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cannot plead the want of leisure as an ex- greatest part of civilization and refinement, cuse for indolence and neglect. The lawyer and which rests upon a foundation too deep who passes his day in exasperating the bick to be shaken by any such modifications in erings of Roe and Doe is certainly as much education as we have proposed. If you engaged as his lady, who has the whole of educate women to attend to dignified and the morning before her to correct the chil. important subjects, you are multiplying, dren and pay the bills. The apothecary, beyond measure, the chances of human imwho rushes from an act of phlebotomy in provement, by preparing and melicating the western parts of the town to insinuate those early impressions which always come a bolus in the east, is surely as completely from the mother; and which, in a great inaabsorbed as that fortunate female who is jority of instances, are quite decisive of darning the garment or preparing the repast character and genius. Nor is it only in the of her Æsculapius at home; and in every business of education that women would indegree and situation of life, it seems that fluence the destiny of men. If women knew men must necessarily be exposed to more more, men must learn more,--for ignorance serious demands upon their time and atten- would then be shameful, and it would betion than can possibly be the case with re- come the fashion to be instructed. The inspect to the other sex. We are speaking struction of women improves the stock of always of the fair demands which ought to national talents, and employs more minds be made upon the time and attention of for the instruction and amusement of the women; for, as the matter now stands, the world; it increases the pleasures of society, time of women is considered as worth no by multiplying the topics upon which the thing at all. Daughters are kept to occupa- two sexes take a common interest; and tions in sewing, patching, mantua-making, makes marriage an intercourse of underand mending, by which it is impossible they standing as well as of affection, by giving can earn ten pence a day. The intellectual dignity and importance to the female charimprovement of women is considered to be acter. The education of women favours of such subordinate importance that twenty public morals; it provides for erery season pounds paid for needle-work would give to a of life, as well as for the brightest and the whole family leisure to acquire a fund of best ; and leaves a woman when she is real knowledge. They are kept with nimble stricken by the hand of time, not as she now fingers and vacant understandings till the is, destitute of every thing, and neglected by season for improvement is utterly past away, all; but with the full power and the splenand all chance of forming more important did attractions of knowledge, — diffusing the habits completely lost. We do not therefore elegant pleasures of polite literature, and say that women have more leisure than receiving the just homage of learned and men, if it be necessary they should lead the accomplished men. lives of artisans; but we make this asser- Edin. Review, 1810, and in his Works. tion only upon the supposition that it is of some importance women should be in
Noodle's Oration. structed; and that many ordinary occupations, for which a little money will find a What would our ancestors say to this, better substitute, should be sacrificed to this Sir? How does this measure tally with consideration.
their institutions ? How does it agree with In short, and to recapitulate the main their experience? Are we to put the wispoints upon which we have insisted,- Why dom of yesterday in competition with the the disproportion in knowledge between the wisdom of centuries ? (Hear! Hear!) Is two sexes should be so great, when the in-beardless youth to show no respect for the equality in natural talenty is so small; or decisions of mature age ? (Loud cries of why the understanding of women should be Hear! Hear!) If this measure be right, lavished upon trifles, when nature has made would it have escaped the wisdom of those it capable of better and higher things, we pro- Saxon progenitors to whom we are indebted fess ourselves not able to understand. The for so many of our best political institutions? affectation charged upon female knowledge Would the Dane have passed it over? Would is best cured by making that knowledge the Norman have rejected it? Would such more general: and the economy devolved a notable discovery have been reserved for upon women is best secured by the ruin, these modern and degenerate times ? Besides, disgrace, and inconvenience which proceeds Sir, if the measure itself is good, I ask the from neglecting it. For the care of children honourable gentleman if this is the time for nature has made a direct and powerful pro- carrying it into execution,-whether, in fact, vision ; and the gentleness and elegance of a more unfortunate period could have been women is the natural consequence of that selected than that which he has chosen? desire to please which is productive of the If this were an ordinary measure, I should
