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treasurers of the church, after a vain attempt above. It was now shattered into a million to secure a few of its most precious posses- pieces. The statues, images, pictures, ornasions, retired. They carried the news to ments, as they lay upon the ground, were the senators, who, accompanied by a few broken with sledye-hammers, hewn with halberdmen, again ventured to approach the axes, trampled, torn, and beaten into shreds. spot. It was but for a moment, however, A troop of harlots, snatching waxen tapers for appalled by the furious sounds which from the altars, stood around the destroyers, came from within the church, as if invisible and lighted thein at their work. Nothing forces were preparing a catastrophe which escaped their omnivorous rage. They deseno human power could withstand, the mag-crated seventy chapels, forced open all the istrates fled precipitately from the scene. chests of treasure, covered their own squalid Fearing that the next attack would be upon attire with the gorgeous robes of the ecclethe Town Ilouse, they hastened to concen- siastics, broke the sacred bread, poured out trate at that point their available strength, the sacramental wine into golden chalices, and left the stately cathedral to its fate. quaffing huge draughts to the beggars'
And now, as the shadows of night were health ; burned all the splendid missals and deepening the perpetual twilight of the manuscripts, and smeared their shoes with church, the work of destruction commenced. the sacred oil with which kings and prelates Instead of vespers rose the fierce music of a had been anointed. It seemed that each of psalm, yelled by a thousand angry voices. these malicious creatures must have been It seemed the preconcerted signal for a gen- endowed with the strength of a hundred eral attack. A band of marauders flew giants. How else, in the few brief hours upon the image of the Virgin, dragued it of a midsummer night, could such a monforth from its receptacle, plunged daygers strous desecration have been accomplished into its inanimate body, tore off its jewelled by a troop, which, according to all accounts, and embroidered garments, broke the whole was not more than one hundred in number? figure into a thousand pieces, and scattered | There was a multitude of spectators, as upon the fragments along the floor.' A wild shout all such occasions, but the actual spoilers were succeeded, and then the work, which seemed very few. The noblest and richest temple of delegated to a comparatively small number the Netherlands was a wreck, but the fury of of the assembled crowd, went on with in the spoilers was excited, not appeased. Each credible celerity. Some were armed with seizing a burning torch, the whole herd axes, some with bludgeons, some with sledge- rushed from the cathedral, and swept howlhammers; others brought ladders, pulleys, ing through the streets. Long live the begropes, and levers. Every statue was hurled gars!" resounded through the sultry midnight from its niche, every picture torn from the air, as the ravenous pack flew to and fro, wall, every painted window shivered to smiting every image of the Virgin, every cruatoms, every ancient monument shattered, cifix, every sculptured saint, every Catholic every sculptured decoration, however inac- symbol, which they met with upon their patii. cessible in appearance, hurled to the ground. All night long they roamed from one sacred Indefatigably, audaciously endowed, as it edifice to another, thoroughly destroying as seemed, with preternatural strength and they went. Before morning they had sacked nimbleness, these furious iconoclasts clam-thirty churches within the city walls. They bered up the dizzy heights, shrieking and entered the monasteries, burned their inchattering like malignant apes, as they tore valuable libraries, destroyed their altars, off in triumph the slowly-matured fruit of statues, pictures, and, descending into the centuries. In a space of time wonderfully cellars, broached every cask which they brief, they had accomplished their task. Å found there, pouring out in one great flood colossal and magnificent group of the Saviour all the ancient wine and ale with which crucified between two thieves adorned the these holy men had been wont to solace principal altar. The statue of Christ was their retirement from generation to generawrenched from its place with ropes and pul- tion. They invaded the nunneries, whence leys, while the malefactors, with bitter and the occupants, panic-stricken, fled for refuge blasphemous irony, were left on high, the to the houses of their friends and kindred. only representatives of the marble crowd | The streets were filled with monks and nuns, which had been destroyed. A very beau- running this way and that, shrieking and tiful piece of architecture decorated the fluttering, to escape the claws of these fiendchoir,--the "repository," as it was called, ish Calvinists. The terror was imaginary, in which the body of Christ was figuratively for not the least remarkable feature in these enshrined. This much-admired work rested transactions was, that neither insult nor inupon a single column, but rose, arch upon jury was offered to man or woman, and that arch, pillar upon pillar, to the height of not a farthing's value of the immense amount three hundred feet, till quite lost in the vault of property destroyed was appropriated. It SAMUEL SMILES.
