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and injuries. Though I have as natural an CATHERINE TALBOT,
antipathy to cards and dice as some people born 1720, died 1770, was the author of have to a cat, many and many an assembly Reflections on the Seven Days of the
am I forced to endure; and though rest and 1770, 6th edit., Lond., 1771, 12mo; Essays, com posure are my peculiar joy, am worn 1772, 2 vols. 12mo; Letters to a Friend on
out and harassed to death with journeys a Future State ; Dialogues, and other works by men and women of quality, who never in prose and verse. Collective edition of take one but when I can be of the party. her Works by E. Carter, new edit., 1795, ceive' me but in bed, where they spend at
Some, on a contrary extreme, will never re3vo; by Rev. M. Pennington, A.M., 1809, least half of the time I have to stay with 8vo, 9th edit., 1819, 8vo.
them; and others are so monstrously ill"So excellent are the compositions of Miss bred as to take physic on purpose when they Talbot which have come down to us, that it is to have reason to expect me. Those who keep be greatly regretted that she did not devote more time to writing.”—Mrs. Ellwood : Lit. Ladies of generally so cold and constrained in their
upon terms of more politeness with me are Eng., i. 143.
behaviour that I cannot but perceive myAUTOBIOGRAPHY OF SUNDAY.
self an unwelcome guest; and even among
persons deserving of my esteem, and who MR. RAMBLER, — There are few tasks more certainly have a value for me, it is too eviungrateful than for persons of modesty to dent that generally, whenever I come, I speak their own praises. In some cases,
throw a dulness over the whole company, however, this must be done for the general that I am entertained with a formal stiff good, and a generous spirit will on such civility, and that they are glad when I am occasions assert its merit, and vindicate fairly gone. How bitter must this kind of itself with becoming warmth.
reception be to one formed to inspire de My circumstances, Sir, are very hard and light, admiration, and love! To one capapeculiar. Could the world be brought to ble of answering and rewarding the greatest treat me as I deserve, it would be a public warmth and delicacy of sentiments ! benefit. This makes me apply to you,
I was bred up among a set of excellent my case being fairly stated in a paper so people, who affectionately loved me, and generally esteemed, i
may suffer no longer treated me with the utmost honour and refrom ignorant and childish prejudices. spect. It would be tedious to relate the
My elder brother was a Jew. A very | variety of my adventures, and strange vicis respectable person, but somewhat austere in situdes of my fortune in many different counhis manner; highly and deservedly valued tries. Here in England there was a time by his near relations and intimates, but when I lived according to my heart's desire. utterly unfit for mixing in a larger society, Whenever I appeared, public assemblies apor gaining, a general acquaintance with pointed for my reception were crowded with mankind. In a venerable old age he re- persons of quality and fashion, early dressed tired from the world, and I, in the bloom as for a court, to pay me their devoirs. of youth, came into it, succeeding him in Cheerful hospitality every where crowned all his dignities, and formed, as I might my board, and I was looked upon in every reasonably flatter myself, to be the object country parish as a kind of social bond beof universal love and esteem. Joy and tween the squire, the parson, and the tengladness were born with me; cheerfulness, ants. The laborious poor every where blest good humour, and benevolence always at my appearance: they do so still, and keep tended and endeared my infancy. That time their best clothes to do me honour; though is long past. So long, that idle imagina- as much as I delight in the honest country tions are apt to fancy me wrinkled, old, and folks, they do now and then throw a pot of disagreeable: but unless my looking-glass ale at my head, and sometimes an unlucky deceives me, I have not yet lost one charm, boy will drive his cricket-ball in my face. one beauty, of my earliest years. However, Even in these my best days there were thus far it is too certain I am to every body persons who thought me too demure and just what they choose to think me, so that grave. I must forsooth by all means be into very few I appear in my right shape; structed by foreign masters, and taught to and though naturally I am the friend of dance and play. This method of education human kind, to few, very few, comparatively, was so contrary to my genius, formed for am I useful or agreeable.
much nobler entertainment, that it did not This is the more grievous, as it is utterly succeed at all. impossible for me to avoid being in all sorts I fell next into the hands of a very differof places and companies ; and I am there- ent set. They were so excessively scandalfore liable to meet with perpetual affronts | ized at the gaiety of my appearance, as not only to despoil me of the foreign fopperies, walks and airings among sets of agreeable the paint and the patches that I had been people, in such discourse as I shall natutricked out with by my last misjudging tutors, rally dictate, or in reading some few selected but they robbed me of every innocent orna- out of those numberless books that are dediment I had from my infancy been used to cated to me, and go by my name.