not oppose it with so much vehemence; but, grace Ministers, you disgrace Government; Sir, it calls in question the wisdom of an bring Ministers into contempt, you bring irrevocable law,-of a law passed at the mem- Government into contempt; and anarchy orable period of the Revolution. What right and civil war are the consequences. Behave we, Sir, to break down this firm column sides, Sir, the measure is unnecessary. Noon which the great man of that age stamped body complains of disorder in that shape in a character of eternity? Are not all author- which it is the aim of your measure to proities against this measure,-Pitt, Fox, Cicero, pose a remedy to it. "The business is one and the Attorney and Solicitor-General ? The of the greatest importance ; there is need proposition is new, Sir; it is the first time it of the greatest caution and circumspection. was ever heard in this House. I am not pre- Do not let us be precipitate, Sir ; it is impared, Sir,—this House is not prepared, -to possible to foresee all consequences. Everyreceive it. The measure implies a distrust thing should be gradual; the example of a of his Majesty's Government; their disap- neighbouring nation should fill us with proval is sufficient to warrant opposition. alarm! The honourable gentleman has Precaution only is requisite where danger taxed me with illiberality, Sir. I deny the is apprehended. Here the high character charge. I hate innovation, but I love imof the individuals in question is a sufficient provement. I am an enemy to the corrupguarantee against any ground of alarm. tion of Government, but I defend its influGive not, then, your sanction to this meas- ence. I dread reform, but I dread it only ure; for, whatever be its character, if you when it is intemperate. I consider the libdo give your sanction to it, the same man erty of the press as the great Palladium of by whom this is proposed, will propose to the Constitution ; but, at the same time, I you others to which it will be impossible to hold the licentiousness of the press in the give your consent. I care very little, Sir, greatest abhorrence. Nobody is more confor the ostensible measure; but what is scious than I am of the splendid abilities of there behind? What are the honourable the honourable mover, but I tell him at once gentleman's future schemes ? If we pass his scheme is too good to be practicable. It this bill, what fresh concessions may he not savours of Utopia. It looks well in theory, require? What further degradation is he but it won't do in practice. It will not do, planning for his country ? Talk of evil I repeat, Sir, in practice; and so the advoand inconvenience, Sir! look to other coun-cates of the measure will find, if, unfortries,-study other aggregations and socie- tunately, it should find its way through ties of men, and then see whether the laws Parliament. (Cheers.) The source of that of this country demand a remedy or deserve corruption to which the honourable member a panegyric. Was the honourable gentle alludes is in the minds of the people ; so man (let me ask him) always of this way rank and extensive is that corruption, that of thinking? Do I not remember when he no political reform can have any effect in was the advocate in this House of very oppo- removing it. Instead of reforming others, site opinions? I not only quarrel with his instead of reforming the State, the Constipresent sentiments, Sir, but I declare very tution, and every thing that is most excelfrankly I do not like the party with which lent, let each man reform himself ! let him he acts. If his own motives were as pure look at home: he will find there enough to as possible, they cannot but suffer contami- do, without looking abroad, and aiming at nation from those with whom he is politi- what is out of his power.' (Loud cheers.) cally associated. This measure may be a And now, Sir, as it is frequently the custom boon to the Constitution, but I will accept in this House to end with a quotation, and no favour to the Constitution from such
as the gentleman who preceded me in the hands. (Loud cries of Hear! Hear!) I debate has anticipated me in my favourite profess myself, Sir, an honest and upright quotation of the "Strong pull and the long member of the British Parliament, and I pull,” I shall end with the memorable words am not afraid to profess myself an enemy of the assembled barons,- Nolumus leges to all change, and all innovation. I am Angliæ mutari." satisfied with things as they are: and it Bentham on Fallacies : Edin, Review, vol. will be my pride and pleasure to hand down xlii., 1825, in Smith's Works. this country to my children as I received it from those who preceded me.
