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ing into the king's face, that he had ever ont, “Well! it is strange to see how fearcommitted a murder ?''

less some men are. I never could bring myHe then inquired after the ghost; but self to touch anything belonging to a dead Jones, who intended he should be surprised, man on any account. He seemed frightgave him no other satisfaction than that ened enough too at the ghost, I thought. he might possibly see him again soon, and Nemo omnibus horis sapit.Little more in a flash of fire.''

worth remembering occurred during the Partridge sat in fearful expectation of play; at the end of which Jones asked this; and now, when the ghost made his bim "Which of the players he had liked next appearance, Partridge cried out, “ There, best ?” To this he answered, with some sir, now: what say you now? is he fright- appearance of indignation at the question, ened now or no? As much frightened as " The king, without doubt." Indeed, Mr. you think me, and, to be sure, nobody can Partridge,” says Mrs. Miller, “ you are not help some fears. I would not be in so bad of the same opinion with the town; for they a condition as-what's his name?-Squire are all agreed that lIamlet is acted by the Hamlet is there, for all the world. Bless best player who ever was on the stage.;' me! what's become of the spirit? As I am “ He the best player !" cries Partridge, with a living soul, I thought I saw him sink into a contemptuous sneer; "why, I could act the earth ;" “Indeed you saw right," an- as well as he myself. I am sure if I had swered Jones. “Well, well," cries Par- seen a ghost I should have looked in the tridge, " I know it is only a play ; and be very same manner, and done just as he did. sides, if there was anything in all this, And then, to be sure, in that scene, as you Madam Miller would not laugh so; for as called it, between him and his mother, where to you, sir, you would not be afraid, I be you told me he acted so fine, why, Lord help lieve, if the devil was here in person. There, me, any man, that is, any good man, that there, ay, no wonder you are in such a pas- had such a mother, would have done exactly sion; shake the vile wicked wretch to pieces.

the same.

I know you are only joking with If she was my own mother I should serve me; but, indeed madam, though I was never

To be sure all duty to a mother is at a play in London, yet I have seen acting forfeited by such wicked doings. Ay, go before in the country; and the king for my about your business: I hate the sight of money: he speaks all his words distinctly,

half as loud again as the other. Anybody Our critic was now pretty silent till the may see he is an actor !" play which Hamlet introduces before the İlistory of Tom Jones. king. This he did not at first understand till Jones explained it to him; but he no sooner entered into the spirit of it, than he began to bless himself that he had never RIGHT HON. WILLIAM PITT, committed murder. Then turning to Mrs. EARL OF CHATHAM, Miller, he asked her “If she did not imagine the king looked as if he was touched; born 1708, and educated at Eton and Trinity though he is," said he,“ a good actor, and College, Oxford, after serving a short time doth all he can to hide it. Well, I would as a cornet in the Blues, British army, was not have so much answer for as that in 1735 chosen M.P. for Old Sarum, was wicked man there hath, to sit upon a much premier for five months in 1757, and subsehigher chair than he sits upon. No wonder quently gained great glory in the same high he run away: for your sake I'll never trust position ; Earl of Chatham, 1766 ; died 1778. an innocent face again."

See Letters written by the late Earl of ChatThe grave-ligging scene next engaged the ham to his Nephew Thomas Pitt (afterattention of Partridge, who expressed much wards Lord Camelford), then at Cambridge, surprise at the number of skulls thrown | Lond., 1804, crown 8vo: large paper; Corupon the stage, to which Jones answered, respondence of the Earl of Chatham,

Lond., " That it was one of the most famous burial- | 1838, 2 vols. 8vo ; History of the Earl of places about town." “No wonder, then," Chatham, by the Rev. Francis Thackeray, cries Partridge, “ that the place is haunted. A.M., Lond., 1807, 2 vols. 4to ; Goodrich's But I never saw in my life a worse grave Select British Eloquence, N. York, 1852, 8vo. digger. I had a sexton when I was clerk “ His eloquence was of the very highest order: that should have dug three graves while he vehement, fiery, close to the subject, concise, someis digging one. The fellow handles a spade times eminently, even boldly, figurative : it was as if it was the first time he had ever one

original and surprising, yet quite natural. The in his hand. Ay, ay, you may sing. You

assemblies take boundless delight form the had rather sing than work, I believe!" grand charm of Lord Chatham's oratory. . . . He Upon IIamlet's taking up the skull, he cried | is the person to whom every one would at once

fine passages or felicitous hits in which all popular

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arms.