A name gather in the fields and gardens; nay, they that, alas! as the world stands at present, blacked my face, and covered me all over makes them oftener thrown aside than taken with a habit of mourning, and that too very up. As those conversations and books should coarse and awkward. I was now obliged to be both well chosen, to give some advice on spend my whole life in hearing sermons, nor that head may possibly furnish you with a permitted so much as to smile upon any occa
and any thing you shall offer sion,
on my behalf will be of great service to, In this melancholy disguise I became a good Mr. Rambler, perfect bugbear to all children and young Your faithful friend and servant, folks. Wherever I came there was a gen
* SUNDAY.'' eral hush, an immediate stop to all pleasant- The Rambler, No. 30, Saturday, June 30, ness of look or discourse, and not being 1750. permitted to talk with them in my own language at that time, they took such a disgust to me in those tedious hours of yawning, that having transmitted it to their children,
JAMES USHER, I cannot now be heard, though it is long since I have recovered my natural forin and
a descendant of Archbishop Usher, born pleasing tone of voice. Would they but about 1720, was successively a farmer, a receive my visits kindly, and listen to what linen-draper, a priest of the Church of Rome, I could tell them-leť me say it without and a school teacher ; died 1772. He was vanity—how charming a companion should the author of New System of Philosophy, I bel' to every one could I talk on the sub- Lond., 1764, 8vo; Clio; or a Discourse on jects most interesting and most pleasing. Taste, Lond., 1772, 2 vols. 8vo; An Elegy, With the great and ambitious I would dis sine anno; privately printed : 1860, with course of honours and advancements, of
MS. notes by Professor Porson, £3 10s. distinctions to which the whole world should Usher contributed to The Public Ledger. be witness, of unenvied dignities and dura
THOUGHTS ON ELEGANCE. ble preferments. To the rich I would tell of inexhaustible treasures, and the sure When we take a view of the separate parts method to attain them. I would teach that constitute personal elegance, we immethem to put out their money on the best diately know the seeds that are proper to be interest, and instruct the lovers of pleasure cherished in the infant mind to bring forth how to secure and improve it to the highest the beauteous production. The virtues degree. The beauty should learn of me should be cultivated early with sacred care. how to preserve an everlasting bloom. To Good nature, modesty, affability, and a kind the afflicted I would administer comfort, concern for others, should be carefully inand relaxation to the busy.
culcated; and an easy unconstrained doAs I dare promise myself you will attest minion acquired by habit over the passions. the truth of all I have advanced, there is no A mind thus finally prepared is capable of doubt but many will be desirous of improv. the highest lustre of elegance; which is ing their acquaintance with me; and that I afterwards attained with as little labour as may not be thought too difficult, I will tell our first language, by only associating with you, in short, how I wish to be received. graceful people of different characters, from
You must know I equally hate lazy idle- whom an habitual gracefulness will be acness and hurry. I would every where he quired, that will bear the natural unaffected welcomed at å tolerably early hour with stamp of our minds: in short, it will be our decent good humour and gratitude. I must own character and genius stripped of its be attended in the great halls peculiarly native rudeness, and enriched with beauty appropriated to me with respect; but I do and attraction. not insist upon finery: propriety of appear- Nature, that bestows her favours without ance and perfect neatness is all I require. respect of persons, often denies to the great I must at dinner be treated with a temper- the capacity of distinguished elegance, and ate, but cheerful, social meal; both the flings it away in obscure villages. You neighbours and the poor should be the bet- sometimes see it at a country fair spread an ter for me. Some time I must have a tête- amiableness over a sun-burnt girl, like the d-tête with my kind entertainers, and the light of the moon through a mist: but such, rest of my visit should be spent in pleasant madam, is the necessity of habitual elegance
acquired by education and converse, that man. I shall therefore only make a few reeven if you were born in that low class, you flections on this head, that lie out of the could be no more than the fairest damsel at
common track. But, prior to what I have the May-pole, and the object of the hope and to say, it is necessary to make some obserjealousy of a few rustics.