The honourable gentleman pretends to justify the severity with which he has attacked the Noble
REV. THOMAS DICK, LL.D., Lord who presides in the Court of Chancery. But I say such attacks are pregnant with known as “ The Christian Philosopher," mischief to Government itself. Oppose born near Dundee, Scotland, 1774, was eduMinisters, you oppose Government; dis- cated at the University of Edinburgh, and
subsequently entered the ministry of the then there shall be a general resurrection and Secession Church; died 1857. Collective a day of judginent, wherein all shall receive edition of his Works, Phila., 1850, 10 vols. a just retribution according to their works. 12mo: 1. Philosophy of a Future State ; After which the angel of darkness and his II. Christian Philosopher; III. Philosophy disciples shall go into a world of their own, of Religion ; IV. Improvement of Society; where they shall suffer in everlasting darkV. Moral Improvement; VI. Essay on Cov- ness the punishment of their evil deeds; etousness; VII. Celestial Scenery; VIII. and the angel of light and his disciples shall Sidereal IIenvens; IX. Practical Astron- also go into a world of their own, where oiner; X. Solar Systein. Other editions. they shall receive, in everlasting light, the
of the Philosophy of Religion it was re- reward due to their good deeds; that after marked :
this they shall remain separate for ever, and "The design of such a work is lofty and benig- light and darkness be no more mixed to nant, and Dr. Dick has brought to his great ar
all eternity (Rollin's Ancient IIistory, vol. gument a vast amount of illustration and proof, 2). The remains of this sect, which are presented in a style condensed and perspicuous, / scattered over Persia and India, still hold and imbued with the feeling appropriate to such a the same doctrines, without any variation, theme. We commend it earnestly to the general
even to this day. reader, and not less so to the Christian preacher.
It is well known that Plato, Socrates, and Such modes of dealing with the foundation of things need to be inore common in our pulpits." other Greek philosophers, held the doctrine British Quar. Review.
of the soul's immortality. In his admirable
dialogue entitled “The Phædon,”' Plato repON THE UNIVERSAL BELIEF WHICI THE Doc
resents Socrates, a little before his death, enTRINE OF IMMORTALITY HAS OBTAINED IN
compassed with a circle of philosophers, and ALL AGES.
discoursing with them on the arguments
which prove the eternal destiny of man. It forms a presumptive proof of the im- ** When the dead," says he,
are arrived mortality of man, that this doctrine has ob- at the rendezvous of departed souls, whither tained universal belief among all nations, their angel conducts them, they are all and in every period of time.
judged. Those who have passed their lives That the thinking principle in man is of in a manner neither entirely criminal, nor an immortal nature was believed by the an- absolutely innocent, are sent into a place cient Egyptians, the Persians, the Phoeni- where they suffer pains proportioned to their cians, the Scythians, the Celts, the Druids, faults, till, being purged and cleansed of their the Assyrians,—by the wisest and most cel guilt, and afterwards restored to liberty, they ebrated characters among the Greeks and receive the reward of the good actions they Romans, and by almost every other ancient have done in the body. Those who are nation and tribe whose records have reached judged to be incurable, on account of the our times. The notions, indeed, which many greatness of their crimes, the fatal Destiny of them entertained of the scenes of futurity that passes judgment upon them hurls them were very obscure and imperfect, but they into l'artarus, from which they never depart. all embraced the idea that death is not the Those who are found guilty of crimes, great destruction of the rational soul, but only its indeed, but worthy of pardon, who have introduction to a new and unknown state of committed violences, in the transports of existence.
rage, against their father or mother, or have The ancient Scythians believed that death killed some one in a like emotion, and afterwas only a change of habitation; and the wards repented,-suffer the same punishMagian sect, which prevailed in Babylonia, ment with the last, but for a time only, till, Media, Assyria, and Persia, culmitted the doc- by prayers and supplications, they have obtrine of eternal rewards and punishments. tained pardon from those they have injured. The doctrines taught by the second Zo- But those who have passed through life with roaster, who lived in the time of Darius, peculiar sanctity of manners, are received were, that there is one Supreme Being, on high into a pure region, where they live independent and self-existent from all eter- without their bodies to all eternity, in a nity: that under him there are two angels, series of joys and delights which cannot be one the angel of light, who is the author of described." From such considerations Socall good; and the other the angel of darkness, rates concludes, “If the soul be immortal, who is the author of all evil; that they are in it requires to be cultivated with attention, a perpetual struggle with each other; that not only for what we call the time of life, where the angel of light prevails, there good but for that which is to follow: I mean reigns; and that where the angel of darkness eternity; and the least neglect in this point prevails, there evil takes place; that this strug- may be attended with endless consequences. gle shall continue to the end of the world; that if death were the final dissolution of be
ing, the wicked would be great gainers by from every danger, and enjoy perpetual and it, by being delivered at once from their uninterrupted bliss. bodies, their souls, and their vices : but as The Philosophy of a Future State, Part i., the soul is immortal, it has no other means Chap. i. of being freed from its evils, nor any safety for it, but becoming very good and very
VENTRILOQUISM. wise : for it carries nothing with it but its good or bad deeds, its virtues and vices, Louis Brahant, a dexterous ventriloquist, which are commonly the consequences of valet-de-chambre to Francis I., had fallen the education it has received, and the causes desperately in love with a young, handsome, of eternal happiness or misery.". Having and rich heiress; but was rejected by the held such discourses with his friends, he parents as an unsuitable match for their kept silent for some time, and then drank daughter, on account of the lowness of his off the whole of the poisonous draught circumstances. The young lady's father dywhich had been put into his hand, with ing, he made a visit to the widow, who was amazing tranquillity, and an inexpressible totally ignorant of his singular talent. Sudserenity of aspect, as one who was about to denly, on his first appearance, in open day, exchange a short and wretched life for a in her own house, and in the presence of blessed and eternal existence.
