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1813 : A Preliminary Discourse on the Study ponderance to the present over every former of Natural Philosophy, Lond., 1830, 12mo condition of mankind, and, for aught we can (Lardner's Cab. Cyc.), 1831, 1842, 1851 ; A see to the contrary, will place succeeding Treatise on Astronomy, Lond., 1833, 12mo generations in the same degree of superior (Lardner's Cab. Cyc., 43), enlarged as Out- relation to the present that this holds to those lines of Astronomy, 1849, 8vo; Results of passed away. Or we inay put the same Astronomical Observations made during the proposition in other words, and, admitting Years 1834, '35, 36, '37, '38, at the Cape of the existence of every inferior grade of adGood Hope, being the Completion of a Tele- vantage in a higher state of civilization which scopic Survey of the Whole Survey of the subsisted in the preceding, we shall find, Visible Heavens, Commenced in 1825, Lond., first, that, taking state for state, the pro1847, 4to ; A Treatise on Physical Astron- portional numbers of those who enjoy the omy, Lond., 1848, 4to, 1849, 4to (in Encyclo- higher degrees of advantage increases with pædia of Astronomy); edited and contributed a constantly-accelerated rapidity as society to A Manual of Scientific Enquiry, Lond., advances; and, secondly, that the superior 1849, p. 8vo, 2d edit., 1851, p. 8vo: Essays extremity of the scale is constantly enlargfrom the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews, ing by the addition of new degrees. The with Addresses and other Pieces, Lond., 1857, condition of a European prince is now as far 8vo. He also contributed to Edin. Philos. superior, in the command of real comforts Journal, Edin. Trans., Cambridye Trans., and conveniences, to that of one in the midPhilos. Trans., Astronom. Trans., Encyc. dle ages, as that to the condition of one of Britannica and Encyc. Metropolitana. See his own dependants. also Bohn's Lowndes's Bibl. Manual, iii. The advantages conferred by the augmen(1869) 1295.
tation of our physical resources through the " There are few philosophers of the present day medium of increased knowledge and imwho have attained to the same distinction. His proved art have this peculiar and remarkmathematical acquirements and his discoveries in able property,—that they are in their nature astronomy, optics, chemistry, and photography are diffusive, and cannot be enjoyed in any exof a very high order, and have secured for him a
clusive manner by a few. An Eastern desput wide and well-earned reputation, while his various
may extort the riches and monopolize the popular writings have greatly contributed to the
art of his subjects for his own personal use; diffusion of scientific knowledge among his countrymen.”—Imperial Dict. of Univ. Biography, iv.
he may spread around him an unnatural (1866) 889.
splendour and luxury, and stand in strange
and preposterous contrast with the general INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.
penury of his people; he may glitter in
jewels of gold and 'raiment of needlework ; The difference of the degrees in which the but the wonders of well contrived and exindividuals of a great community enjoy the ecuted manufacture which we use daily, and good things of life has been a theme of the comforts which have been invented, tried, declamation and discontent in all ages; and and improved upon by thousands, in every it is doubtless our paramount duty, in every form of domestic convenience, and for every state of society, to alleviate the pressure of ordinary purpose of life, can never be enthe purely evil part of this distribution as joyed by him. To produce a state of things much as possible, and, by all the means we in which the physical advantages of civilized can devise, secure the lower links in the life can exist in a high degree, the stimulus chain of society from dragging in dishonour of increasing comforts and constantly-eleand wretchedness : but there is a point of vated desires must have been felt by milview in which the picture is at least materi- lions : since it is not in the power of a few ally altered in its expression. In comparing individuals to create that wide demand for society on its present immense scale with useful and ingenious applications, which its infant or less developed state, we must alone can lead to great and rapid improveat least take care to enlarge every feature in ments, unless backed by that arising from the same proportion. If, on comparing the the speedy diffusion of the same advantages very lowest states in civilized and savage among the mass of mankind. life, we admit a difficulty in deciding to If this be true of physical advantages, it which the preference is due, at least in every applies with still greater force to intellecsuperior grade we cannot hesitate a moment; tual. Knowledge can neither be adequately and if we institute a similar comparison in cultivated nor adequately enjoyed by a few; every different stage of its progress, we can- and although the conditions of our existence not fail to be struck with the rapid rate of on earth may be such as to preclude an dilatation which every degree upward of the abundant supply of the physical necessities scale, so to speak, exhibits, and which, in an of all who may be born, there is no such estimate of averages, gives an immense pre- law of nature in force against that of our
intellectual and moral wants. Knowledge of our animal constitution must be satisfied ; is not, like food, destroyed by use, but the comforts and some of the luxuries of rather augmented and perfected.