But, my

point if desired to name the most successful states- my country I never would lay down my man and most brilliant orator that this country

Never ! Never! Never! ever produced. Some fragments of his speeches

lords, who is the man that, in addition to have been handed down to us; but these bear so very small a proportion to the prodigious fame

the disgraces and mischiefs of the war, has which his eloquence has left behind it, that far

dared to authorize and associate to our arms more is manifestly lost than has reached us.”- the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the LORD BROUGHAM : Statesmen of the Time of George savage ? to call into civilized alliance the III,

wild and inhuman inhabitant of the woods? EMPLOYMENT OF INDIANS IN THE WAR WITH

to delegate to the merciless Indian the de

fence of disputed rights, and to wage the AMERICA.

horrors of his barbarous war against our I cannot, my lords, I will not, join in brethren? My lords, these enormities cry congratulation on misfortune and disgrace. aloud for redress and punishment. But, This, my lords, is a perilous and tremendous my lords, this barbarous measure has been moment; it is not a time for adulation; the defended, not only on the principles of policy smoothness of flattery cannot save us in this and necessity, but also on those of morality; rugged and awful crisis. It is now neces- "for it is perfectly allowable,” says Lord sary to instruct the throne in the language Suffolk, " to use all the means which God and of truth. We must, if possible, dispel the nature have put into our hands.” I am asdelusion and darkness which envelope it, and tonished, I am shocked, to hear such princidisplay, in its full danger and genuine col- ples confessed ; to hear them avowed in this ours, the ruin which is brought to our doors. house or in this country. My lords, I did Can ministers still presume to expect support not intend to encroach so much on your atin their infatuation? Can parliament be so tention; but I cannot repress my indignadead to their dignity and duty as to give tion, I feel myself impelled to speak. My their support to measures thus obtruded lords, we are called upon as members of this and forced upon them,-measures, my lords, house, as men, as Christians, to protest which have reduced this late flourishing against such horrible barbarity. “That God empire to scorn and contempt? But yester- and nature have put into our hands”! What day, and England might have stood against ideas of God and nature that noble lord may the world ; now, none so poor to do her entertain I know not; but I know that such reverence! The people whom we at first detestable principles are equally abhorrent despised as rebels, but whom we now ac- to religion and humanity. What! to attribknowledge as enemies, are abetted against ute the sacred sanction of God and nature you, supplied with every military store, to the massacres of the Indian scalpinghave their interest consulted, and their am- knife! to the cannibal savage, torturiny; bassadors entertained by your inveterate murdering, devouring, drinking the blood enemy; and ministers do not, and dare of his mangled victims! Such notions shock not, interpose with dignity or effect. The every precept of morality, every feeling of desperate state of our army abroad is in humanity, every sentiment of honour. These part known. No man more highly esteems abominable principles, and this more abomiand honours the English troops than I do; nable avowal of them, demand the most deI know their virtues and their valour; I cisive indignation. I call upon that right know they can achieve anything but impos- reverend, and this most learned bench to sibilities, and I know that the conquest of vindicate the religion of their God, to supBritish America is an impossibility. You port the justice of their country. I call cannot, my lords, you cannot conquer America. What is your present situation

upon the bishops to interpose the unsullied

sanctity of their lawn ; upon the judges to there? We do not know the worst; but we interpose the purity of their ermine, to save know that in three campaigns we have done us from this pollution. I call upon the nothing and suffered much. You may swell honour of your lordships to reverence the every expense, accumulate every assistance, dignity of your ancestors, and to maintain and extend your traffic to the shambles of

your own. I call upon the spirit and huevery German despot: your attempts will manity of my country to vindicate the nabe forever vain and impotent, -doubly, so, tional character. I invoke the Genius of indeed, from this mercenary aid on which the Constitution. From the tapestry that you rely ; for it irritates, to an incurable adorns these walls the immortal ancestor of resentment, the minds of your adversaries, this noble lord frowns with indignation at to overrun them with the mercenary sons of the disgrace of his country. In vain did he rapine and plunder, devoting them and their defend the liberty and establish the religion possessions to the rapacity of hireling cruelty. of Britain against the tyranny of Rome if If I were an American, as I am an English- these worse than Popish cruelties and inman, while a foreign troop was landed in quisitorial practices are endured among us.

serves.