was a war, not against the living, but against Biography: Iron-Workers and Tool-Makers,
“No more interesting books have been published
SIR STAFFORD NORTHCOTE. that the Catholics had themselves plotted the whole outrage in order to bring odium
OLD INVENTIONS Revived. upon the Reformers. Both statements were Steam-locomotion, by sea and land, had equally unfounded. The task was most long been dreamt of and attempted. Blasco thoroughly performed, but it was prompted de Garay made his experiment in the harby a furious fanaticism, not by baser motives. bour of Barcelona as early as 1543; Denis
Two days and two nights longer the havoc Papin made a similar attempt at Cassel in raged unchecked through all the churches 1707 ; but it was not until Watt had solved of Antwerp and the neighbouring villages. the problem of the steam-engine that the Ilardly a statue or picture escaped destruc- idea of the steamboat could be developed in tion. Yet the rage was directed exclusively practice, which was done by Miller, of Dalagainst stocks. Not a man was wounded swinton, in 1788. Sages and poets
Soon shall thy arm, unconquered Steam ! afar
Denis Papin first threw up the idea of
atmospheric locomotion ; and Gauthey, anSAMUEL SMILES, M.D.,
other Frenchman, in 1782, projected a
method of conveying parcels and merchanborn at Haddington, Scotland, 1816, after dise by subterranean tubes, after the method practising as a surgeon at Leeds, succeeded recently patented and brought into operaRobert Nicol as editor of The Leeds Times; tion by the London Pneumatic Despatch in 1845 became Secretary of the Leeds and Company. The balloon was an ancient ItalThirsk Railway, and about 1852 Secretary ian invention, revived by Mongolfier long of the South-Eastern Railway, which post after the original had been forgotten. Even he held for many years. He is one of the the rea ping-machine is an old invention remost popular, and certainly one of the most vived. Thus Barnabe Googe, the translator useful, writers of the day.
of a book from the German, entitled “The Physical Education, Édin., 1837, p. 8vo; whole Arte and Trade of Husbandrie," pubIIistory of Ireland and the Irish People, lished in 1577, in the reign of Elizabeth, under the Government of England, 1844, 8vo; speaks of the reaping-machine as a wornThe Life of George Stephenson, Lond., 1857, out invention,-a thing " which was woont Pro; Self-Help, Lond., 1859, p. 8vo ; Brief to be used in France. The device was a  Biographies, Bost., Oct. 1860, 16mo; lowe kinde of carre with a couple of wheeles, Workmen's Earnings, Strikes, and Savings, and the front armed with sharp syekles, Lond., 1861, fp. 8vo; Lives of the Engineers, whiche forced by the beaste through the Lond., 1861-62, 3 vols. 8vo, new edit., 5 corne, did cut down al before it. This vols.cr. 8vo ; James Brindley and the Early tricke," says Googe, "might be used in Engineers, Abridged from The Lives of the levell and champion countreys; but with Engineers, Lond., 1864, p. 8vo; Industrial us it wolde make but ill-favoured woorke.”
The Thames Tunnel was thought an entirely guerreotype, was in the fifteenth century new manifestation of engineering genius; known to Leonardo da Vinci, whose skill as but the tunnel under the Euphrates at an- an architect and engraver, and whose accient Babylon, and that under the wide complishments as a chemist and natural mouth of the harbour at Marseilles (a much philosopher, have been almost entirely overmore difficult work), show that the ancients shadowed by his genius as a painter. The were beforehand with us in the art of tun- idea, thus early born, lay in oblivion until nelling. Macadamized roads are as old as 1760, when the daguerreotype was again the Roman empire; and suspension-bridges, clearly indicated in a book published in though comparatively new in Europe, have Paris, written by a certain Tiphanie de la been known in China for centuries.