life must exist. Something must be given quires not, perhaps, a greater certainty, but to the vanity of show, and more to the at least a confirmed authority and a prob- pride of power; the round of baser pleas able duration, by universal assent; and ure must have been tried and found insuffithere is no body of knowledge so complete cient before intellectual ones can gain a but that it may acquire accession, or so free footing; and when they have obtained it, from error but that it may receive correction the delights of poetry and its sister arts still in passing through the minds of millions. take precedence of contemplative enjosThose who admire and love knowledge for ments, and the severer pursuits of thought; its own sake, ought to wish to see its ele- and when these in time begin to charm from ments made accessible to all, were it only their novelty, and sciences begin to arise, that they may be the more thoroughly es- they will at first be those of pure speculaamined into, and more effectually developed tion. The inind delights to escape from the in their consequences, and receive that duc-trammels which had bound it to earth, and tility and plastic quality which the pressure luxuriates in its newly-found powers. Hence, of minds of all descriptions, constantly the abstractions of geometry,--the properties moulding them to their purposes, can alone of numbers,--the movements of the celestial bestow. But to this end it is necessary spheres,-whatever is abstruse, remote, and that it should be divested, as far as possible, extra mundane,-become the first objects of of artificial difficulties, and stripped of all infant science. Applications come late: the such technicalities as tend to place it in the arts continue slowly progressive, but their light of a craft and a mystery, inaccessible realm remains separated from that of sciwithout a kind of apprenticeship. Science, ence by a wide gulf which can only be of course, like everything else, has its own passed by a powerful spring. They form peculiar terms, and, so to speak, its idioms their own language and their own convenof language; and these it would be unwise, tions, which none but artists can underwere it even possible, to relinquish: but stand. The whole tendency of empirical everything that tends to clothe it in a art is to bury itself in technicalities, and to strange and repulsive garb, and especially place its pride in particular short cuts and everything that, to keep up an appearance inysteries known only to adepts; to surprise of superiority in its professors over the rest and astonish by results, but conceal proof mankind, assumes an unnecessary guise cesses. The character of science is the of profundity and obscurity, should be sac- direct contrary. It delights to lay itself rificed without mercy. Not to do this is open to inquiry; and is not satisfied with deliberately to reject the light which the its conclusions till it can make the road to natural unencumbered good sense of man- them broad and beaten: and in its applicakind is capable of throwing on every sub- tions it preserves the same character; its ject, eren in the elucidation of principles; whole aim being to strip away all technical but where principles are to be applied to mystery, to illuminate every dark recess, practical uses, it becomes absolutely neces- with a view to improve them on rational sary; as all mankind have then an interest | principles. in their being so familiarly understood that It would seem that a union of two qualno mistakes shall arise in their application. ities almost opposite to each other-a going A Prelim. Discourse on the Study of Nat- forth of the thoughts in two directions, and ural Philosophy.
a sudden transfer of ideas from a remote
station in one to an equally distant one in ON THE ARTS.
the other-is required to start the first idea
of applying science. Among the Greeks this The same remark applies to arts. They point was attained by Archimedes, but atcannot be perfected till their whole processes tained too late, on the eve of that great are laid open, and their language simplified eclipse of science which was destined to and rendered universally intelligible. Art continue for nearly eighteen centuries, till is the application of knowledge to a prac- Galileo in Italy, and Bacon in England, at tical end. If the knowledge he merely ac- once dispelled the darkness: the one by his cumulated experience, the art is empirical ; inventions and discoveries; the other by the but if it be experience reasoned upon and irresistible force of his arguments and elobrought under general principles, it assumes quence. a higher character, and becomes a scientific Finally, the improvement effected in the art. In the progress of mankind from bar-condition of mankind by advances in physibarism to civilized life, the arts necessarily cal science as applied to the useful purposes precede science. The wants and cravings of life, is very far from being limited to their
