Page images
PDF
EPUB

Whilo women are meek, passive, good him, and be occasionally, if not indifferent, creatures, who, used to stay at home, set unpunctual, and delight in being missed, their maids at work, and formerly them- expected, and called to tender account for selves,-get their houses in order, to receive, his careless absences; and he will be less comfort, oblige, give joy to their fierce, fight- and less solicitous about giving good reasons ing, bustling, active protectors, providers, for them, as she is more and more desirous maintainers, -divert him with pretty pug's of his company. Poor fool! he has brought tricks, tell him soft tales of love, and of who her to own that she loves him: and will she and who's together, and what has been done not bear with the man she loves ? She, herin his absence, -bring to him little master, self, as I have observed, will think she must so like his own dear papa ; and little pretty act consistently with her declaration ; and miss, a soft, sweet, smiling soul, with her he will plead that declaration in his favour, sampler in her hand, so like what her meek let his neglects or slights be what they will. mamma was at her years! And with these differences in education, nature, employments, your ladyship asks, whether the man or the woman bears more from each other? has the more patience? Dearest lady! how

LADY MARY WORTLEY can you be so severe upon your own sex,

MONTAGU, yet seem to persuade yourself that you are defending them ?

eldest daughter of Evelyn, Earl of Kingston mistress to a declaration of her love for him, Mary Fielding, daughter of Williain, Earl What you say of a lover's pressing his (afterwards Marquis of Dorchester

, tinally

Duke of Kingston), by his wife the Lady is sweetly pretty, and very just; but let a man press as he will, if the lady answers

of Denbigh, born abont 1690, and married him rather by her obliging manners than in 1712 to Edward Wortley Montagu, acin words, she will leave herself something companied her husband during his resito declare, and she will find herself rather dence as ambassador to the Porte, 1716–18 ; more than less respected for it: such is the resided without her husband on the Conti nature of man!-Å man hardly ever pre-ber, 1761, and died August 21, 1762. Whilst

nent, 1739-1761; returned to England, Octosumes to press a lady to make this declara: abroad she wrote many epistles, of which the tion, but when he thinks himself sure of best collection will be found in The Letters her. He urges her, therefore, to add to his and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, own consequence; and hopes to quit scores with her, when he returns love for love, and cliffe, Lond., 1837, 5 vols. 8vo; 2d and best

edited by her great-grandson, Lord Wharnfavour for favour: and thus "draws the tender-hearted soul to professions which edit, also 1837: See also her Letters from she is often upbraided 'for all her life the Levant, edited by J. A. St. John, Lond., after," says your ladyship. But these inust Lond., 1803, 5 vols. 8vo.

1838, fp. 8vo, and her Works, with Memoirs, be the most ungenerous of men. All I would suppose is that pride and triumph

By her exertions inoculation for the smallis the meaning of the urgency for a declara- pos was introduced into England. Pope tion which pride and triumph make a man

quarrelled with, and, of course, abused her. think unnecessary; and perhaps to know “ The letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. how far he may go, and be within allowed are not unworthy of being named after those of compass. A woman who is brought to own Madame de Sévigné. They have much of the her love to the man, must act accordingly French ease and vivacity, and retain more the towards him; must be more indulgent to hops any other letters which have appeared in the

charaoter of agreeable epistolary style than perhim; must, in a word, abate of her own

English language."--Dr. Hugu Blair: Lects. on significance, and add to his. And have you Rhetoric and Belles-Letters, Lect. xxxvii. never seen a man strut upon the occasion, “A reader nced only glance at Lady Mary's and how tamne and bashful a woman looks letters to see that she was not less distinguished after she has submitted to make the acknowl- for wit than prone to indulge in sarcasm, in scan.

dal, and edgment? The behaviour of each to the other,

a very free range of opinions of all

. . We have no doubt whatsoever that ore upon it and after it, justifies the caution to

of the things which drove Lady Mary from Engthe sex, which I would never have a woman land was the enmity she caused all around her by forget,--always to leave to herself the power the license of her tongue and pen. She was always. of granting something: yet her denials may writing scandal : a journal full of it was burnt by be so managed as to be more attractive than her family; her very panegyrics were sometimes her compliance. Women, Lovelace says (and malicious, or were thought so, in consequence of he pretends to know them), are fond of

her character, as in the instance of the extraordiardours; but there is an end of them when with a trial for a man's life. Pope himself, with all

pary verses addressed to Mrs. Murray in connexion a lover is secure. He can then look about the temptations of his wit and resentment, would

[ocr errors]

sorts.