Roche, under the anagrammatic title of There is every reason to believe-indeed Giphantie. Still later, at the beginning of it seems clear-that the Romans knew of the present century, we find Josiah Wedg. gunpowder, though they only used it for wood, Sir Humphry Davy, and James Watt purposes of fireworks; while the secret of making experiments on the action of light the destructive Greek fire has been lost al- upon nitrate of silver; and only within the together. When gunpowder came to be used last few months a silvered copperplate has for purposes of war, invention busied itself been found amongst the old household lumupon instruments of destruction. When ber of Matthew Boulton (Watt's partner), recently examining the Museum of the Ar- having on it a representation of the old senal at Venice, we were surprised to find premises at Soho, apparently taken by some numerous weapons of the fifteenth and six- such process. teenth centuries embodying the most recent In like manner the invention of the elec. English improvements in arms, such as re- tric telegraph, supposed to be exclusively volving pistols, rifled muskets, and breech- modern, was clearly indicated by Scherloading cannon. The latter, embodying Sir wenter in his Délassement's Physico-MathéWilliam Armstrong's modern idea, though matiques, published in 1636 ; and he there in a rude form, had been fished up from pointed out how two individuals could comthe bottom of the Adriatic, where the ship | municate with each other by means of the armed with them had been .sunk hundreds magnetic needle. A century later, in 1746, of years ago. Even Perkins's steam-gun Le Monnier exhibited a series of esperiments was an old invention revived by Leonardo in the Royal Gardens at Paris, showing how da Vinci, and by him attributed to Archime- electricity could be transmitted through iron des. The Congreve rocket is said to have wire 950' fathoms in length; and in 1753 an Eastern origin, Sir William Congreve we find one Charles Marshall publishing a having observed its destructive effects when remarkable description of the electric teleemployed by the forces under Tippoo Saib graph in the Scots Magazine, under the title in the Mahratta war, on which he adopted of "An expeditious Method of Conveying Inand improved the missile, and brought out telligence.' Again, in 1760, we find George the invention as his own.
Louis Lesage, professor of mathematics at Coal gus was regularly used by the Chi- Geneva, promulgating his invention of an nese for lighting purposes long before it. electric telegraph, which he eventually comwas known amongst us. Il ydropathy was pleted and set io work in 1774. This instrugenerally practised by the Romans, who ment was composed of twenty-four metallic established baths wherever they went. wires, separate from each other, and enclosed Even chloroform is no new thing. The use in a non-conducting substance. Each wire of ether as an anæsthetic was known to ended in a stalk mounted with a little ball Albertus Magnus, who flourished in the of elder-wood suspended by a silk thread. thirteenth century; and in his works he When a stream of electricity, no matter how gives a recipe for its preparation. In 1681 slight, was sent through the bar, the elderDenis Papin published his Traité des Opéra- ball at the opposite end was repelled, such tions sans Douleur, showing that he had dis- movement designating some letter of the covered methods of deadening pain. But alphabet. A few years later we find Arthur the use of anæsthetics is much older than Young, in his Travels in France, describing a Albertus Magnus or Papin ; for the ancients similar machine invented by a M. Lomond, had their nepenthe and mandragora ; the of Paris, the action of which he also deChinese their mayo, and the Egyptians scribes. In these and similar cases, though their hachish (both preparations of Cannabis the idea was born and the model of the inIndica), the effects of which in a great meas- vention was actually made, it still waited ure resemble those of chloroform. What is the advent of the scientific mechanical inperhaps still more surprising is the circum- ventor who should bring it to perfection, stance that one of the most elegant of recent and embody it in a practical working form. inventions, that of sun-painting by the da- Industrial Biography, Chap. X.