direct consequences in the more abundant sightedness, selfishness, and passion, oppose supply of their physical wants, and the in- to all improvements, and by which the crease of our comförts. Great as these ben- highest hopes are continually blighted, and efits are, they are yet but steps to others of a the fairest prospects marred. still higher kind. The successful results of A Prelim. Discourse on the Study of Natuour experiments and reasonings in natural ral Philosophy. philosophy, and the incalculable advantages which experience, systematically consulted and dispassionately reasoned on, has conferred in matters purely physical, tend of HENRY HART MILMAN, D.D., necessity to impress something of the wellweighed and progressive character of science youngest son of Sir Francis Milman, Bart., on the more complicated conduct of our M.D., Physician to George III. and the Royal social and moral relations. It is thus that Household, was born in London, 1791, and legislation and politics become gradually re- became Fellow of Brazennose College, Oxgarded as experimental sciences, and history, ford, 1815, Professor of Poetry in the Uninot, as formerly, the mere record of tyran- versity of Oxford, 1821, Rector of St. Marnies and slaughters, which, by immortalising garet's, Westminster, and Canon of Westthe execrable actions of one age, perpetuates minster, 1835, Dean of St. Paul's, 1849, the ambition of committing them in every died 1868. succeeding one, but as the archive of ex- The Belvidere Apollo, a Prize Poem, Oxf., periments, successful and unsuccessful, grad- 1812, 8vo ; Alexander tumulum, Achilles inually accumulating towards the solution of visens, etc., Oxon., 1813, 8vo ; Fazio, a Trathe grand problem,-how the advantages of gedy, Oxf., 1815, 8vo, 2d edit., Oxf., 1816, government are to be secured with the least 8vo; In Historia scribenda quænam præpossible inconvenience to the governed. The cipua inter Auctores Veteres et Noves sit celebrated apophthegm, that nations never Differentia? Oratio, etc., Oxon., 1816, 8vo; profit by experience, becomes yearly more A Comparative Estimate of Sculpture and and more untrue. Political economy, at Painting, etc., Oxf., 1816, 8vo, Lond., 1818; least, is found to have sound principles, Samor, Lord of the Bright City, an Heroic founded in the moral and physical nature Poem, Lond., 1818, 8vo, 2d edit., 1818; of man, which, however lost sight of in par- The Fall of Jerusalem, á Dramatic Poem, ticular measures,-however even tempora- Lond., 1820, 8vo, 1853, 12mo: Poems, Lond., rily controverted and borne down by clamour, 1821, 800; The Martyr of Antioch, a Dra-have yet a stronger and stronger testimony matic Poem, Lond., 18:22, 8v0; Belshazzar, borne to them in each succeeding generation, a Dramatic Poem, Lond., 1822, 8vo; Anne by which they must, sooner or later, prevail. Boleyn, a Dramatic Poem, Lond., 1826, 8vo; The idea once conceived and verified, that The Office of the Christian Teacher Considgreat and noble ends are to be achieved, by ered, in a Visitation Sermon on 1 Cor. xiv. 3, which the condition of the whole human Oxf., 1826, 8vo; The Character and Conduct species shall be permanently bettered, by of the Apostles Considered as an Evidence bringing into exercise a suficient quantity of Christianity: Eight Sermons at the Bampof sober thoughts, and by a proper adapta- ton Lecture for 1827, Lond., 1827, 8vo; The tion of means, is of itself sufficient to set us History of the Jews, Lond., 1829, 3 vols. earnestly on reflecting what ends are truly 18mo, 2d edit., 1830, 3 vols. 18mo, new edit., great and noble, either in themselves, or as 1835, 3 vols. 18mo, New York, 1830–31, 3 conducive to others of a still loftier charac- vols. 12mo, 1841, 3 vols. 18mo; Nala and ter; because we are not now, as heretofore, Damayanti, and other Poems, Translated hopeless of attaining them. It is not now from the Sanscrit, Oxf., 1834, 8vo ; History equally harmless and insignificant, whether of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Eniwe are right or wrong; since we are no pire, ly Edward Gibbon, with the Notes of longer supinely and helplessly carried down Guizot, Wenck, the editor, etc., Lond., 1838– the stream of events, but feel ourselves capa- 39, 12 vols. 8vo, 2d edit., 1846, 6 vols. 8vo, ble of buffeting at least with its waves, and 3d'edit., by William Smith, LL.D., with adperhaps of riding triumphantly over them : ditional Notes, 1854–55, 8 vols. 8vo; Life for why should we despair that the reason of Edward Gibbon [his Autobiography), which has enabled us to subdue all nature with Selections from his Correspondence, to our purposes, should (if permitted and and Illustrations, Lond., 1839, 8vo; Poetical assisted by the providence of God) achieve and Dramatic Works, Lond., 1839-40, 3 vols. a far more difficult conquest? and ulti- fp. 8vo; The History of Christianity from mately find some means of enabling the col- the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Palective wisdom of mankind to hear down ganism in the Roman Empire, Lond., 1840, those obstacles which individual short- 3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1840, 2 vols. 8vo, witki
Notes by James Murdock, D.D., New York, feelings, was too familiar to excite astonish1841, 8vo; The Works of Quintus Iloratius ment, and was rather welcomed as promising Flaccus, Illustrated chiefly from the Remains some fresh intellectual excitement. In Athof Ancient Art, with a Life, Lond., 1849, ens, hospitable to all religions and all opinroy. 8vo, without the Life, 1852, crown 8vo, ions, the foreign and Asiatic appearance, and new edit., 1856, 2 vols. 8vo ; The History of possibly the less polished tone and dialect of Latin Christianity, including that of the Paul, would only awaken the stronger curiPopes to the Pontificate of Nicholas V., osity. Though they affect at first (probably Lond., 1854-55, 6 vols. 8vo, 2d edit., 1857, the philosophic part of his hearers) to treat 6 vols. 8vo. Dean Milman published some him as an idle *babbler," and others (the other sermons, articles in the (London) vulgar, alarmed for the honour of their deiQuarterly Review, and contributed à Memoir ties) supposed that he was about to introduce of Lord Macaulay (also published separately, some new religious worship, which might enLond., 1862, p. 8vo) to vol. v. (posthumous) danger the supremacy of their own tutelar of Macaulay's History of England.