а

hardly have written of her as he did had her rep in the world the most agreeable. Whatever utation for offence been less a matter of notoriety.” you may now think (now, perhaps, you have -Leigh Hunt: Men, Women, and Books, vol. ii.

some fondness for me), though your love Lady Montagu to E. W. Montagu, Esq., should continue in its full force, there are IN PROSPECT OF MARRIAGE.

hours when the most beloved mistress would

be troublesome. People are not forever (nor One part of my character is not so good, is it in human nature that they should be) nor t'other so bad, as you fancy it. Should disposed to be fond ; you would be glad to we ever live together you would be disap- find in me the friend and the companion. pointed both ways: you would find an easy To be agreeably the last, it is necessary to equality of temper you do not expect, and a

be gay and entertaining. thousand faults you do not imagine. You

A perpetual solitude in a place where you think if you married me I should be passion- see nothing to raise your spirits at length ately fond of you one month, and of some- wears them out, and conversation insensibly body else the next. Neither would happen. falls into dull and insipid. When I have no I can esteem, I can be a friend ; but I don't more to say to you, you will like me no know whether I can love. Expect all that longer. Ilow dreadful is that view! You is complaisant and easy, but never what is will reflect, for my sake you have abandoned fond, in me.

the conversation of a friend that you liked, As to travelling, 'tis what I should do and your situation in a country where all with great pleasure, and could easily quit things would have contributed to make your London upon your account; but a retire life pass in (the true volupte) a smooth tranment in the country is not so disagreeable quillity. I shall lose the vivacity which to me as I know a few months would make should entertain you, and you will have it tiresome to you. Where people are tied nothing to recompense you for what you for life 'tis their mutual interest not to grow have lost. Very few people that have setweary of one another. If I had all the per- tled entirely in the country but have grown sonal charms that I want, a face is too slight at length weary of one another. The lady's a foundation for happiness. You would be conversation generally falls into a thousand soon tired of seeing every day the same impertinent effects of idleness ; and the genthing. Where you saw nothing else, you tleman falls in love with his dogs and his would have leisure to remark all the defects : horses, and out of love with everything else. which would increase in proportion as the I am not now arguing in favour of the town; novelty lessened, which is always a great you have answered me as to that point. In charm. I should have the displeasure of respect of your health, 'tis the first thing to secing a coldness, which, though I could not be considered, and I shall never ask you to reasonably blame you for, being involuntary, do anything injurious to that. But 'tis my yet it would render me uneasy; and the opinion, 'tis necessary to be happy that we more, because I know a love may be revived, neither of us think any place more agreeable which absence, inconstancy, or even infi-than that where we are. delity has extinguished ; but there is no returning from a dégoût given by satiety. ... To the Countess of BUTE ON Fevale

EDUCATION.
TO TIE SAME_ON MATRIMONIAL HAPPINESS.
If we marry, our happiness must consist

LOUVERE, Jan, 28, N. S., 1753. in loving one another: 'tis principally iny

Dear Cud, --You bave given me a great concern to think of the most probable method deal of satisfaction by your account of your of making that love eternal. You object eldest daughter, I am particularly pleased against living in London: I am not fond of to hear she is a good arithmetician; it is the it myself, and readily give it up to you, best proof of understanding: the knowledge though I am assured there needs more art of numbers is one of the chief distinctions to keep a fondness alive in solitude, where between us and brutes. . . . Learning, if it generally preys upon itself. There is one she has a real taste for it, will not only make article absolutely necessary—to be ever be her contented, but happy in it (retirement). loved, one must be ever agreeable. There No entertainment is so cheap as reading, nor is no such thing as being agreeable without any pleasure so lasting. She will not want a thorough good humour, a natural sweet- new fashions, nor regret the loss of expenness of temper enlivened by cheerfulness. sive diversions, or variety of company, if she Whatever natural funds of gaiety one is born can be amused with an author in her closet. with, 'tis necessary to be entertained with To render this amusement complete, she agreeable objects. Any body capable of tast- should be permitted to learn the languages. ing pleasure, when they confine themselves I have heard it lamented that boys lose so to one place, should take care 'tis the place many years in mere learning of words: this

