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any language, -see Allibone's Critical Dic- find his memory at fault, went to his wife tionary of English Literature, iii. 2416, 2417. and sister to see if either of them could re

call it for him. After a moment's hesitation, This work is, by general consent, the most complete history of Spanish Literature in any

Mrs. Prescott hit upon it; a circumstance language; full, minute, and precise in informa- which amused him not a little, as she so tion, and eminently fair and candid in spirit. The rarely took an interest in anything conauthor appears in his researches almost to bave nected with public affairs, that he had rather exhausted existing materials, whether bibliograph; counted upon Mrs. Dexter for the information. ical cr biographical,-overlooking nothing and He snapped his fingers at her, therefore, as neglecting nothing."— Knights Eng. Cyc., Bingo, he turned away, and, with the merry laugh vi., 1858, 52.

so characteristic of his nature, passed out of Mr. Ticknor subsequently published Life the room, saying, as he went, " How came of William Hickling Prescott, Bost., 1864,

you to remember?" They were the last 4to, 8vo, and 12mo, Lond., 1864, 8vo, and words she ever heard from his loved lips. contributed notices of Prescott and Edward

After reaching his study, he stepped into Everett to Proceedings Massachusetts Ilis

an adjoining apartment. While there, Mr. torical Society, 1859, 8vo, 1865, 8vo. In Kirk heard him groan, and, hurrying to early life he wrote papers for The Monthly him, found him struck with apoplexy and Anthology and The American Quarterly wholly unconscious. This was about halfReview; nor would it becoine me to omit past eleven o'clock in the forenoon. He was grateful acknowledgment of his contribu- instantly carried to his chamber. In the tions to the articles Byron, Sir Walter shortest possible space of time several medScott, and RASPE (Munchausen), in Alli- | ical attendants were at his bedside, and bone's Critical Dictionary of English Liter- among them—and the chief of them—was his ature. Sce Life, Letters, and Journals of old friend and his father's friend, Dr. JackGeorge Ticknor (partially edited by G. S. One of their number, Dr. Minot, Hillard], Bost., 1876, 2 vols. 8vo.

brought me the sad intelligence, adding his

own auguries, which were of the worst. I Tue Death Of Prescott.

hastened to the house. What grief and dis

may I found there need not be told. All From day to day, after New Year of 1859, saw that the inevitable hour was come. he seemed more to miss his old occupations. Remedies availed nothing. He never spoke On the 27th of January, he talked decidedly again, never recovered an instant of conof beginning again in good earnest on the sciousness, and at half-past two o'clock life “ History of Philip the Second," and specu. passed away without suffering. lated on the question whether, if he should He would himself have preferred such a find his physical strength unequal to the death, if choice had been permitted to him. needful exertion, he might venture to rein- le bad often said so to me and to others; force it by a freer diet. On the following and none will gainsay, that it was a grent morning-the fatal day—he talked of it happiness thus to die, surrounded by all again, as if his mind were made up to the those nearest and dearest to him, except one experiment, and as if he were looking to his much-loved son, who was at a distance, and task as to the opening again of an old and to die, too, with unimpaired faculties, and sure mine of content. His sister, Mrs. with affections not only as fresh and true Dexter, was happily in town making him a as they had ever been, but which, in his visit, and was sitting that forenoon with own home and in the innermost circle of his Mrs. Prescott in a dressing-room, not far friends, had seemed to grow stronger and from the study where his regular work was more tender to the last. always done. He himself, in the early part Four days afterwards he was buried; two of the day, was unoccupied, walking about wishes, however, having first been fulfilled, his room for a little exercise ; the weather as he had earnestly desired that they should being so bad that none ventured out who be. They related wholly to himself, and could well avoid it. Mr. Kirk, his ever- were as simple and unpretending as he faithful secretary, was looking over Sala's lively book about Russia, “ A Journey due From accidental circumstances, he had North,” for his own amusement merely, but always entertained a peculiar dread of being occasionally reading aloud to Mr. Prescott buried alive; and he had, therefore, often such portions as he thought peculiarly inter- required that measures should be taken to esting or pleasant. On one passage, which prevent all possibility of the horrors that referred to a former Minister of Russia at might follow such an occurrence. His inWashington, he paused, because neither junctions were obeyed. Of his absolute could recollect the name of the person alluded death it was not, indeed, permitted to doubt. to; and Mr. Prescott, who did not like to It had occurred under circumstances which


had been distinctly foreseen, and by a blow felt the loss they had sustained, and only only too obvious, sure, and terrible. But for that. still, as had been promised him, a principal And after the simple and solemn religious vein was severed, so that, if life should rites befitting the occasion had been peragain be wakened, it might ebb silently formed [by Mr. Prescott's clergyman, the away without any possible return of con- Rev. Rufus Ellis, pastor of the First Consciousness.