several persons who were with her, she The descriptions and allusions contained heard herself accosted in a voice perfectly in the writings of the ancient poets are a resembling that of her dead husband, and convincing proof that the notion of the which seemed to proceed from above, exsoul's immortality was a universal opinion claiming, “Give my daughter in marriage in the times in which they wrote, and among to Louis Brahant. lle is a man of great the nations to whom their writings were ad fortune, and of an excellent character. I dressed. Ilomer's account of the descent now suffer the inexpressible torments of of Ulysses into hell, and his description of purgatory for having refused her to him. Minos in the shades below distributing jus- If you obey this admonition I shall soon tice to the dead assembled in troops around be delivered from this place of torment. his tribunal, and pronouncing irrevocable You will at the same time provide a worthy judgments, which decide their everlasting husband for your daughter, and procure fate, demonstrate that they entertained the everlasting repose to the soul of your poor belief that virtues are rewarded, and that husband." The widow could not for a crimes are punished, in another state of moment resist this dreadful summons, which existence. The poems of Ovid and Virgil had not the most distant appearance of procontain a variety of descriptions in which ceeding from Louis Brahant, whose countethe same opinions are involved. Their no- nance exhibited no visible change, and whose tions of future punishment are set forth in lips were close and motionless during the the descriptions they give of Ixion, who was delivery of it. Accordingly she consented fastened to a wheel, and whirled about con- immediately to receive him for her son-intinually with a swift and rapid motion,—of law. Louis's finances, however, were in a Tantalus, who, for the loathsome banquet very low situation, and the formalities athe made for the gods, was set in water up tending the marriage-contract rendered it to the chin, with apples hanging to his very necessary for him to exhibit some show of lips, yet had no power either to stoop to the riches, and not to give the ghost the lie one to quench his raging thirst, or to reach direct. He accordingly went to work on a to the other to satisfy his craving appetite, - fresh subject, one Cornu, an old and rich of the Fifty Daughters of Danaus, who, for banker at Lyons, who had accumulated imthe barbarous massacre of their husbands mense wealth by usury and extortion, and in one night, were condemned in hell to fill was known to be haunted by remorse of a barrel full of water, which ran out again as conscience on account of the manner in fast as it was filled, -of Sisyphus, who, for which he had acquired it. Having conhis robberies, was set to roll a great stone tracted an intimate acquaintance with this up a steep hill, which, when it was just man, he one day, while they were sitting toat the top, suddenly fell down again, and gether in the usurer's little back parlour, so renewed his labour,—and of lityus, who artfully turned the conversation on religious was adjudged to have a vulture to feed upon subjects, on demons, and spectres, the pains his liver and entrails, which still grew and of purgatory, and the torments of hell. Durincreased as they were devoured. Their ing an interval of silence between them a notions of future happiness are embodied voice was heard, which to the astonished in the descriptions they have given of the banker seemed to be that of his deceased Hesperian gardens, and the Elysian fields, father, complaining, as in the former case, where the souls of the virtuous rest secure of his dreadful situation in purgatory, and calling upon him to deliver him instantly in purgatory, and reproaching the brotherfrom thence, by putting into the hands of hood with their lukewarmness and want Lonis Brahant, then with him, a large sum of zeal on his account. The friars, as soon for the redemption of Christians then in as their astonishment gave them power to slavery with the Turks; threatening him at speak, consulted together, and agreed to acthe same time with eternal damnation if he quaint the rest of the community with this did not take this method to expiate, likewise, singular event, so interesting to the whole his own sins. Louis Brahant, of course, af- society. M. St. Gill, who wished to