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monitions may not relate and be of service immoral man who invades another's propto themselves, and this quite distinct from a erty is justly hanged for it; and the ill-bred positive persuasion to the contrary, a per- man who by his ill manners invades and suasion from reflection that they are innocent disturbs the quiet and comforts of private and blameless in these respects.

life is by common consent as justly banislied Sermon upon Self-Deceit.

society. Mutual complaisances, attentions, and sacrifices of little conveniences, are as natural an implied contract between civilized

people as protection and obedience are bePHILIP DORMER STANHOPE, tween kinys and subjects; whoever, in either EARL OF CHESTERFIELD,

case, violates that compact justly forfeits all

advantages arising from it. For my own born 1694, died 1773, famous in his day as part I really think that, next to the cona wit, a courtier, a politician, and patron of sciousness of doing a good action that of literature, is still remembered for his Letters doing a civil one is the most pleasing; and to his Son Philip Stanhope, Lond., 1774, 2 the epithet which I should covet the most, vols. 4to; New edition, with Additions, next to that of Aristides, would be that of edited by Lord Mahon [5th Earl Stanhope], well-bred. Thus much for good breeding in Lond., 1845-53, 5 vols. 8vo. The first edition general: I will now consider some of tho was republished in Boston, Mass., in 1779. various modes and degrees of it. Miscellaneous Works, with Memoirs by M. Very few, scarcely any, are wanting in Maty, M.D., Lond., 1777-78, 2 vols. 4to; the respect which they should show to those Supplement to his Letters, Lond., 1787, 4to. whom they acknowledge to be infinitely

their superiors, such as crowned heads. "It was not to be wondered at that they had so princes, and public persons of distinguished great a sale, considering that they were the let- and eminent posts. It is the manner of ters of a statesman, a wit, one who had been much in the mouths of mankind, one long accustomed showing that respect which is different. Tho virum volitare per ora. ...

Does not Lord Ches

man of fashion and of the world expresses terfield give precepts for uniting wickedness and it in its fullest extent, but naturally, easily, the graces ? Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his and without concern; whereas a man who Son, I think, might be made a very pretty book. is not used to keep good company expresses Take out the immorality, and it should be put ivtoit awkwardly; one sees that he is not used the hands of every gentleman.”—DR. Jousson.

to it, and that it costs him a great deal; It may here be remarked that Johnson's but I never saw the worst-bred man living letter to Chesterfield was grossly unjust.

guilty of lolling, whistling, scratching his

head, and such like indecencies, in company Good Breeding.

that he respected. In such companies, there

fore, the only point to be attended to is, to A friend of yours and mine has very show that respect which everybody means justly defined good breeding to be, “the re- to show, in an easy, unembarrassed, and sult of much good sense, some good nature, graceful manner. This is what observation and a little self-denial for the sake of others, and experience must teach you. and with a view to obtain the same indul- In mixed companies, whoever is admitted gence from them.” Taking this for granted to make part of them is, for the time at least, (as I think it cannot be disputed), it is aston- supposed to be on a footing of equality with ishing to me that anybody who has good the rest: and, consequently, as there is no sense and good nature can essentially fail in one principal object of awe and respect, peogood breeding As to the modes of it, ple are apt to take a greater latitude in their indeed, they vary according to persons, behaviour, and to be less upon their guard : places, and circumstances, and are only to and so they may, provided it be within cerhe acquired by observation and experience ; tain bounds, which are upon no occasion to but the substance of it is everywhere and be transgressed. But upon these occasions, eternally the same. Good manners are, to though no one is entitled to distinguished particular societies, what good morals are to marks of respect, every one claims, and very society in general-their cement and their justly, every mark of civility and good security. And as laws are enacted to enforce breeding. Ease is allowed, but carelessgood morals, or at least to prevent the ill ness and negligence are strictly forbidden. effects of bad ones, so there are certain rules If a man accosts you, and talks to you ever of civility, universally implied and received, so dully or frivolously, it is worse than rudeto enforce good manners and punish bad ness, it is brutality, to show him, by a mani

And indeed there seems to be less fest inattention to what he says, that you difference between the crimes and punish- think him a fool or a blockhead, and not ments than at first one would imagine. The worth hearing. It is much more so with