gregational Church in Boston.-Foot-note], His other request was no less natural and they still crowded round the funeral train characteristic. lle desired that his remains, and through the streets, following, with sadbefore they should be deposited in the house ness and awe, the hearse that was bearing appointed for all living, might rest, for a from their sight all that remained of one time, in the cherished room where were who had been watched not a week before as gathered the intellectual treasures amidst he trod the same streets in apparent happiwhich he had found so much of the happi- ness and health. It was a grand and touchness of his life. And this wish, too, was ing tribute to intellectual eminence and perfulfilled. Silently, noiselessly, he was car- sonal worth. ried there. Few witnessed the solemn scene, Ile was buried with his father and mother, but on those who did, it made an impression and with the little daughter he had so tennot to be forgotten. There he lay, in that derly loved, in the family tomb under St. rich, fair room,--his manly form neither Paul's Church ; and, as he was laid down shrunk nor wasted by disease; the features beside them, the audible sobs of the friends that had expressed and inspired so much who filled that gloomy crypt bore witness to love still hardly touched by the effacing their love for his generous and sweet nature, fingers of death, there he lay, in unmored, even more than to their admiration for his inaccessible peace; and the lettered dead of literary distinctions, or to their sense of the all ages and climes and countries collected honour he had conferred on his country. there seemed to look down upon him in Life of William Hickling Prescott, 1864, their earthly immortality, and claim that 4to, 4.42-446. his name should hereafter be imperishably associated with theirs. But this was only for a season.

At the appointed hour-his family and none else

HENRY CHARLES CAREY, following-he was borne to the church

LL.D., where he was wont to worship. No cere

a son of Matthew Carey, and born in Philamonies had been arranged for the occasion. delphia 1793, succeeded his father in the There had been no invitations. There was publishing business in 1817, and continued no show. But the church was full, was

in it until 1838. Ile has acquired great repu. crowded. The Representatives of the Com- tation as a writer on political economy, and monwealth, then in session, had adjourned still (1878), at an advanced age, takes a lively so as to be present; the members of the interest in the growth of human power." Historical Society, whose honoured wish to Essay on the Rate of Human Wages, take official charge of the duties of the occa- Phila., 1835, 12mo; Principles of Political sion had been declined, were there as mourn Economy, Phila., 1837-40, 3 vols. 8vo (pubers. The whole community was moved ; the lished in Italian at Turin and in Swedish at poor whom he had befriended; the men of Upsal); The Credit System in France, Great letters with whom he had been associated or Britain, and the United States, Phila., 1838, whom he had aided ; the elevated by place 8vo; The Past, the Present, and the Future, or by fortune, whose distinctions and happi- Phila., 1848, 8vo (in Swedish, at Stockness he had increased by sharing them ;

holm); The Prospect, etc., at the Opening they were all there. It was a sorrowful of 1851, 8vo; The Harmony of Interests, gathering, such as was never before wit- Agricultural,' Manufacturing, and Comnessed in this land for the obsequies of any mercial, New York, 1852. 8vo, 1856, 8vo; man of letters wholly unconnected, as he Letters on International Copyright, Phila., had been, with public affairs and the parties 1853, 8vo; The Slave Trade, Domestic and or passions of the time ;-one who was known Foreign, Phila., 1853, 12mo, 1862, 12mo; to the most of the crowd collected around Money: a Lecture, New York, 1857, 8vo, his bier only by the silent teachings of his Phila., 1860, 8vo; Letters to the President, printed works. For, of the multitude as- on the Foreign and Domestic Policy of the sembled, few could "have known him per-Union, etc., Phila., 1858, 8vo (published in sonally; many of them had never seen him. Russian); Principles of Social Science, But all came to mourn. All felt that an