carry fected a due degree of astonishment on the on the joke a little farther, dissuaded them occasion, and further promoted the deception from taking this step, telling them that they by acknowledging his having devoted him would be treated by their absent brethren self to the prosecution of the charitable de- as a set of fools and visionaries. le recsigns imputed to him by the ghost. An old ommended to them, however, the immediusurer is naturally suspicious. Accordingly, ately calling the whole community into the the wary banker made a second appointment church, where the ghosi of their departed with the ghost's delegate for the next day, brother might probably reiterate his comand to render any design of imposing upon plaints. Accordingly, all the friars, norices, him utterly abortive, took him into the open lay-brothers, and even the domestics of the fields, where not a house, or a tree, or even convent, were immediately summoned and a bush, or a pit were in sight, capable of called together. In a short time the voice screening any supposed confederate. This from the roof renewed its lamentations and extraordinary caution excited the rentrilo- reproaches, and the whole convent fell on quist to exert all the powers of his art. their faces, and vowed a solemn reparation. Wherever the banker conducted him, at As a first step, they chanted a De profundis every step his ears were saluted on all sides in a full choir : during the intervals of which with the complaints and groans, not only of the ghost occasionally expressed the comfort his father, but of all his deceased relations, he received from their pious exercises and imploring him for the love of God, and in ejaculations on his behalf. When all was the name of every saint in the calendar, to over, the prior entered into a serious converhave mercy on his own soul and theirs, by sation with M. St. Gill; and on the strength effectually seconding with his purse the in- of what had just passed, sagaciously in. tentions of his worthy companion. Cornu veighed against the absurd incredulity of could no longer resist the voice of Heaven, our modern sceptics and pretended philosand accordingly carried his guest home ophers, on the article of ghosts or appariwith him, and paid him down ten thousand tions. M. St. Gill thought it high time to crowns; with which the honest ventriloquist disabuse the good fathers. This purpose, returned to Paris, and married his mistress. however, he found it extremely difficult to The catastrophe was fatal. The secret was effect till he had prevailed upon them to afterwards blown, and reached the usurer's return with him into the church, and there ears, who was so much affected by the loss be witnesses of the manner in which he had of his money and the mortifying railleries conducted this ludicrous deception." Had of his neighbours, that he took to his bed not the ventriloquist in this case explained and died.
the cause of the deception, a whole body of Another trick of a similar kind was played men might have sworn, with a good conoff about sixty or seventy years ago on a science, that they had heard the ghost of a whole community by another French ven- departed brother address them again and triloquist. " M. St. Gill, the ventriloquist, again in a supernatural voice. and his intimate friend, returning home On the Improvement of Society, Appendix. from a place whither his business had carried him, sought for shelter from an approaching thunder-storm in a neighbouring convent. Finding the whole community in mourning, he inquired the cause, and was
FREDERICK CARL WILHELM told that one of the body had died lately who
VON SCHLEGEL, was the ornament and delight of the whole born at Hanover, 1772, died at Dresden, 1829, society. To pass away the time, he walked
was the author of the following excellent into the church, attended by some of the works: Lectures on the Iristory of Literareligious, who showed him the tomb of their ture, Ancient and Modern, from the German deceased brother, and spoke feelingly of the [by J. G. Lockhart], Edin., 1838, 2 vols. 8vo, scanty honours they had bestowed on his new edition, now first Completely Translated, memory. Suddenly a voice was heard, ap- | Lond. (Bohn's Stand. Lib.), 1839, post 8vo; parently proceeding from the roof of the Lectures on the Philosophy of Ilistory, choir, la menting the situation of the defunct | Translated, with a Life of the Author, by