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regard to women, who, of whatever rank us; but I shall certainly observe that degree they are, are entitled, in consideration of of good breeding with you which is, in the their sex, not only to an attentive, but an first place, decent, and which, I am sure, officious good breeding from men. Their is absolutely necessary to make us like one little wants, likings, dislikes, preferences, another's company long. antipathies, and fancies must be officiously Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son. attended to, and, if possible, guessed at and anticipated, by a well-bred man. You must never usurp to yourself those conveniences and gratifications which are of common right, WILLIAM WARBURTON, D.D., such as the best places, the best dishes, &c.; but on the contrary always decline them born 1698, left school (he was never at colyourself, and offer them to others, who, in lege) 1715, and for about four years practheir turns, will offer them to you, so that, tised as an attorney at Newark; received upon the whole, you will in your turn enjoy deacon's orders, 17:23, Preacher to Lincoln's your share of the common right. It would Inn, 1746, Prebendary of Gloucester, 1753, be endless for me to enumerate all the par- and of Durham, 1755, Dean of Bristol, 1757, ticular instances in which a well-bred man Bishop of Gloucester, 1759, died 1779. He shows his good breeding in good company ; was author of Miscellaneous Translations, and it would be injurious to you to suppose Lond., 1723 (some 1724), 12mo; Critical and that your own good sense will not point Philosophical Enquiry into the Causes of them out to you; and then your own good Prodigies and Miracles, as related by Histo nature will recommend and your self-inter- rians, Lond., 1727, 12mo (this and the Transest enforce the practice.

lations were suppressed); The Alliance beThere is a third sort of good breeding in tween Church and State, Lond., 1741, 8v0; which people are the most apt to fail from a Julian, 1750, 8vo; and other works.

Ilis very mistaken notion that they cannot fail greatest production was The Divine Legation at all. I mean with regard to one's most of Moses Demonstrated, Lond., 1737, etc., familiar friends and acquaintances, or those never completed : new edition, Lond., Tegs, who really are our inferiors; and there, un- | 1846, 3 vols. 8vo ; Warburton's Works doubtedly, a greater degree of ease is not edited by Bishop Ilurd), Lond., 1788, 7 vols. only allowed, but proper, and contributes to; new edition, Lond., 1811, 12 vols. 8vo. much to the comforts of a private social life.

“ Warburton's Divine Legation delighted me But ease and freedom have their bounds,

more than any book I had yet (at 15] read. which must by no means be violated. A The luminous theory of hieroglyphics, as a stage certain degree of negligence and careless in the progress of society, between picture writing ness becomes injurious and insulting, from and alphabetic character, is perhaps the only the real or supposed inferiority of the per- addition made to the stock of knowledge in this sons; and that delightful liberty of conver

extraordinary work; but the uncertain and prob

ably false suppositions about the pantheism of the sation among a few friends is soon destroyed, ancient philosophers and the object of the mysteas liberty often has been, by being carried to ries (in reality, perhaps, somewhat like the freelicentiousness. But example explains things masonry of our own times) are well adapted to best, and I will put a pretty strong case :

rouse and exercise the adventurous genius of Suppose you and me alone together: I be- youth."-SIR JAMES MACKIntosh : Life, ch. i. lieve you will allow that I have as good a

“ The Divine Legation of Moses is a monument,

already crumbling into dust, of the vigour and the right to unlimited freedom in your company weakness of the human mind. If Warburton's as either you or I can possibly have in any

new argument provod anything, it would be a other; and I am apt to believe, too, that demonstration against the legislator who left his you would indulge me in that freedom as people without the knowledge of a future state. far as anybody would. But, notwithstand- But some episodes of the work, on the Greek ing this, do you imagine that I should think philosophy, the hieroglyphics of Egypt, &c., are there was no bounds to that freedom? I

entitled to the praise of learning, imagination,

and discernment." EDWARD GIBBON : Miscell. assure you I should not think so; and I Works, edit. 1837, 88, n. take myself to be as much tied down by a certain degree of good manners to you, as

The reader will find a graphic portrait of by other degrees of them to other people. Warburton by a good painter in our article The most familiar and intimate habitudes, on Lord Bolingbroke in this volume. connexions, and friendships require a de

Bishop WARBURTON TO IIURD. gree of good breeding both to preserve and cement them. The best of us have our bad

Prior PARK, Dec. 27, 1761. sides, and it is as imprudent as it is ill-bred Let me wish you (as we all do) all the to exhibit them. I shall not use ceremony happiness that goodness can derive from with you; it would be misplaced between this season.