vations on physiognomy. People are rendered totally incapable of There is an obvious relation between the elegance by the want of good-nature, and mind and the turn of the features, so well the other gentle passions; by the want of known by instinct, that every one is more modesty and sensibility; and by a want of or less expert at reading the countenance. that noble pride which arises from a con- We look as well as speak our minds; and sciousness of lofty and generous sentiments. amongst people of little experience, the look The absence of these native charms is gen- is generally most sincere. This is so well erally supplied by a brisk stupidity, an impu- understood, that it becomes a part of educadence unconscious of defect, à cast of malice, tion to learn to disguise the countenance, and an uncommon tendency to ridicule: as which yet requires a habit from early youth, if nature had given these her step-children and the continual practice of hypocrisy, to an instinctive intelligence that they can rise deceive an intelligent eye. The natural out of contempt only by the depression of virtues and vices not only have their places others. For the same reason it is, that per- in the aspect; even acquired habits that sons of true and finished taste seldom affect much affect the mind settle there ; contemridicule, because they are conscious of their plation, in length of time, gives a cast of own superior merit. Pride is the cause of thought on the countenance. ridicule in the one, as it is of candour in the Now to come back to our subject. The other; but the effects differ as the studied assemblage called beauty is the image of parade of poverty does from the negligent noble sentiments and amiable passions in grandeur of riches. You will see nothing the face; but so blended and confused that more common in the world, than for people, we are not able to separate and distinguish who by stupidity and insensibility are in them. The mind has a sensibility, and clear capable of the graces, to commence wits on knowledge, in many instances, without rethe strength of the petite talents of mimicry, flection, or even the power of reasoning and the brisk tartness that ill-nature never upon its own perceptions. We can no more fails to supply.
account for the relation between the passions From what I have said it appears that a of the mind and a set of features than we sense of elegance is a sense of dignity, of can account for the relation between the virtue, and innocence, united. Is it not sounds of music and the passions : the eye natural then to expect that, in the course of is judge of the one without principles or a liberal education, men should cultivate the rules, as the ear is of the other. It is imgenerous qualities they approve and assume? | possible you should not take notice of the But instead of them, men only aim at the remarkable difference of beauty in the same appearances, which require no self-denial ; face, in a good and in ill humour; and if and thus without acquiring the virtues, they the gentle passions in an indifferent face do sacrifice their honesty and sincerity: whence not change it to perfect beauty, it is because it comes to pass that there is often the least nature did not originally model the features virtue where is the greatest appearance of it, to the just and familiar expression of those and that the polished part of mankind only passions, and the genuine expressions of arrive at the subtle corruption of uniting nature can never be wholly obliterated. vice with the dress and complexion of virtue. Complexion is a kind of beauty that is
I have dwelt on personal elegance, because only pleasing by association. The brown, the ideas and principles in this part of good the fair, the black, are not any of them taste are more familiar to you. We may original beauty; but when the complexion then take them for a foundation in our is united in one picture on the imagination, future observations, since the same prin- with the assemblage that forms the image ciples of easy grace and simple grandeur of the tender passion, with gentle smiles will animate our ideas with an unstudied and kind endearments, it is then inseparable propriety, and enlighten our judgments in from our ideas of beauty, and forms a part beauty, in literature, in sculpture, painting, of it. and other departments of fine taste.
From the same cause, a national set of
features appear amiable to the inhabitants, ON PERSONAL BEAUTY.
who have been accustomed to see the amiable I shall but slightly touch on our taste of dispositions through them. personal beauty, because it requires no direc- 'This observation resolves a difficulty that tions to be known. To ask what is beauty, often occurs in the reflections of men on our says a philosopher, is the question of a blind | present subject. We all speak of beauty as if it were acknowledged and settled by a quired language. The modern system of public standard; yet we find, in fact, that philosophy has also concurred to shut it out people in placing their affections often have from our reflections. little regard to the common notions of It is in conversation people put on all beauty. The truth is, complexion and form their graces, and appear in the lustre of being the charms that are visible and con- good-breeding. It is certain, good-breeding, spicuous, the common standard of beauty is that sets so great a distinction between ingenerally restrained to those general attrac- dividuals of the same species, creates nothing tions : but since personal grace and the en- new (I mean a good education), but only gaging passions, although they cannot be draws forth into prospect, with skill and delineated, have a more universal and uni- address, the agreeable dispositions and senform power, it is no wonder people, in re- timents that lay latent in the mind. You signing their hearts, so often contradict the may call good-breeding artificial; but it is common received standard.