To send forth the merciless cannibal, thirst which was then just published. Johnson said he ing for blood! against whom? your Prot- thought bis style pretty good, but that he had estant brethren! to lay waste their country,

blamed Henry the Second rather too much."-Bosto desolate their dwellings, and extirpate

WELL: Life of Johnson, edit. 1848, royal 8vo, 185.

“ The reader may consult Lyttelton's History-their race and name by the aid and instru

an elaborate and valuable work--with advantage.” mentality of these horrible hell-hounds of --SHARON TURNER. war! Spain can no longer boast pre-emi- “Pedantry was so deeply fixed in his nature nence in barbarity. She armed herself with that the hustings, the Treasury, the Exchequer, blood-bounds to extirpate the wretched na

the House of Commons, the House of Lords, left tives of Mexico : we, more ruthless, loose him."-LORD MACAULAY: Edin. Rev., July, 1835:

him the same dreaming school-boy that they found these dogs of war against our countrymen in Sir James Mackintosh's History of the Revolution ; America, endeared to us by every tie that and in Macauluy's Essays. can sanctify humanity. I solemnly call upon your lordships, and upon every order of men Character of WILLIAM TIE CONQUEROR. in the state, to stamp upon this infamous procedure the indelible stigma of the public The character of this prince has seldom abhorrence. More particularly I call upon been set in its true light; some eminent the holy prelates of our religion to do away writers have been dazzled so much by the this iniquity : let them perforin a lustration, more shining parts of it that they have to purify the country from this deep and hardly seen his faults; while others, out of deadly sin. My lords, I am old and weak, a strong detestation of tyranny, have been and at present unable to say more ; but my unwilling to allow him the praise he defeelings and indignation were too strong to bave said less. I could not have slept this Ile may with justice be ranked among night in my bed, nor even reposed my head the greatest generals any age has produced. upon my pillow, without giving vent to my

There was united in him activity, vigilance, eternal abhorrence of such enormous and intrepidity, caution, great force of judgment, preposterous principles.

and never failing presence of mind. lle was strict in his discipline, and kept his soldiers in perfect obedience; yet preserved their

affection. Ilaving been from his very childLORD GEORGE LYTTELTON,

hood continually in war, and at the head of

armies, he joined to all the capacity that born 1708–9, entered Parliament 1730, and genius could give all the knowledge and skill warmly opposed Sir Robert Walpole's admin that experience could teach, and was a perfect istration ; became a Lord of the Treasury, master of the military art as it was practised 1744, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, in the times wherein he lived. Ilis con1756; created Lord Lyttelton, 1757 ; died stitution enabled him to endure any hard1773. He was the author of Letters from a ships, and very few were equal to him in Persian in England to his Friend at Ispa- personal strength, which was an excellenca han, vol. i., Lond., 1735. 8vo, 5th edit., 1744, of more importance than it is now. from the 12.no ; vol. ii., 3d edit., 1736, 12mo ; Monody manner of fighting then in use. It is said to the Memory of a Lady lately Deceased of him that none except himself could bend [his wife], Lond., 1747, fol.; Observations his bow. llis courage was heroic, and he on the Conversion and Apostleship of Saint | possessed it not only in the field, but (which Paul, Lond., 1747, 8vo, and in Christian

was more uncommon) in the cabinet, atEvidences, Bohn, 1850, royal Svo; Dia- tempting great things with means that to logules of the Dead, Lond., 1760, 8vn; New other men appeared totally unequal to such Dialogues, 1762, 8vo, 4th edit., 1765, 8vo ; | undertakings, and steadily prosecuting what The IIistory of the Life of King Henry the he had boldly resolved; but never disturbed Second, and of the Age in which he Lived, or disheartened by difficulties in the course etc., Lond., 1764–67, 4 vols. 4to, Dublin, of his enterprises; but having that noble 1768, 4 vols. 8vo, Lond., 1769, 6 vols. 8vo, vigour of mind which, instead of bending 1777, 6 vols. 8vo. Miscellaneous Works, to opposition, rises against it, and seems to Lond., 1774, 4to, Dubl., 1774, 2 vols. 8vo, have a power of controlling and command2d edit., Lond., 1775, 4to, 3d edit., 1776, ing Fortune herself. 3 vols. 8vo. Poetical Works, Lond., 1785, Nor was he less superior to pleasure than 12mo, Glasg., 1787, fol., 1801, 1 vol. 8vo: to fear: no luxury softened him, no riot disand in Collections of British Poets. See his ordered, no sloth relaxed. . . A lust of Memoirs and Correspondence, 1734 to 1773, power, which no regard to justice could by R. Phillimore, Lond., 1845, 2 vols. 8vo. limit, the most unrelenting cruelty, and the