7

or

this way.

is no objection to a girl, whose time is not Do not fear this should make her affect the so precious: she cannot advance herself in character of Lady — or Lady any profession, and has therefore more hours Mrs. -: those women are ridiculous, not to spare; and as you say her memory is because they have learning, but because they good, she will be very agreeably employed have it not. One thinks herself a complete

There are two cautions to be historian, after reading Echard's Roman given on this subject : first, not to think her- History; another a profound philosopher, self learned when she can read Latin, or having got by heart some of Pope's unineven Greek. Languages are more properly telligible essays; and a third an able divine, to be called vehicles of learning than learn- on the strength of Whitefield's sermons: ing itself, as may be observed in many thus you hear them screaming politics and schoolmasters, who, though perhaps critics controversy. in grammar, are the most ignorant fellows It is a saying of Thucydides, that ignoupon earth. True knowledge consists in rance is bold and knowledge reserved. Inknowing things, not words. I would no deed it is impossible to be far advanced in further wish her a linguist than to enable it without being more humbled by a convicher to read books in their originals, that are tion of human ignorance than elated by often corrupted, and always injured by trans- learning. At the same time I recommend lations. Two hours' application every morn- books, I neither exclude work nor drawing. ing will bring this about much sooner than I think it is as scandalous for a woman not you can imagine, and she will have leisure to know how to use a needle, as for a man enough besides to run over the English not to know how to use a sword. poetry, which is a more important part of a woman's education than it is generally supposed. Many a young damsel has been ruined by a fine copy of verses which she JOSEPH BUTLER, D.C.L., would have laughed at if she had known it had been stolen from Mr. Waller. ... The born 1692, Preacher at the Rolls, 1718-1726, second caution to be given her (and which Clerk of the Closet to Queen Caroline, 1736, is most absolutely necessary), is to conceal Bishop of Bristol, 1738, Bishop of Durham, whatever learning she attains, with as much 1750, died 1752, will always be rememsolicitude as she would hide crookedness or

bered for his great work The Analogy of lameness: the parade of it can only serve to Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Condraw on her the envy, and consequently the stitution and Course of Nature, to which are most inveterate hatred, of all he and she added Two Brief Dissertations: 1. On Perfools, which will certainly be at least three sonal Identity; 2. On the Nature of Virtue. parts in four of her acquaintance. The use

The first edition of the Analogy was pubof knowledge in our sex, beside the amuse

lished in 1736. The Works, with an Acment of solitude, is to moderate the

count by Bishop Halifax, appeared, Oxford, sions, and learn to be contented with a small | 1807, 2 vols. 8va; same, Oxford, 1849, 2 vols. expense, which are the certain effects of a

8vo; Works, New York, 1845, 8vo. The studious life; and it may be preferable even

Works contain The Analogy and Two Disto that fame which men have engrossed to and Correspondence between Dr. Butler and

sertations, twenty-one Sermons, A Charge, themselves, and will not suffer us to share. You will tell me I have not observed this

Dr. (Samuel] Clarke. rule myself; but you are mistaken: it is only « The author to whom I am under the greatest inevitable accident that has given me any obligations is Bishop Butler. The whole of reputation that way. I have always care

this admirable treatise one of the most remarkfully avoided it, and ever thought it a mis- able that any language can produce—is intended fortune. The explanation of this paragraph taught in the Scriptures are strictly analogous to

to show that the principles of moral government would occasion a long digression, which I those everywhere exhibited in the government of will not trouble you with, it being my pres- the world as seon in natural religion.”—Dr. Fraxent design only to say what I think useful cis WAYLAND: Moral Phil., p.5; Intellec. Phil., p. to my granddaughter, whioh I have much at heart. If she has the same inclination (I

“The most original and profound work extant should say passion) for learning that I was

in any language on the philosophy of religion."born with, history, geography, and philoso- Encyc. Brit.

Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH : 2d Prelim. Dissert. 10 phy will furnish her with materials to pass “I have derived greater aid from the views and away cheerfully a longer life than is allotted reasonings of Bishop Butler than I have been able to mortals. I believe there are few heads to find besides in the whole range of our extant capable of making Sir Isaac Newton's cal authorship.”-Dr. T. CHALMERS : Bridgewater culations, but the result of them is not diffi- Treatise, Prof. cult to be understood by a moderate capacity. Butler's Sermons also are very valuable.

[ocr errors]

338.

164

JOSEPH BUTLER.

REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS. selves as miserable as ever we please. And

many do please to make themselves extremely That which makes the question concerning miserable, i.e., to do what they know beforea future life to be of so great importance to hand will render them 80.

They follow us, is our capacity of happiness and misery: those ways the fruit of which they know, And that which makes the consideration of by instruction, example, experience, will be it to be of so great importance to us, is the disgrace, and poverty, and sickness, and unsupposition of our happiness or misery here- timely death. 'This every one observes to be after depending upon our actions here. the general course of things; though it is Without this indeed, curiosity could not but to be allowed we cannot find by experience sometimes bring a subject, in which we may that all our sufferings are owing to our own be so highly interested, to our thoughts; es- follies. pecially upon the mortality of others, or the Why the Author of Nature does not give near prospect of our own. But reasonable his creatures promiscuously such and such men would not take any further thought perceptions without regard to their behaabout hereafter, than what should happen viour; why he does not make them happy thus occasionally to rise in their minds, if without the instrumentality of their own it were certain that our future interest no actions, and prevent their bringing any sufway depended upon our present behaviour; ferings upon themselves, is another matter. whereas, on the contrary, if there be ground, Perhaps there may be some impossibilities either from analogy or anything else, to in the nature of things, which we are unacthink it does, then there is reason also for quainted with. Or less happiness, it may the most active thought and solicitude to be, would upon the whole be produced by secure that interest; to behave so as that such a method than is by the present. Or we may escape that misery, and obtain that perhaps divine goodness, with which, if I happiness in another life which we not only mistake not, we make very free in our specsuppose ourselves capable of, but which we ulations, may not be a bare single disposiapprehend also is put in our own power. tion to produce happiness ; but a disposition And whether there be ground for this last to make the good, the faithful, the honest apprehension certainly would deserve to be man happy. most seriously considered, were there no

ANALOGY, Chap. II. other proof of a future life and interest than that presumptive one which the fore

Conscience. going observations amount to.

Now in the present state, all which we There is a principle.of reflection in men enjoy, and a great part of what we suffer, by which they distinguish between, approve is put in our own power. For pleasure and and disapprove their own actions. We are pain are the consequences of our actions ; | plainly constituted such sort of creatures as and we are endued by the Author of our to reflect upon our own nature. The mind nature with capacities for foreseeing these can take a view of what passes within itself, consequences. We find by experience he its propensions, aversions, passions, affecdoes not so much as preserve our lives, ex- tions, as respecting such objects, and in such clusively of our own care and attention to degrees; and of the several actions conseprovide ourselves with, and to make use of, quent thereupon. In this survey it approves that sustenance by which he has appointed of one, disapproves of another, and towards our lives shall be prererved ; and without a third is affected in neither of these ways, which he has appointed they shall not be but is quite indifferent. This principle in preserved at all." And in general we foresee man, by which he approves or disapproves that the external things which are the objects his heart, temper, and actions, is conscience; of our various passions can neither bë ob for this is the strict sense of the word, though tained nor enjoyed without exerting our sometimes it is usel so as to take in more. selves in such and such manners: but by And that this faculty tends to restrain men thus exerting ourselves we obtain and enjoy from doing mischief to each other, and leads these objects in which our natural good con- them to do good, is too manifest to need sists; or by this means God gives us the being insisted upon. Thus a parent has the possession and enjoyment of them. I know affection of love to his children : this leads not that we have any one kind or degree of him to take care of, to educate, to make due enjoyment but by the means of our own provision for them; the natural affection actions. And by prudence and care we

leads to this: but the reflection that it is may, for the most part, pass our days in his proper business, what belongs to him, tolerable ease and quiet: or, on the contrary, that'it is right and commendable so to do; we may, by rashness, ungoverned passion, this added to the affection becomes a much wilfulness, or even hy negligence, make our- more settled principle, and carries him on