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The honour this country derives from the

JOSEPH SPENCE, Duke of York's visit can hardly compensate born 1699, Professor of Poetry at Oxford, the bad news of a Spanish war, which puts 17.28-38, and Regius Professor of Modern the city of London in a consternation. This event does honour to Mr. Pitt's sagacity, and History, 1742, Prebendary of Durham, 1754,

was drowned in a canal in his garden, 1768. the wisdom of his advice upon it. Whether this war, which was foreseen by nobody to Among his works are An Essay on Pope's be inevitable but by him, can be successfully 1727, 8vo ; Polymetis; or, An Enquiry con

Translation of Homer's Odyssey, Lond., managed by anybody but by him, time must show; for I would not pretend to be wiser of the Roman Poets and the Remains of the

cerning the Agreement between the Works than our teachers, I mean, the news-writers, Ancient Artists, Lond., 1747, royal fol.; who refer all doubtful cases, as the Treasury Crito, by Sir Harry Beaumont, Lond., 1752, does all desperate payments, to time. What you say of Hume is true: and (what Lond., 1753, 8vo. "He left a valuable MS.

8vo ; Moralities, by Sir Harry Beaumont, either I said in my last, or intended to say) | collection of Observations, Anecdotes, and you have taught him to write so much better, that he has thoroughly confirmed your 1820, crow'n 8vo, two editions, -one edited

Characters, which were first published in system. I have been both too ill and too lazy to lished the same day': Malone's edition is

by E. Malone, one by S. W. Singer,-pubfinish my Discourse on the Holy Spirit. Not above half of it is yet printed.

only a Selection ; Singer's edition, 2d edit., I have been extremely entertained with 1858, fp. 8vo, professes to be authentic. the wars of Fingal (Ossian): It can be no “Enough has been proved to show that, instead cheat, for I think the enthusiasm of this su- of a ' verbatim' reprint, what was wanted was a perficial sublime could hardly be counterfeit. carefully revised, collected, and annotated edition,

and that Mr. Singer's, neat and cheap, unhappily A modern writer would have been less simple and uniform. Thus far had I writ stops the way.”Lond. Athen., 1859, 250. ten when your letter of Christmas-day came

THE ÆNEID AND VIRGIL'S GENIUS. to hand ; as you will easily understand by iny submitting to take shame upon me, and It preserves more to us of the religion of assuring you that I am fully convinced of the Romans than all the other Latin poets my false opinion delivered just above con- (excepting only Ovid) put together; and cerning Fingal. I did not consider the mat- gives us the forms and appearances of their ter as I ought. Your reasons for the for- deities as strongly as if we had so many picgery are unanswerable. And of all these tures of them preserved to us, done by some reasons but one occurred to me, the want of of the best hands in the Augustan age. It external evidence; and this, I own, did shock is remarkable that he is commended by some

But you have waked me from a very of the ancients themselves for the strength pleasing dream ; and made me hate the im- of his imagination as to this particular, postor, which is the most uneasy sentiment though in general that is not his character of our waking thoughts.

so much as exactness. He was certainly Sterne has published his fifth and sixth the most correct poet even of his time; in volumes of Tristram. They are wrote pretty which all false thoughts and idle ornaments much like the first and second ; but whether in writing were discouraged: and it is certhey will restore his reputation as a writer tain that there is but little of invention in his with the public is another question. The Æneid ; much less, I believe, than is generfellow himself is an irrecoverable scoun- ally imagined. Almost all the little facts in drel.

it are built on history; and even as to the I think the bookseller's have an intention particular lines no one perhaps ever borof employing Baskerville to print Pope in rowed more from the poets that preceded 4to; so they sent me the last octavo to look him than he did. He goes so far back as to over. I have added the enclosed to the long old Ennius; and often inserts whole verses note in the beginning of the Rape of the from him and some other of their earliest Lock, in answer to an impertinence of Joseph writers. The obsoleteness of their style did Warton. When you have perused it, you not hinder him much in this ; for he was a will send it back. I have sometimes thought particular lover of their old language ; and of collecting my scattered anecdotes and no doubt inserted many more antiquated critical observations together, for the foun- words in his poem than we can discover dation of a life of Pope, which the booksellers at present. Judgment is his distinguishing tease me for. If I do that, all of that kind character; and his great excellence consisted must be struck out of the notes of that edi- in chusing and ranging things aright. Whattion. You could help me nobly to fill up ever he borrowed he had the skill of making the canvas.