divinities, he is conveyed, not without re“We are always impressed with a conviction of spect, to a still more public and commodious his learning, his ability, and his cultivated taste, place, from whence he may explain his docbut are haunted at the same time with an unsatis-trines to a numerous assembly without disfactory feeling that his poetry is rather a clever turbance. On the Areopagus the Christian recasting of fine things already familiar to us than leader takes his stand, surrounded on every strikingly fresh and original.”—Moir: Sketches side with whatever was noble, beautiful, and of the Poet. Lit. of the Past Half-Century, 1851, intellectual in the older world, -temples, of
See also Edin. Review (Oct. 1829), 47, by which the materials were only surpassed by Lord Jeffrey.
the architectural grace and majesty ; statues, Milman's History of Latin Christianity is in which the ideal anthropomorphism of the “One of the remarkable works of the present Greeks had almost elevated the popular noage, in which the author reviews, with curious tions of the Deity, by embodying it in hu. erudition and in a profoundly religious spirit, the man forms of such exquisite persection ; various changes that have taken place in the Ro- public edifices, where the civil interests of man hierarchy: and while he fully exposes the
inan had been discussed with the acuteness manifold errors and corruptions of the system, be shows, throughout, that enlightened charity which and versatility of the highest Grecian intelis the most precious of Christian graces, as un
lect, in all the purity of the inimitable Attic happily the rarest.”—W. H. Prescott: Philip the dialect, when oratory had obtained its highSecond, 1856, ii, 500, n. 69.
est triumphs by “ wielding at will the fierce " If 'it seems to you high praise, I believe no democracy;" the walks of the philosophers, one who has carefully read the extraordinary work
who unquestionably, by elevating the human to which it refers will consider it higher than the book deserves."—W. H. Prescott TO S. AUSTIN
mind to an appetite for new and nobler ALLIBON E, Jan. 1, 1858.
knowledge, had prepared the way for a loftier
and purer religion. It was in the midst of SAINT PAUL AT ATHENS.
these elevating associations, to which the
student of Grecian literature in Tarsus, the At Athens, at once the centre and capital reader of Menander and of the Greek philoof the Greek philosophy and heathen super- sophical poets, could scarcely be entirely dead stition, takes place the first public and direct orignorant, that Paul stands forth to proclaim conflict between Christianity and Paganism. the lowly yet authoritative religion of Jesus of Up to this time there is no account of any Nazareth. His audience was chiefly formed one of the apostles taking his station in the from the two prevailing sects, the Stoies public street or market-place, and addressing and Epicureans, with the populace, the the general multitude. Their place of teach- worshippers of the established religion. In ing bad invariably been the synagogue of his discourse, the heads of which are related their nation, or, as at Philippi, the neigh- by St. Luke, Paul, with singular felicity, bourhood of their customary place of wor- touches on the peculiar opinions of each ship. Here, however, Paul does not confine class among his hearers; he expands the himself to the synagogne, or to the society popular religion into a higher philosophy, of his countrymen and their proselytes. le he imbues philosophy with a profound sentakes his stand in the public market-place timent of religion. (probably not the Ceramicus, but the Eretriac It is impossible not to examine with the Forum), which, in the reign of Augustus, utmost interest the whole course of this (if had begun to be more frequented, and at the we consider its remote consequences, and top of which was the famous portico from suppose it the first full and public argument which the Stoics assumed their name. In of Christianity against the heathen religion Athens, the appearance of a new public and philosophy) perhaps the more exten. teacher, instead of offending the popular | sively and permanently effective oration ever uttered by man. We may contemplate vice.” But this divine Providence was far Paul as the representative of Christianity, different from the stern and all-controlling in the presence, as it were, of the concen- necessity, the inexorable fatalism, of the trated religion of Greece, and of the spirits, Stoic system. While the moral value of if we may so speak, of Socrates, and Plato, human action was recognized by the solemn and Zeno. The opening of the apostle's retributive judgment to be passed on all speech is according to those most perfect mankind, the dignity of Stoic virtue was rules of art which are but the expressions lowered by the general demand of repentof the general sentiments of nature. It is ance. The perfect man, the moral king, calm, temperate, conciliatory. It is no fierce was deposed, as it were, and abased to the denunciation of idolatry, no contemptuous general level ; he had to learn new lessons disdain of the prevalent philosophic opinions; in the school of Christ, lessons of humility it has nothing of the sternness of the ancient and conscious deficiency, the most directly Jewish prophet