1

through more labour and difficulties for the and self-partiality may be in all different sake of his children than he would undergo degrees. It is a lower degree of it which from that affection alone if he thought it, David himself refers to in these words, Who and the course of action it led to, either in- can tell how oft he offendeth?. O cleanse thou different or criminal.

me from my secret faults. This is the ground This indeed is impossible, to do that which of that advice of Elihu to Job: Surely it is is good and not to approve of it; for which meet to be said unto God,—That which I see reason they are frequently not considered as not, teach thou me; if I have done iniquity, I distinct, though they really are: for men

will do no more. And Solomon saw this often approve of the actions of others which thing in a very strong light when he said, they will not imitate, and likewise do that He that trusteth his own heart is a fool. This which they approve not. It cannot possibly likewise was the reason why that precept, he denied that there is this principle of re- Know thyself, was so frequently inculcated flection or conscience in human nature. Sup. by the philosophers of old.

For if it were pose a man to relieve an innocent person in not for that partial and fond regard to ourgreat distress; suppose the same man after-selves it would certainly be no great difficulty wards, in the fury of anger, to do the greatest to know our own character, what passes mischief to a person who had given no just within the bent and bias of our mind ; much cause of offence; to aggravate the injury, less would there be any difficulty in judying udd the circumstances of former friendship rightly of our own actions. But from this and obligation from the injured person : let partiality it frequently comes to pass

that the man who is supposed to have done these the observation of many men's being themtwo different actions coolly reflect upon them selves last of all acquainted with what falls afterwards, without regard to their conse- out in their own families may be applied to quences to himself: to assert that any com- a nearer home,--to what passes within their mon man would be affected in the same own breasts. way towards these different actions, that he There is plainly, in the generality of manwould make no distinction between them, kind, an absence of doubt or distrust, in a but approve or disapprove them equally, is very great measure, as to their moral chartoo glaring an absurdity to need being con- acter and behaviour; and likewise a disposifuted. There is therefore this principle of tion to take for granted that all is right and reflection or conscience in mankind. It is well with them in these respects. The former needless to compare the respect it has to is owing to their not reflecting, not exercising private good with the respect it has to their judgment upon themselves; the latter, to public; since it plainly tends as much to self-love. I am not speaking of that extravathe latter as to the former, and is commonly gance, which is sometimes to be inet with ; thought to tend chiefly to the latter. This instances of persons declaring in words at faculty is now mentioned merely as another length, that they never were in the wrong, part in the inward frame of man, pointing nor ever had any diffidence of the justness out to us in some degree what we are in- of their conduct, in their whole lives. No, tended for, and as what will naturally and these people are too far gone to have anyof course bave some influence.

thing said to them. The thing before us is Sermon upon Human Nature.

indeed of this kind, but in a lower degree,

and confined to the moral character; someSelf-Deceit.

what of which we almost all of us have,

without reflecting upon it. Now consider There is not anything relating to men and how long and how grossly a person of the characters, more surprising and unaccount- best understanding might be imposed upon able, than this partiality to themselves which by one of whom he had not any suspicion, is observable in many; as there is nothing and in whom he placed an entire confidence; of more melancholy reflection, respecting especially if there were friendship and real morality, virtue, and religion. Hence it is kindness in the case : surely this holds even that many men seem perfect strangers to stronger with respect to that self we are all their own characters. They think, and so fond of. Hence arises in men a disregard reason, and judge quite differently upon any of reproof and instruction, rules of conduct matter relating to themselves from what they and moral discipline, which occasionally do in cases of others where they are not in- come in their way: a disregard, I say, of terested. Hence it is one hears people ex- these ; not in erery respect, but in this posing follies which they themselves are single one, namely, as what may be of eminent for; and talking with great severity service to them in particular towards mendagainst particular vices which, if all the ing their own hearts and tempers, and makworld be not mistaken, they themselves are ing them better men. It never in earnest notoriously guilty of. This self-ignoran comes into their thoughts whether such ad

9

ance

« EelmineJätka »