his own, by weaving it so well into his work


that it looks all of a piece : even those parts is in these that he shews that talent for critof his poems where this may be most prac-icism in which he so very much excelled ; tised resembling a fine piece of Mosaic, in especially in his long epistle to Augustus ; which all the parts, though of such different and that other to the Pisos, commonly called marbles, unite together; and the various his Art of Poetry. They abound in strokes shades and colours are so artfully disposed which shew his great knowledge of mankind, as to melt off insensibly into one another. and in that pleasing way he had of teaching

One of the greatest beauties in Virgil's philosophy, of laughing away vice, and inprivate character was his modesty and good- sinuating virtue into the minds of his readnature. He was apt to think humbly of him-ers. They may serve as much as almost self and handsomely of others; and was any writings can, to make men wiser and ready to show his love of merit even where better: for he has the most agreeable way it might seem to clash with his own. He of preaching that ever was. He was, in was the first who recommended Ilorace to general, an honest good man himself:. at Mæcenas.

least he does not seem to have had any one

ill-natured vice about him. Other poets we OBSERVATIONS ON HORACE.

admire; but there is not any of the ancient

poets that I could wish to have been acHorace was the fittest man in the world quainted with so much as Horace. One for a court where wit was so particularly cannot be very conversant with his writings encouraged. No man seems to have had without having a friendship for the man; more, and all of the genteelest sort; or to and longing to have just such another as he have been better acquainted with mankind. was for one's friend. His gaiety, and even his debauchery, made him still the more agreeable to Mæcenas: so that it is no wonder that his acquaintance with that Minister grew up to so high a

GILBERT WEST, LL.D., degree of friendship as is very uncommon born about 1700 to 1705, died 1756, pub. between a first Minister and a poet; and lished among other things Odes of Pindar, which had probably such an effect upon the with several other Pieces in Prose and latter as one shall scarce ever hear of be- Verse, translated from the Greek, etc., tween any two friends the most on a level : Lond. 1749, 4to; Observations on the lisfor there is some room to conjecture that he tory and Evidences of the Resurrection of hastened himself out of this world to accom- Jesus Christ, Lond., 1747, Svo. pany his great friend in the next. Florace has been most generally celebrated for his

“ This is one of the acutest and best-reasoned lyric poems; in which he far exceeded all

works which have appeared in English on the the Roman poets, and perhaps was no un

Resurrection of Christ.”—ORME's Bibl. Bib., 464.

“His work is noticed here on account of the lumi. worthy rival of several of the Greek : which

nous and satisfactory manner in which he has harseems to have been the height of his ambi-monized the several accounts of the evangelical histion. His next point of merit, as it has tory of the resurrection.”—Horne’s Bibl. Bib., 138. been usually reckoned, was his refining satire ; and bringing it from the coarseness

The SimpliCITY OF THE SACRED WRITERS. and harshness of Lucilius to the genteel, I cannot forbear taking notice of one other easy manner which he, and perhaps nobody mark of integrity which appears in all the but he and one person more in all the ages compositions of the sacred writers, and parsince, has ever possessed. I do not remem-ticularly the evangelists; and that is the her that any one of the ancients says any simple, unaffected, unornamental, and unosthing of his Epistles: and this has made tentatious manner in which they deliver me sometimes imagine that his Epistles and truths so important and sublime, and facts Satires might originally have passed under 80 magnificent and wonderful, as are capaone and the same name; perhaps that of ble, one would think, of lighting up a flame Sermons. They are generally written in a of oratory, even in the dullest and coldest style approaching to that of conversation ; breasts. They speak of an angel descendand are so much alike that several of the ing from heaven to foretell the miraculous satires might just as well be called epistles, conception of Jesus ; of another proclaimas several of his epistles have the spirit of ing his birth, attended by a multitude of the satire in them. This latter part of his heavenly host praising God, “and saying works, by whatever name you please to call | Glory to God in the highest, and on earth them (whether satires and epistles, or dis- peace, good-will towards men;" of his star courses in verse on moral and familiar sub- appearing in the East; of angels ministerjects), is what, I must own, I love much bet- ing to him in the wilderness ; of his glory ter even than the lyric part of his works. It / in the mount; of a voice twice heard from heaven, saying, “ This is my beloved son ;" | vols. 8vo. Miscellaneous Works, by Rev. of innumerable miracles performed by him, T. Morell, Lond., 1839, imp. 8vo. Letters, and by his disciples in his name; of his Shrewsh., 1790, 8vo. Memoirs, by Job Orton, knowing the thoughts of men; of his fore- Salop, 1766, 8vo. Life and Correspondence, telling future events; of prodigies accom- Lond., 1831, 5 vols. 8vo. His Rise and Propanying his crucifixion and death ; of an gress of Religion in the Soul, Lond., 1750, angel descending in terrors, opening his 12mo, has been frequently republished. sepulchre, and frightening away the soldiers