Accordingly, like the art of a gardener, under whose hand as the engaging passions and the address a barren tree puts forth its own bloom, and are discovered in conversation, the tender is enriched with its specific fruit. It is scarce attachments of people are generally fixed by possible to conceive any scene so truly agreean intercourse of sentiment, and seldom by able as an assembly of people elaborately a transient view, except in romances and educated, who assume a character superior novels. It is further to be observed that to ordinary life, and support it with ease when once the affections are fixed, a new and familiarity. face with a higher degree of beauty will not The heart is won in conversation by its always have a higher degree of power to own passions. Its pride, its grandeur, its remove them, because our affections arise affections, lay it open to the enchantinent of from a source within ourselves, as well as an insinuating address. Flattery is a gross from external beauty; and when the tender charmer, but who is proof against a gentle passion is attached by a particular object, and yielding, disposition, that infers your the imagination surrounds that object with superiority with a delicacy so fine that you a thousand ideal embellishments that exist cannot see the lines of which it is composed ? only in the mind of the lover.
Generosity, disinterestedness, a noble love
of truth that will not deceive, a feeling of On Conversation.
the distresses of others, and greatness of From external beauty we come to the soul, inspires us with admiration along with charms of conversation and writing. Words, love, and takes our affections as it were by by representing ideas, become the picture of storm; but, above all, we are seduced by a our thoughts, and communicate them with view of the tender and affectionate passions : the greatest fidelity. But they are not only they carry a soft inflection, and the heart is the signs of sensible ideas, they exhibit the betrayed to them by its own forces. If we very image and distinguishing likeness of are to judge from symptoms, the soul that the mind that uses them.
engages us so powerfully by its reflected Conversation does not require the same glances is an object of infinite beauty. I merit to please that writing does. The hu- observed before, that the modulations of the man soul is endued with a kind of natural human voice that express the soul move us expression, which it does not acquire. The powerfully; and indeed we are affected by expression I speak of consists in the signifi- the natural emotions of the mind expressed
I cant modulations and tones of voice, accom- in the simplest language: in short, the happy panied, in unaffected people, by a propriety art that, in conversation and the intercourse of gesture. This native language was not of life, lays hold upon our affections, is but intended by nature to represent the transi- a just address to the engaging passions in the tory ideas that come by the senses to the human breast. But this syren power, like imagination, but the passions of the mind beauty, is the gift of nature. and its emotions only: therefore modulation
“Soft pleasing speech and graceful outward show, and gesture give life and passion to words ; No arts can gain them, but the gods bestow." their mighty force in oratory is very con
Pope's Homer. spicuous : but although their effects be milder in conversation, yet they are very sensible; they agitate the soul by a variety WILLIAM ROBERTSON, D.D., of gentle sensations, and help to form that sweet charm that makes the most trifling born 1721, minister of Gladsmuir, 1743, and subjects engaging. This fine expression, from 1759 until his death, in 1793, one of which is not learned, is not so much taken the ministers (Dr. John Erskine was his colnotice of as it deserves, because it is much league) of the Old Grey-Friars' Church, Edinsuperseded by the use of artificial and ac- | burgh, was for thirty years, 1762–1792, Principal of the University of Edinburgh, and among the necessary arts of gorernment. for the same period the controlling spirit Not insensible of flattery, or unconscious of the General Assembly of the Church of of that pleasure with which almost every Scotland. He was the author of The Situ-woman beholds the influence of her own ation of the World at the Time of Christ's beauty. Formed with the qualities which Appearance, and its Connection with the we love, not with the talents that we admire, Success of his Religion Considered, a Ser- she was an agreeable woman rather than an mon, Edin., 1755, 8vo; The History of Scot- illustrious queen. The vivacity of her spirit, land during the Reigns of Queen Mary and not sufficiently tempered with sound judgof King James VI. till his Succession to the ment, and the warmth of her heart, which was Crown of England, etc., Lond., 1758–59, 2 not at all times under the restraint of disvols. 