CHARLES JOHN VAUGHAN,
the thought of the oppressiveness of soliD.D.,
tude. To us it is a luxury to be alone: si
lence, much more repose, is health to us and born about 1817, was for some years a Fel- revival; and these things are associated in low of Trinity College, Cambridge; held our mind with solitude. So different is it the living of St. Martin's, Leicester ; Head- to look upon solitude from a life of business Master of Harrow School, 1844-59; re- and intermixture with the world, and to fused a bishopric, 1860, and in the same look upon it from within the four walls of a year became Vicar of Doncaster ; Master of sick-room or a prison. Solitude which we the Temple, 1869. Among his publications fly to as a rest, and can exchange at will for are the following:
society which we love, is a widely different Thirty Sermons in the Chapel of lar- thing from that solitude which is either the row School, Lond., 1847, 8vo, 20 Series, consequence of bereavement or the punish1853, 8vo; Nine Sermons Preached at Har- ment of crime; that solitude from which row, 1849, 12mo ; Personality of the Temp- we cannot escape, and which perhaps is ter,' and other Sermons, 1851, Svo; Notes associated with bitter or remorseful recolfor Lectures on Confirmation, Camb., 1859, lections. From such solitude a merciful 8vo, 6th edit., 1864, fp. 8vo; St. Paul's Providence has as yet kept you. And yet Epistle to the Romans (in Greek], with
even you may have known something of a [English] Notes, 1859, 8vo, 3d edit., 1870, compulsory solitude. Now and then an illcr. 8vo; Memorials of Harrow Sundays: ness severer than usual has confined you in Sermons, 1859, cr. 8vo, 4th edit., 1864, cr. these days of youth to a sick-room, where 8vo; Epiphany, Lent, and Easter Sermons, you have been almost as much cut off from 1860, cr. 8vo, 3d edit., 1868, cr. 8vo; Les- the companions of school as from the tensons of Life and Godliness: Sermons at derer solaces of a loving home. At such Doncaster, 1862, fp. 8vo; Words from the times have you not felt a heavy demand Gospel : Second Series of Sermons at Don- made upon your cheerfulness and contentcaster, 1863, fp. 8v0; The Book and the ment? Have you not found disagreeable Life: Four Sermons at Cambridge, 1862, reflections and painful (even if imaginary) fp. 8vo; Expository Lectures on Philip- forebodings more powerful with you than pians, 1862, cr. 8vo; Lectures on the Rev- visions of hope, than thoughts of thankfulelation of St. John, 1863, 2 vols. cr. 8vo; ness? At all events, a little later in life, Epistles of St. Paul for English Readers, r. you will know these things well. When, 8vo, Part I., 1864; The Church of the First | for example, a young man finds himself esDays: Lectures on the Acts, Series I., II., tablished as the master of a dwelling which III., 1864–65, 3 vols.fp. 8vo; Characteristics is all his own; his lodgings, it may be, his of Christ's Teachings, 1866, fp. 8vo: Twelve chambers or even his college-rooms; amidst Discourses on Subjects Connected with the some feelings of agreeable independence, Church of England, 1867, fp. 8vo; Earnest and of freedom from intrusion or disturbWords for Earnest Men, 1869, fp. 8vo; Last ance, there are times when he cannot supWords in the Parish Church of Doncaster, press a sense of isolation and desolateness, 1870, cr. 8vo; Half-Ilours in the Temple and would give the world to be again as he Church, 1871; The Solidity of True Reli
once was, the object of care, of thought, and gion, 1874; Heroes of Faith, 1876. Ile pub- affection to others around and above him. lished A Few Words on the Crystal Palace Ilow strong in after-years is the memory of Questions, answered by John Perowne, in such marked feelings of loneliness! flow Observance of the Sabbath, 1853, 8vo, and do we continne to associate them as freshly contributed to Good Words, etc. See Lon- as at the moment of their occurrence, with don Reader, 1863, ii, 663.
the sounds and images of the time and place;
the hour of the day or evening, the ringing LONELINESS.
of a bell or the monotonous movement of a
clock, the aspect of an opposite house, or Loneliness. It has many senses, inward the dull rainy weather which secmed to be and outward.