Phila., 1858–59, 3 vols. 8vo (published in honour had been taken from the community German); The French and American Tariffs and the country. They came because they compared, Phila., 1861, 8vo; Financial Crises : Their Causes and Effects, Phila., while the stars were countless. The tree 1863, 8vo ; The Unity of Law; as Exhibited was tall, while the shrub was short. The in the Relations of Physical, Social, Mental, hills were high, and tending towards a point, and Moral Science, Phila., 1872, 8vo. Also while the plains were low and flat. We have pamphlets and papers in periodicals. here the most abstract, simple, and obvious

“Mr. Carey, not only in his own country, but of all conceptions. The idea of space is the throughout Europe, where his writings have been same, whether we regard the distance beextensively studied, both in their original lan- tween the sun and the stars by which he is guage and in translations, is the acknowledged surrounded, or that between the mountains founder and head of a new school of Political and ourselves. So, too, with number and Economy. We can only indicate the fundamental difference between his system and that in undis- | form, which apply as readily to the sands puted supremacy when he began his contributions of the sea-shore as to the gigantic trees of to social science. This, however, will suffice to the forest, or to the various bodies seen to show how eminently hopeful, progressive, and be moving through the heavens. democratic are the doctrines which he proclaimed, Next in order would come the desire, or and with what fulness of significance those who have accepted them are styled the American bers, and magnitude, and the means for this

the necessity, for comparing distances, numSchool."-E. PESHINE SMITH : Allibone's Dictionary of Eng. Lit., i. 339, q. v.

would be at hand in machinery supplied by Those who desire a convenient compen- nature, and always at his command. Ilis dium of some of the most important of Dr. finger, or his arm, would supply a measure Carey's views are referred to Manual of

of magnitude, while bis pace would do the Social Science, being a Condensation of the which he would compare the weights would

same by distance, and the standard with Principles of Social Science” of II. C. Carey, LL.D., by Kate McKean, Phila., be found in some one among the most ordi1867, 12mo. Dr. Carey died Oct. 12, 1879. nary commodities by which he was sur

rounded. In numerous cases, howerer, disOF SCIENCE AND ITS METHODS.

tances, velocities, or dimensions, are found

to be beyond the reach of direct measure§ 1. The first man, when he had day after ment, and thus is produced a necessity for day, even for a single week, witnessed the devising means of comparing distant and rising and setting of the sun, and had seen unknown quantities with those that being that the former had invariably been accom- near can be ascertained, and hence arises panied by the presence of light, while the mathematies, or The Science, --so denomilatter had as invariably been followed by its nated by the Greeks, because to its help was absence, had acquired the first rude elements due nearly all the positive knowledge of of positive knowledge, or science. The cause which they were possessed. --the sun's rising-being given, it would The multiplication table enables the have been beyond his power to conceive ploughman to determine the number of that the effect should not follow. With days contained in a given number of weeks, further observation he learned to remark and the merchant to calculate the number that at certain seasons of the year the lumi- of pounds contained in his cargo of cotton. nary appeared to traverse particular por- By help of his rule, the carpenter determines tions of the heavens, and that then it was the distance between the two ends of the always warm, and the trees put forth leaves plank on which he works. The soundingto be followed by fruit; whereas, at others, line enables the sailor to ascertain the depth it appeared to occupy other portions of of water around his ship, and by help of the the heavens, and then the fruit disappeared barometer the traveller determines the height and the leaves fell, as a prelude to the win- of the mountain on which he stands. All ter's cold. IIere was a further addition to these are instruments for facilitating the achis stock of knowledge, and with it came quisition of knowledge, and such, too, are foresight, and a feeling for the necessity for the formulæ of mathematics, by help of action. If he would live during the season which the philosopher is enabled to deterof cold, he could do so only by preparing for mine the magnitude and weight of bodies it during the season of heat, a principle as distant from him millions of millions of thoroughly understood by the wandering miles, and is thus enabled to solve innumerEsquimaux of the shores of the Arctic able questions of the highest interest to Ocean, as by the most enlightened and emi- man. They are the key of science, but are nent philosopher of Europe or America. not to be confounded with science itself,