, nor the taunting defiance opposed to the principles and the sentiments of the later Christian polemic. * Already of his philosophy. . The great Christian the religious people of Athens had, unknow- doctrine of the resurrection closed the speech ingly indeed, worshipped the universal De- of Paul. ity, for they had an altar to the unknown The History of Christianity. God. The nature, the attributes of this sublime Being, hitherto adored in ignorant and unintelligent homage, he came to unfold. This God rose far above the popular notion ;
GEORGE TICKNOR, LL.D., He could not be confined in altar or temple, or represented by any visible image. He was born at Boston, Massachusetts, 1791, graduthe universal Father of mankind, even of ated at Dartmouth College, 1807, admitted the earth-born Athenians, who boasted that to the bar 1813; studied and travelled in they were of an older race than the other Europe, 1815–1819, elected Smith Professor families of man, and coeval with the world of French and Spanish Literature in Haritself. He was the fountain of life, which vard University, 1817, and discharged the perraded and sustained the universe; He duties of this office, 1820–35, and resided in had assigned their separate dwellings to the Europe, 1837–40, one of the founders of the separate families of man.” Up to a certain Boston Public Library, and, 1864–65, Presipoint in this higher view of the Supreme dent of the Board of Trustees, died at BosBeing, the philosopher of the Garden as ton, January 26, 1871. well as of the Porch might listen with won- Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on the der and admiration. It soared, indeed, high History and Criticism of Spanish Literature, above the vulgar religion : but in the lofty Camb., 1823, 8vo; Outlines of the Principal and serene Deity, who disdained to dwell in Events in the Life of General Lafayette the earthly temple, and needed nothing from (from N. Amer. Review, Jan. 1825), Bost., the hand of man, the Epicurean might al. 1825, 8vo, Portland, 1825, 8vo, Lond., 1826, most suppose that he heard the language of 8vo, in French, Paris, 1825, 8vo; Remarks his own teacher. But the next sentence, on Changes lately Proposed or Adopted in which asserted the providence of God as the Harvard University, Camh., 1825, 8vo; Reactive creative energy, -as the conservative, port of the Board of Visitors on the United the ruling, the ordaining principle,-anni- States Military Academy at West Point for hilated at once the atomic theory and the 1826, 1826, 8vo; The Remains of Nathan government of blind chance, to which Epi- Appleton Haven, with a Memoir of his Life, curus ascribed the origin and preservation Camb., 1827, 8vo, 2d edit.. Bost., 1828, 8vo; of the universe. " This high and impressive Remarks on the Life and Writings of Daniel Deity, who dwelt aloof in serene and ma- Webster, of Massachusetts, Phila., 1831, 8vo; jestic superiority to all want, was percepti- Lecture on the Best Methods of Teaching the ble in some mysterious manner by man ; Living Languages, etc., Bost., 1833, 8vo : IIis all-pervading providence comprehended Review of Memoirs of the Rev. Joseph Buckthe whole human race; man was in constant minster and the Rev. Joseph Stevens Buckunion with the Deity, as an offspring with minster (from Chris. Exam., Sept. 1849), its parent." And still the Stoic might ap- Camb., 1849, 8vo; IIistory of Spanish Literplaud with complacent satisfaction the ar- ature, New York, 1849, 3 vols. 8vo, Lond., dent words of the apostle ; he might approve 1849, 3 vols. 8vo, 20 Amer. edit., New York, the lofty condemnation of idolatry. We, 1854, 3 vols. 8vo, 3d Amer. edit., Corrected thus of divine descent, ought to think more and Enlarged, Bost., 1863, 3 vols. 12mo. nobly of our Universal Father, than to sup- For notices of translations (into Spanish, pose that the godhead is like unto gold, or Dutch, and French) and reviews of this silver, or stone, graven by art or man's de- great work,-by far the best of the kind in