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Robert Walpole to the Tower in 1712, Pulteney championed his own reputation he consented to remain in office and
his cause in the House of Commons and joined with the to gratify popular passion with a war against Spain. His
leading Whigs in visiting him in his prison-chamber. For downfall was not long deferred. War was declared in
these acts he was duly rewarded on the accession of George 1739; a new parliament was summoned in the summer of
I. In the first ministry of the new king he held the post 1741, and over the division on the election petitions the
of secretary of war, a post which in the previous reign had ministry of Walpole fell to pieces. The task of forming
been conferred upon St John, Walpole, and Granville suc the new administration was after some delay entrusted
cessively, and when the committee of secrecy on the Utrecht to his principal antagonist, whereupon Pulteney offered
treaty was formed the list included the name of William the post of first lord of the treasury to that harmless poli-
Pulteney. Two years later (6th July 1716) he became tician the earl of Wilmington, being content himself, as
one of the privy council. In the following year the Whig he had often declared his disdain for office, with a seat in
ministry was rent in twain by internal dissension. On the cabinet coupled with a peerage. At this act popular
the proposition of the Government for granting a supply feeling broke out into open indignation. Exclamations
against Sweden the friends of Lord Townshend and Sir that the country was betrayed were heard on all sides,
Robert Walpole voted against the administration, which and from the moment of his elevation to the Upper House
only escaped defeat by a majority of four. Townshend Pulteney's influence dwindled to nothing. Horace Walpole
was immediately dismissed from his post of lord-lieutenant asserts that when Pulteney wished to recall his desire for
of Ireland, and Walpole at once resigned his places, and a pecrage it was forced upon him through the ex-minister's
amongst the Whigs who followed him in his retirement was advice by the king, and another chronicler of the times
Pulteney. Devotion like this merited some signal mark of records that when victor and vanquished met in the House
favour on the return to power of the displaced ministers; of Lords, the one as Lord Orford, the other as the earl of
yet, when the crash of the South Sea Company restored Bath, the remark was made by the exulting Orford :
Walpole to the highest position of authority, all that he “Here we are, my lord, the two most insignificant fellows
offered to Pulteney was a peerage, a distinction which in England.” On 14th July 1742 Pulteney was created
entailed the misfortune of banishment from the House baron Pulteney of Hedon, county York, viscount Pulteney
where his faculties found their highest opportunities for of Wrington, county Somerset, and earl of Bath, and a few
display. The offer was rejected, but in 1723 Pulteney months previously he had been restored to his rank in the
stooped to accept the lucrative but insignificant post of privy council. On Wilmington's death in 1743 he made
cofferer of the household. In this obscure position he was application to the king for the post of first lord of the
content for some time to await the future; but when he treasury, only to find that it had been conferred on Henry
found himself neglected he broke out into sarcasms on the Pelham. For two days in 1746 he was at the head of a
civil list and in 1725 was dismissed from his sinecure. ministry, but in “ 48 hours, three quarters, seven minutes,
From the day of his dismissal to that of his ultimate tri- and eleven seconds” this short-lived ministry collapsed.
umph Pulteney remained in opposition, and, although Sir An occasional pamphlet and an unfrequent speech were
Robert Walpole attempted on his quarrel with Townshend afterwards the sole fruits of Lord Bath's talents. His
to conciliate him, all his overtures were spurned. Pul- praises whilst in retirement have been sung by two prelates
teney's resentment was not confined to his speeches in of the established church of England, Bishops Pearce and
parliament. With Bolingbroke he set on foot the well- Newton. He died on 7th July 1764, and was buried on
known periodical called The Craftsman, and in its pages 17th July in his own vault in Islip chapel, Westminster
the minister was incessantly denounced for many years. Abbey.
The war of pamphlets rayed without ceasing. Lord Hervey Pulteney's eloquence was keen and incisive, sparkling with viva-
published an attack on the Craftsman, and Pulteney, either city and with allusions drawn from the literature of his own country

and of Rome. Of business he was never fond, and the loss in 1734 openly or behind the person of Amhurst, defended its strict of his trusted friend John Merrill, who had supplied the qualities ures of the minister. Whether the question at issue was which he lacked, was feelingly lamented by him in a letter to Swift. the civil list, the excise, the income of the prince of Wales, llis chief weakness was a passion for money, which was born with or the state of domestic affairs Pulteney was ready with a

him and grew as he grew. As he left no surviving issue his vast

fortune went to William Johnstone of Dumfries (the third son of pamphlet, and the minister or one of his friends came out

Sir James Johnstone), who had married Frances, the daughter and with a reply. For one of these efforts he was challenged heiress of his cousin Daniel Pulteney, and had taken the name of to a duel by Lord Hervey; for another he was struck off Pulteney. Lord Bath has left no trace of the possession of practhe roll of privy councillors and dismissed from the com

tical statesmanship, but for nearly twenty years he led the opposimission of the peace in several counties. In print Pulteney age, and had at last the triumph of driving his adversary from

tion in the House of Commons to the greatest minister of the was inferior to Bolingbroke alone among the antagonists of ollice.