more than outward! And if, according to 1. There is, first, what I may call the lone- the frequent chances of life in this generaliness of simple solitude. We who lead a tion, any one of you should ever be called very busy life, who know not what it is from upon to exchange his very country for a disearly morning till late evening to have (as tant home; if in the pursuit of fortune, or it is sometimes expressed) a moment that we at the call of professional duty, he should can call our own, a momentin which we can be required to leave home and friends befeel that the load is really removed and that hind him, and go he knows not whither, to we are free to enjoy ourselves for enjoy- return he knows not when; what a sense ment's sake, can scarcely perhaps enter into will he have of the meaning of the word
now uttered, loneliness; the loneliness, if who knows what it is will not desire to get not strictly of solitude, yet of separation, of rid of it. Even in its first anxieties and severance, of isolation! How will he find miseries he recognizes, however remotely that there may be such a thing as solitude and indistinctly, a prospect of good. Eren even amongst numbers; a solitude made then he would not part with it, cost him even more complete by the very presence what it mny, for all his former security and of an unsympathizing crowd! What a life-thoughtlessness. But he finds that, if he long recollection will he retain of that try- would not stifle the sense of sin, to his ending moment when the last words have been less ruin, he must be tolerant of this inward spoken and the last farewell exchanged, loneliness; he must be careful how he talks when the removal of the gangway has of it to his best friend: in the very telling finally separated between the going and the of his fears and self-reproaches lies a risk of staying, the deck crowded with the one and dissipating the one and blunting the other : the shore with the other, and the ship itself a mistaken kindness makes his friend palhas gathered up its wings for flight!' What liate them, makes him try to heal the hurt an impression will he have then of the re- slightly eren while speaking of the true ligious trial of solitude! how it reveals to Physician: and besides, in the very telling us, as in a moment, what manner of spirit there is a risk of evil, of conveying wrong we are of, whether we have any root, any impressions, of parading humility, of saying vitality, in ourselves, or are only the crea- things for the sake of having them denied, tures of society and of circumstance, found of substituting the sympathy of man for out at once and convicted by the application the confidence of God. No times are more of the individual touchstone !
truly miserable than those which follow 2. Again, there is the loneliness of sorrow. upon such attempts to get rid of the loneIs not loneliness the prominent feeling in all liness within. God is our proper refuge at deep sorrow? Is it not the feeling of lone such times; but then lle must be our one liness which gives its sting to bereavement, refuge: we must be content with Ilim : to the loss of friends ? Not, of course, in every hour, every few moments, really spent those minor losses which, though we may before Him under the pressure of the burden feel them at the time, yet do not perma- of our own sins, is a season of true and solid nently affect our lives; but in bereavements relief: it enables us to bear on, sometimes which deserve the name, the loss (and more it makes us of a cheerful countenance, tellespecially the early loss) of a sister or ing, without mistake and without peril, of mother. in later life the loss of a wife or the work within. husband, is not the loneliness of heart con- And if such be the loneliness of repentsequent upon it the heaviest and bitterest ance, what must be the loneliness of repart of the sorrow; is it not this which de- morse, which is repentance without God, prives all after-joy of its chief zest, and without Christ, and therefore without hope; reduces life itself to a colourless and level the sense of sin unconfessed and unfor. landscape ?
saken, only felt as a weight, a burden, and 3. Again, there is the loneliness of a sense a danger! If repentance is loneliness, reof sin. Whatever duties may lie upon us morse is desolation. Repentance makes us towards other men, in our innermost rela- lonely towards man; remorse makes us destion to God we are and must be alone. And olate towards God. That is indeed to be we may say what we will against the self-alone, when (to use the inspired figure) not ishness of some men's religion ; against the only earth is iron, but also heaven brass. habit, too much fostered doubtless by some, From such loneliness may God in His mercy of scrutinizing every affection and feeling save us all through His Son Jesus Christ. with a minuteness and an anxiety which at Memorials of Harrou Sundays : Sermon last becomes morbid and dangerous; but XVII., Isaiah 63 : 3. after all the foundations of every really Christian life are laid deep in the individual consciousness: a Christian hope is the result of transactions essentially secret between the SIR ARTHUR HELPS, soul and God; and the first of these is that awakening of a sense of sin which is the born 1817, graduated at Cambridge Uni first office, as we believe, of the Holy Spirit versity, 1835, was for many years an officer in IIis mission to the individual as in His in the Civil Service, and about 1860 became mission to the world. When the sense of Clerk of the Privy Council; died 1875. sin is heavy upon us, how incapable is it of Thoughts in the Cloister and the Crowd, anything but solitude! A man trying to get Lond., 1835, 12mo; Essays Written in the rid of it rushes into society: many do thus Intervals of Business, 1841, 8vo, 7th edit.. get rid of it, but is it well with them? One | 1853, 12mo; Catherine Douglas, a Tragedy