster. No interrupTenting to-night, tenting to-night,
tion to the general mirthfulness of the ocTenting on the old camp ground.
casion took place until the party broke We've been tenting to-night on the old campground, up, and then he insisted that she should
Thinking of days gone by, of the lov'd ones at home that gave us the hand,
accompany him home as his wife. She And the tear that said good bye.
laughed at his proposal, regarding what had