Earliest among the ideas of such a man although often included in the list of sciwould be those of space, quantity, and form. ences, and even so recently as in M. Comte's The sun was obviously very remote, while well-known work. That such should ever of the trees some were distant and others have been the case has been due to the fact were close at hand. The moon was single, I that so much of what is really physics is


discussed under the head of mathematics; EDWARD EVERETT, D.C.L., as is the case with the great laws for whose

an eminent orator and scholar, born at Dordiscovery we are indebted to Kelper, Galileo, chester, Massachusetts, 1791; graduated at and Newton. That a body in pelled by a Harvard University, 1811, and Tutor of Latin single force will move in a right line and there, 1812; ordained a Unitarian minister, with a velocity that is invariable, and that 1814, elected Professor of the Greek Lanaction and reaction are equal and opposite, are facts, at the knowledge of which we whilst absent in Europe, in 1815, and on

guage and Literature in Harvard University have arrived in consequence of pursuing his return, in 1819, entered upon his duties, a certain mode of investigation; but when which terminated in 1825; editor of the N. obtained, they are purely physical facts, ob- Amer. Review (to which he contributed in tained by help of the instrument to which all one hundred and seventeen papers), Jan. we apply the term mathematics, -and which 1820 to Oct. 1823 ; M. C., 1825–35; Governor is, to use the words of M. Comte, simply of Massachusetts, 1836-40; Minister Pleni"an immense extension of natural logic to a potentiary to the Court of St. James, 1841-4+; certain order of deductions."'-- Positive Phi- President of Harvard University, 1846–49; losophy, Martineau's Translation, vol. i., 33. Secretary of State of the United States, Nov.

Logic is itself, however, but another of the 1852-March, 1853; United States Senator, instruinents devised by man for enabling 1853–55 ; candidate for the Vice-Presidency him to obtain a knowledge of nature's laws. of the United States, 1860; died at Boston, To his eyes the earth appears to be a plane, Jan. 15, 1865. He collected, by means of and yet he sees the sun rising daily in the orations, writings, etc., nearly one hundred east and setting as regularly in the west, thousand dollars for the purchase of Mount from which he might infer that it would Vernon, that the American people might always continue so to do,—but of this he have the home of Washington for a perpetcan feel no certainty until he has satisfied ual possession. See A Memorial of Edward himself why it is that it does so.

At one

Everett from the City of Boston, 1865, roy. time he sees the sun to be eclipsed, while at

8vo, pp. 315. another the moon ceases to give light, and

A Defence of Christianity against the he desires to know why such things are,

Work of George B. English, Bost., 1814, what is the law governing the movements 12mo; Orations and Speeches on Various of those bodies ; having obtained which he Occasions, 1825–36, Boston, 1836, 8vo ; Imis enabled to predict when they will again portance of Practical Education: A Seleccease to give light, and to determine when tion from his Orations and other Discourses they must have done so in times that are [1836, 8vo, supra), New York, 1847, 12mo; past. At one moment ice or salt melts ; at | Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions another gas explodes; and at a third, walls from 1826 to 1850, 21 edit., Bost., 1850, 2 are shattered and cities are hurled to the vols. 8vo [includes all that were in the edit. ground; and he seeks to know why these of 1836, 8vo), 3d edit., 1853, 2 vols. 8vo, things are,-what is the relation of cause

vol. iii. (with Index to vols. i., ii., iii., by S. and effect? In the effort to obtain answers

Austin Allibone), 1859, 8vo, vol. iv., 1868, to all these questions, he observes and re- 8vo; edited The Works of Daniel Webster, cords facts, and these he arranges with a

with a Prefatory Memoir and Notes, Bost., view to deduce from them the laws by virtue 1851, 6 vols. 8vo, large paper, r. 8vo. Also of which they occur,-and he invents barom

many single Speeches and Orations, collected eters, thermometers, and other instruments

as above; The Life of General John Stark, to aid him in his observation, but the ulti- Bost., 1834, (Sparks's Amer. Biog., 1st mate object of all is that of obtaining an Series); Tribute to the Memory of Washinganswer to the questions: Why are all these

ton Irving, New York, 1860, 12mo; Mount things? Why is it that dew falls on one day Vernon Papers, New York, 1861, 12mo; and not on another? Why is it that corn Life of Washington, New York, 1800, 12mno. grows abundantly in this field and fails alto

“ It is true that he has composed no independent gether in that one? Why is it that coal

historical work, nor ever published any volume of burns and granite will not? What, in a

biography more considerable than the excellent word, are the laws instituted by the Creator memoir of Washington, which he prepared at the for the government of matter? The an- suggestion of his friend Lord Macaulay, for the swers to these questions constitute science, new (8th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica —and mathematics, logic, and all other of (also published separately. New York, 1860, 12mo]. the machinery in use are but instruments But there is no great epoch-there is hardly a used by him for the purpose of obtaining history, which he has not carefully depicted and

single event-of our national or of our colonial them.