" His Majesty then asked him [Dr. Johnson] most insatiable avarice, possessed his soul. what he thought of Lord Lyttelton's History, | It is true, indeed, that among many acts of

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extreme humanity some shining instances to oppress and pillage the people. The of great clemency may be produced, that king himself did not only tolerate, but enwere either the effects of his policy, which courage, support, and even share these extaught him this method of acquiring friends, tortions. Though the greatness of the anor of his magnanimity, which made him cient landed estate of the crown, and the slight a weak and subdued enemy, such as feudal profits to which he legally was entitled, was Edgar Atheling, in whom he found rendered him one of the richest monarchs neither spirit nor talents able to contend in Europe he was not content with all that with him for the crown. But where he had opulence, but hy authorizing the sheriff's no advantage nor pride in forgiving, his who collected his revenues in the several nature discovered itself to be utterly void counties to practise the most grievous vexaof all sense of compassion ; and some bar- tions and abuses for the raising of them barities which he committed exceeded the higher by a perpetual auction of the crown bounds that even tyrants and conquerors lands, so that none of his tenants could be prescribe to themselves.

secure of possession, if any other would come Most of our ancient historians give him and offer more; by various iniquities in the the character of a very religious prince: conrt of exchequer, which was entirely Norhut his religion was after the fashion of man; by forfeitures wrongfully taken; and those times, belief without examination, and lastly, by arbitrary and illegal taxations, he devotion without piety. It was a religion drew into his treasury much too great a prothat prompted him to endow monasteries, portion of the wealth of his kingdom. and at the same time allowed him to pillage It must, however, be owned, that if his kingdoms; that threw him on his knees be- avarice was insatiably and unjustly rapafore a relic or cross, but suffered him unre- cious, it was not meanly parsimonious, nor strained to trample upon the liberties and of that sordid kind which brings on a prince rights of mankind.

dishonour and contempt. He supported the As to his wisdom in government, of dignity of his crown with a decent magnifiwhich some modern writers have spoken cence; and though he never was lavish, he very highly, he was, indeed, so far wise that sometimes was liberal, especially to his through a long unquiet reign he knew how soldiers and the church. But looking on to support oppression by terror, and employ money as a necessary means of maintaining the properest means for the carrying on a and increasing power, he devised to accuvery iniquitous and violent administration. mulate as much as he could, rather, perhaps, But that which alone deserves the name from an ambitious than a covetous nature; of wisdom in the character of a king, the at least his avarice was subservient to his maintaining of authority by the exercise of ambition, and he laid up wealth in his coffers, those virtues which make the happiness of as he did arms in his magazines, to be drawn bis people, was what, with all his abilities, out, when any proper occasion required it, he does not appear to have possessed. Nor for the enlargement of his dominions. did he excel in those soothing and popular Upon the whole, he had many great qualarts which sometimes change the com-ities, but few virtues; and if those actions plexion of a tyranny, and give it a fallacious that most particularly distinguish the man appearance of freedom. Ilis government or the king are impartially considered, we was harsh and despotic, violating eren the shall find that in his character there is much principles of that constitution which he to admire, but still more to abhor. himself had established. Yet so far he per- History of the Life of King Henry the formed the duty of a sovereign that he took Second. care to maintain a good police in his realm ; curbing licentiousness with a strong hand, which, in the tumultuous state of his gov- JAMES HARRIS, M.P., ernment, was a great and difficult work. How well he performed it we may learn born 1709, became a Lord of the Admiralty, eren from the testimony of a contemporary 1762, Lord of the Treasury, 1763, Secretary Saxon historian, who says that during his and Comptroller to the Queen, 1774, anil reign a man might have travelled in per- died 1780. This very learned Grecian was fect security all over the kingdom with his the author of Three Treatises : I. Art, II. bosom full of gold, nor durst any kill another Music, Painting, and Poetry, III. IIappiin revenge of the greatest offences, nor offer ness, Lond., 1744, etc., Evo; llermes, a violence to the chastity of a woman. But Philosophical Inquiry concerning Language it was a poor compensation that the high- and Universal Grammar, Lond., 1750, etc., ways were safe, when the courts of justice 8vo; The Spring, a Pastoral, 1762, 4to ; were dens of thieves, and when almost every Philosophical Arrangements, Edin. and man in authority, or in office, used his power | Lond., 1775, 8vo; Philological Enquiries.