4to, 17th edit., 1806, 3 vols. 8vo; The cretion, betrayed her both into errors and Ilistory of the Reign of the Emperor Charles into crimes. V., etc., Lond., 1769, 3 vols. 4to, 10th edit., To say that she was always unfortunate 1802, 4 vols. 8vo; the History of America, will not account for that long and almost Books I.-VIII., Lond., 1777, 2 vols. 4to, uninterrupted succession of calamities which Books IX. and X., Lond., 1796, 4to and befell her: we must likewise add that she 8vo; An Historical Disquisition Concerning was often imprudent. ller passion for Darnthe Knowledge which the Ancients had of ley was rash, youthful, and excessive. And India, etc., Lond., 1791, 4to. Collective edi- though the sudden transition to the opposite tions of Robertson's Works have frequently extreme was the natural effect of her ill-rebeen published (most of them with Stewart's quited love, and of his ingratitude, insolence, Life of Robertson). Among the last editions and brutality, yet neither these nor Bothare those of London, 1828, 9 vols. 8vo, 1840, well's artful address and important services 8 vols. 8vo, 1860, imp. 8vo, 1865, imp. 8vo. can justify her attachinent to that nobleman.
Even the manners of the age, licentious as “ Inferior probably to Mr. Gibbon in the vigour they were, are no apology for this unhappy of his powers, unequal to himn perhaps in comprehension of intellect and variety of knowledge, the passion; nor can they induce us to look on Scottish historian has far surpassed -bim in sim
that tragical and infamous scene which folplicity and perspicuity of narrative, in picturesque lowed upon it with ess abhorrence. Huand pathetic description, in the sober use of figura- manity will draw a veil over this part of her tive language, and in the delicate perception of character which it cannot approve, and may, that scarcely discernible boundary which separates perhaps, prompt some to impute her actions ornament from exuberance and elegance from affectation.”—Sir J. Mackintosh : Lond. Month. tions, and to lament the unhappiness of the
to her situation, more than to her disposiReview.
“Robertson's style, Mr. Prescott remarked, was former, rather than accuse the perverseness that of a schoolmistress. He thought him greatly of the latter. Mary's sufferings exceed, wanting in narrative power, and in the faculty of both in degree and in duration, those tragipicturesque description. He instanced the bald cal distresses which fancy has feigned to and commonplace account of the battle of Pavia
excite as a speciinen of Robertson's inability to do jus while we survey them, we are apt altogether
sorrow and commiseration; and tice to a great and splendid subject. At the same time he did justice to that bistorian's eminent qual
to forget her frailties; we think of her faults ities of another kind,--to his clearness, penetra- with less indignation, and approve of our tion, and philosophic tone. He attributed his de. tears as if they were shed for a person who fects of style to his age rather than to any defect | had attained much nearer to pure virtue. in himself."- Recollections of Prescott by his former With regard to the queen's person, a cirSecretary : Prescott Memorial, 1859, pp. 21, 22.
cumstance not to be omitted in writing the CHARACTER of Mary, Queen of Scots.
history of a female reign, all contemporary
authors agree in ascribing to Mary the utTo all the charms of beauty and the utmost most beauty of countenance and elegance of elegance of external form she added those shape of which the human form is capable. accomplishments which render their impres- Her hair was black, though, according to the sion irresistible. Polite, affable, insinuating, fashion of that age, she frequently wore borsprightly, and capable of speaking and of rowed locks, and of different colours. Iler writing with equal ease and dignity. Sud-eyes were a dark grey, her complexion was den, however, and violent in all her attach- exquisitely fine, and her hands and arms ments, because her heart was warm and un-remarkably delicate, both as to shape and suspicious. Impatient of contradiction, be-colour. Her stature was of a height that cause she had been accustomed from her rose to the majestic. She danced, she walked, infancy to be treated as a queen. No and rode with equal grace. Her taste for stranger, on some occasions, to dissimula- music was just, and she both sung and tion, which in that perfidious court where played upon the lute with uncommon skill. she received her education was reckoned Towards the end of her life she began to