brilliantly illustrated in his occasional discourses. Principles of Social Science, Chap. i. :

I have sometimes thought that no more attractive Of Science and its Methods.

or more instructive history of our country could

be presented to the youth of our land, than is tions which may exist relative to the matter found in the series of anniversary orations which in question, that the true reason should be he has delivered during the last forty years.

known." I know not in what other volume the young men,

Letters to S. Austin Allibone, 11th Sept., or even the old men, of our land, could find the history of the glorious past more accurately or

1855, and 19th Dec., 1855. more admirably portrayed. I know not where they could find the toils and struggles of our

AMERICAN LITERATURE. colonial or revolutionary fathors set forth with greater fulness of detail or greater felicity of illustration. As one reads these orations and discourses tellect of America is to appear, and such the

This, then, is the theatre on which the inat this moment, they might almost be regarded as successive chapters of a continuous and compre- motives to its exertion ; such the mass to be hensive work which had been composed and recited influenced by its energies ; such the glory to on our great national anniversaries, just as the crown its success. If I err in this happy chapters of Herodotus are said to have been recited vision of my country's fortunes, I thank at the Olympic festivals of ancient Greece.”— Rob- Heaven for an error so animating. If this ERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D.: Proceed. of Massachusetts Historical Society, Jan. 30, 1865, and in A

be false, may I never know the truth. Never Memorinl of Edward Everett from the City of Bos- may you, iny friends, be under any other ton, 1865, p. 131. See also Memoirs of the His feeling, than that a great, a growing, an torical Society of Pennsylvania, 1865, relative to immeasurably expanding country is calling Edward Everett, by S, Austin Allibone.

upon you for your best services. The nanie Much disappointment was felt that Mr. / and character of our Alma Mater have Everett failed to give to the world a great already been carried by some of our breth work“ upon some broad question, with ren hundreds of miles from her venerable which the interests of humanity are suffi- walls; and thousands of miles still farther ciently connected to insure the preservation westward, the communities of kindred men of the fame and usefulness of the author, are fast gathering, whose minds and hearts with the vitality of the subject." It is will act in syni pathy with yours. proper that Mr. Everett's own explanations The most powerful motives call on us, as upon this subject should be placed upon scholars, for those efforts which our common record :

country demands of all her children. Most “It has certainly been my hope and desire of us are of that class who owe whatever to produce some continuous elaborate work, of knowledge has shone into our minds to not unworthy to take a place in the perma- the free and popular institutions of our nanent literature of the country. Whether tive land. There are few of us who may this hope is to be realized will depend on not be permitted to boast that we have been the state of my health, which was deplorably reared in an honest poverty, or a frugal comshattered last year, but is now somewhat petence, and owe erery thing to those means improved.

of education which are equally open to all. * Should I die with this hope unfulfilled, I We are summoned to new energy and zeal, hope those who may take a kind interest in by the high nature of the experiment we are my memory, will see the traces of willing appointed in providence to make, and the and conscientious effort in my occasional grandeur of the theatre on which it is to be public addresses (some of which embody the performed. At a moment of deep and genresults of no little research), in my contri- eral agitation in the Old World, it pleased butions to the N. A. Review, and in my Heaven to open this last refuge of humanity. various official speeches, despatches, and re- The attempt has begun, and is going on, far ports; the aggregate of which, if it prores from foreign corruption, on the broadest nothing else, will prove that I have not led scale, and under the most benignant prosan idle life. . . . Whether I am able to exe- pects; and it certainly rests with us to solve cute the project, long meditated, and to some the great problem in human society ; to settle, extent prepared for, of a work on the Law and that forever, the momentous question, of Nations, will depend, not so much on the —whether mankind can be trusted with a difficulty to which you allude of satisfying purely popular system of government. an ideal standard, as on the state of my One might almost think, without extravahealth and other circumstances which pow- gance, that the departed wise and good, of erfully influence the capacity for vigorous all places and times, are looking down from mental effort. I have for some years been their happy seats to witness what shall now so situated as to require nearly all the forti- be done by us ; that they who lavished their tude and energy I can command to go treasures and their blood, of old, who spake through the routine of daily domestic life. and wrote, who labored, fought, and perished, I mention this with reluctance; but it is of in the one great cause of Freedom and Truth, importance to my good name hereafter, are now hanging from their orbs on high, should I fall below the reasonable expecta- over the last solemn esperiment of humanity.

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