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Lond., 1780, 2 vols. 8vo, Part III., in nificent, they as frequently degenerated into French, Paris, 1789, 12mo. Works, with the tumid and bombast. "The Greeks too of Account by his Son, the Earl of Malmes. Asia became insected by their neighbours, bury, Lond., 1792, 5 vols. 8vo; again, 1801, who were often, at times, not only their 2 vols. 4to, and royal 4to, and 1803, 5 vols. neighbours, but their masters; and hence 8vo; 1841, 8vo.

that luxuriance of the Asiatic style, un“Those who would enter more fully into this known to the chaste eloquence and purity subject (grammar] will find it fully and accurately of Athens. But of the Greeks we forbear handled, with the greatest acuteness of investigin- to speak now, as we shall speak of them tion, perspicuity of application, and elegance of more fully when we have first considered method, in a treatiso entitled Hermes, by J. Harris, the nature or genius of the Romans. Esq., the most beautiful and perfect example of And what sort of people may we proanalysis that has been exhibited since the days of Aristotle.” — Bishop Lowth: Prejace to his Eng- wars and commotions, some foreign, some

nounce the Romans ?-A nation engaged in lish Grammar.

domestic, which for seven hundred years But Horne Tooke ridicules Hermes.

wholly engrossed their thoughts. Iïence

therefore their language became, like their ENGLISH, ORIENTAL, LATIN, AND Greek

ideas, copious in all terms expressive of LANGUAGES.

things political, and well adapted to the We Britons in our time have been re- purposes both of history and popular elomarkable borrowers, as our multiform lan- quence. But what was their philosophy?guage may sufficiently shew. Our terms in As a nation it was none, if we may credit polite literature prove that this came from their ablest writers. And hence the unfitGreece; our terms in music and painting, ness of their language to this subject; a that these came from Italy; our phrases in defect which even Cicero is compelled to cookery and war, that we learnt these from confess, and more fully makes appear when the French; and our phrases in navigation, he writes philosophy himself, from the that we were taught by the Flemings and number of terms which he is obliged to inLow Dutch. These many and very differ- vent. Virgil seems to have judged the most ent sources of our language may be the truly of his countrymen when, admitting cause why it is so deficient in regularity their inferiority in the more elegant arts, and analogy. Yet we have this advantage he concludes at last with his usual majesty: to compensate the defect, that what we want in elegance we gain in copiousness, in which

Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento,

(Hæc tibi erunt artes) pacisque imponere morem, last respect few languages will be found

Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos. superior to our own.

Let us pass from ourselves to the nations From considering the Romans, let us pass of the East. The Eastern world, from the to the Greeks. The Grecian commonwealths, earliest days, has been at all times the seat while they maintained their liberty, were the of enormous monarchy; on its natives fair most heroic confederacy that ever existed. liberty never shed its genial influence. If They were the politest, the bravest, and the at any time civil discords arose among them wisest of men. In the short space of little (and arise there did innumerable), the con- more than a century they became such statestest was never about the form of their gov- men, warriors, orators, historians, physiernment (for this was an object of which cians, poets, critics, painters, sculptors, arthe combatants had no conception); it was chitects, and (last of all), philosophers, that all from the poor motive of, who should be one can hardly help considering that golden :heir master ; whether a Cyrus or an Artax- period as a providential event in honour of erxes, a Mahomet or a Mustapha.

human nature, to shew to what perfection Such was their condition ; and what was the species might ascend. the consequence ?- Their ideas became con- Now the language of these Greeks was sonant to their servile state, and their words truly like themselves; it was conformable became consonant to their servile ideas. The to their transcendent and universal genius. great distinction forerer in their sight was Where matter so abounded, words followed that of tyrant and slave; the most unnatural of course, and those exquisite in every kind, one conceivable, and the most susceptible of as the ideas for which they stood. And pomp and empty exaggeration. llence they hence it followed there was not a subject to talked of kings as gods, and of themselves be found which could not with propriety be as the mennest and most abject reptiles. expressed in Greek. Nothing was either great or little in moder- Here were words and numbers for the ation, but every sentiment was heightened humour of an Aristophanes ; for the active by incredible hyperbole. Thus, though they elegance of a Philemon or Menander; for sometimes ascended into the great and mag- the amorous strains of a Mimnermus or

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