(W. P. C.) Walpole, but in parliament, from which St John was ex PULTOJA. See POLTAVA. cluded, he excelled all his comrades. When the sinking PUMA, a name, probably of native origin, introduced fund was appropriated his voice was the foremost in into European literature by the carly Spanish writers on denunciation; when the excise scheme was stirring popular South America (as Garcilaso de la Vega and Hernandez) feeling to its lowest depths the passion of the multitude for one of the largest feline animals of the New World. broke out in his oratory. Through Walpole's prudent It is generally called “cougouar” by the French, "leon” withdrawal of the latter measure the fall of his ministry by the Spanish Americans, and “panther" by the Anglowas averted, and dismay fell on the opposition leaders. American hunters of the United States. It is the Felis Bolingbroke withdrew to France and Pulteney sought con concolor of Linnæus and all subsequent systematic zoosolation in foreign travel.

logical authors. In general and anatomical characters, From the general election of 1734 until his elevation teeth, &c., it is a typical member of the genus Felis. (See to the peerage Pulteney sat for Middlesex. For some VAMMALIA, vol. xv. p. 434.) Though often spoken of as years after this election the minister's assailants made the American lion, chiefly on account of its colour, it rather little progress in their attack, but in 1738 the troubles resembles the leopard of the Old World in size and habits. with Spain supplied them with the opportunity which It usually measures from nose to root of tail about 40 they desired. Walpole long argued for peace, but he was

Anna Maria Gumley, daughter of John Gumley of Islefeebly supported in his own cabinet, and the frenzy of the worth, usually styled “a wealthy glass manufacturer and army conpeople for war knew no bounds. In an evil moment for tractor,” died on 11th September 1758, aged sixty-four.

1 His

inches, the tail being rather more than half that length. grey colour, more rarely of a slaty blue or reddish tint. The head is rather small compared with that of other cats In composition it is allied to the obsidians, containing in and has no mane. The ears are large and rounded. The every 100 parts about 72 of silica, 17 of alumina, 2 of tail is cylindrical, with some bushy elongation of the hairs iron oxide, and 9 of soda and potash ; and under the blownear the end, but not forming a distinct tuft as in the pipe it fuses to a white enamel

. Its porosity renders it so lion. The general colour of all the upper parts and sides exceedingly light that in the dry condition it floats readily

on the surface of water, sinking only when thoroughly saturated. Owing to this property it is found very widely diffused over the ocean-bed, even at points far reinoved from volcanic vents, considerable blocks having been brought up in the dredgings of the “Challenger” at all the points of its sea-bottom exploration. It is obtained for industrial purposes in the regions of recent volcanoes—the Lipari Islands, Iceland, Auvergne, Teneriffe, &c.—and is highly valued as a smoothing and polishiny material for the metals, marble, horn, wood, bone, ivory, and leather. For some purposes it is reduced to the condition of a fine powder, and used either direct or spread upon paper or linen, as glass or emery-paper. A toilet soap) is prepared containing a proportion of powdered pumice. An artificial pumice is made from a mixture of calcined and pulverized quartz and alumina baked in the form of a porous brick.

PUMP. See MINING, vol. xvi. pp. 158, 159; PNEUWIATICS, vol. xix. p. 246; and HIYDROMECHANICS, vol. xii. p. 5:33 sq.

PUMPKIN. See Gouri), vol. xi. 1'. t, and Horti

CULTURE, vol. xii. p. 283. FRA

PUNCHINELLO (It. Policinelli, Pulcinella), the most

popular of the puppets, is of Italian origin, though its Puna.

history is by no means free from obscurity. The earlier of the adult is a tawny yellowish brown, sometimes having etymologists sought to trace the name to various mythical a grey or silvery shadle, but in some individuals dark or individuals

, by whom, it was alleged, the type was first inclining to red. The lower parts of the body, inner sur- furnished. Caliani adopts the theory which derives it face of the limbs, the throat, chin, and upper lip are dirty from the name of Puccio d'Iniello, a vintager of Acerra white; the outside of the ears, particularly at their base, near Naples, who, having ly his wit and grotesque appearand a patch on each side of the muzzle black; the end of ance vanquished some strolling comedians in their own the tail dusky. The young, as is the case with the other sphere, was induced to join the troop', and whose place, plain-coloured Felidir, are, when born, spotted with dusky by reason of his popularity, was supplied after liis ideath brown and the tail ringed. These markings gradually fade, by a masked actor who imitated his dress and manner. and quite disappear before the animal becomes full-grown. The claims of other individuals. . Paolo (Cinella, Polliceno,