“The Family Expositor is a very judicious who were set to guard it; of his rising from work. It has long been highly esteemned, and is the dead, ascending into heaven, and pour- worthy of all the credit it has among religious ing down, according to his promise, the va- people.”—Dr. ADAM CLARKE. rious and miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit “And let me tell you, a man who comments on upon his apostles and disciples. All these the Bible affords all the opportunity a caviller

could wish for. amazing incidents do these inspired histo

But your judgment is always so rians relate nakedly and plainly without any profitable a reader to you as the least of your

true, and your decision so right, that I am as unof the colourings and heightenings of rhet- Hock." —Bishop WARBURTON to Dr. Dodbridge, oric, or so much as a single note of admira- Cambridge, April 4, 1739. tion ; without making any comment or remark upon them, or drawing from them any

DEVOTIONAL FEELINGS. conclusion in honour either of their master or themselves, or to the advantage of the I hope, my dear, you will not be offended religion they preached in his name; but con- when I tell you that I am, what I hardly tenting themselves with relating the naked thought it possible, without a miracle, that truth, whether it seems to make for them or I should have been, very easy and happy against them: without either magnifying without you. My days begin, pass, and end on the one hand, or palliating on the other, in pleasure, and seem short because they they leave their cause to the unbiassed judg- are so delightful. It may seem strange to ment of mankind, seeking, like genuine apos- say it, but really so it is, I hardly feel that tles of the Lord of truth, to convince rather I want anything. I often think of you, and than to persuade; and therefore coming, as pray for you, and bless God on your account, St. Paul speaks of his preaching; "not with and please myself with the hope of many excellency of speech, --not with enticing comfortable days, and weeks, and years with words of man's wisdom, but with demonstra- you ; yet I am not at all anxious about your tion of the Spirit, and of power, that," adds return, or indeed about anything else. And he, “your faith should not stand in the wis the reason, the great and sufficient reason, dom of men, but in the power of God." And is that I have more of the presence of God let it be remembered that he who speaks this with me than I remember ever to have enwanted not learning, art, or eloquence, as is joyed in any one month of my life. He evident from his speeches recorded in the enables me to live for him, and to live with Acts of the Apostles, and from the testimony him. When I awake in the morning, which of that great critic Longinus, who, in reck- is always before it is light, I address myself oning up the Grecian orators, places among to him, and converse with him, speak to him them Paul of Tarsus.

while I am lighting my candle and putting on my clothes, and have often more delight

before I come out of my chamber, though it PHILIP DODDRIDGE, D.D.,

be hardly a quarter of an hour after my

awaking, than I have enjoyed for whole born 1702, died 1751, published a number days, or, perhaps, weeks, of my life. IIe of theological treatises, sermons, &c., but meets me in my study, in secret, in family is best known by his Family Expositor; or, devotions. It is pleasant to read, pleasant A Paraphrase and Version of the New Tes to compose, pleasant to converse with my tament, with Critical Notes and Practical friends at home; pleasant to visit those Improvements, Lond., 1760-62, 6 vols. 4to; abroad—the poor, the sick; pleasant to with his Life by Dr. Kippis, Lond., 1808, 4 write letters of necessary business by which vols. 4to, or 6 vols. 8vo; new edition, Lond., any good can be done; pleasant to go out 1839, imperial fol., also 1840, 4 vols. 8vo ; and preach the gospel to poor souls, of which other editions. Whole Works, by D. Wil- some are thirsting for it, and others dying liams and the Rev. E. Parsons, Leeds, 1802, without it; pleasant in the week-day to 10 vols. 8vo and royal Svo. A Course of think how near another Sabbath is; but, Lectures on the Principal Subjects in Pneu- oh! much more, much more pleasant, to matology, Ethics, and Divinity, published think how near eternity is, and how short by Rev. Samuel Clarke, Lond., 1763, 4to; the journey through this wilderness, and 3d edit., by A. Kippis, D.D., Lond., 1794, 2 | that it is but a step from earth to heaven.

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