The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical and l'ulcinella, a Neapolitan dealer in fowls-have also (listribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, found supporters, and the derivation of the name and from ('anada in the north to l'atagonia in the south, and character from some old mystery representing Pontius was formerly pretty generally «litfused in suitable localities (O). E. Porner; I'r. Ponie) l'ilate and Judas, or the Jews, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances was formerly popular. It has even been suggested that of civilization have in recent years considerably curtailed the title is a modification of Toli kuriéw an exporessive of the extent of the districts which it inhabits. In Central | the restlessness which is characteristic of the puppet; and Imerica it is still common in the dense forests which the assumption that the character was invariably of clothe the mountain ranges as high as 8000 or 9000 feet liminutive size has given rise to its reference to the word above the sen-level, where the hideous sound of its howl. pollice, the thumb («f. Düumlin!!, Tom Thuml). The ing is said to be almost continuously heard at night dur- most plausible theory, however, regards the name in its in the breeding season. Though an expert climber, it is Italian form as a diminutive of pulcino, fom. pmine, a loy no means continued to wooled districts, being frequently chicken. It is sometimes stated that, in coll-equence of found in scrub and reeds along the banks of rivers, and the habit of using the word "chicken" as a term of prin in the open pampas and jorairies. Its habits much endearment, it came to mean "a little child," and hence resemble those of the rest of the group to which it be "a puppet" (Skeat). But this again involves the loncs; and, like the leopard, when it happens to come assumption that the application of the name to the charwithin reach of an abundant and easy prey, as the sheep arter was in some measure determined by the size of the os calves of an outlying farming station, it kills far more pupports, whereas it woulil appear to have been transthan it cu eat, either for the sake of the blood only or ferred from the comie stane to the pipet show, and the too gratify its propensity for destruction. It rarely attacks Pulcinella of the state was not necessarily i dwari. The man, ani, when poursul, escapes it possible by ascending choice, therefore, seems to lie between the theory of lutty trees. Several instances have occurred of pumas Quadrio, that it was applied on account of the resemblance Intiimin time in captivity. Elmund Kean, the celebrated of the hooked nose to a beak, and that of Baretti, which Arter, had one which followed him about like a cloy. When arribes its employment to the navlakan timorolls caresseel they express their pleasure by purring like a impotence of the original character. With resperrt to the efestir cit.

development of the modern type, it has lection : --117-ed that I'UMICE a highly porons light mineral substance of the whole family of Italian milure (.Irloechino, Brighttal, volcanic origin, resulting from the solidification of foam or ! and the like) are molitieel survivals of the principal Ozean se*um formed by the escape of steam or gas on the surface characters of the 10.11.19., and thit Puimellor in the of molten lara. It is principally found of a whitish or clear i representative of Macills, the pool or clown. Ia pipoof of

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this it is urged that Acerra, the supposed residence of wake of the Royalists. Apart from the general references Puccio d'Aniello and the traditional source of the char- by Pepys (1662) and by Evelyn (1667) to an Italian acter, is in the neighbourhood of Aversa, the old Atella; puppet show at Covent Garden, the former makes menand reference is also made to a bronze statue of Maccus, tion (1669) of some poor people who called their fat child discovered at Rome in 1727, an engraving of which has Punch, “that word being become a word of common use been preserved in Ficoroni's Le Maschere Sceniche e le for all that is thick and short.” An allusion to “PunchFigure Comiche d'Antichi Romani. But the resemblance inellos” is also to be found in Butler's satire on English of the statue to the puppet is scarcely to be termed a imitation of the French, and Aubrey speaks of “a Punchstriking one, and the large nose and deformed figure are inello holding a dial” as one of the ornaments of Sir somewhat hazardous ground on which to base a theory, Samuel Lely's house at Whitehall. But, though the puppet especially in view of the fact that such points of likeness did not travel in the train of William of Orange, allusions as there are in it to the northern Punch are not to be to it become far more frequent after the Revolution of 1688, found in the Neapolitan Pulcinella. It is possible that and the skill of the Dutch in their treatment of puppet some relic of the old Lui Osci, transmitted through the mechanism may have enhanced its attractiveness. In 1703 Vice of the mystery plays, is to be found in the character; it was introduced at Bartholomew Fair into a puppet play but any direct descent from the Maccus of the Atellana of the creation of the world ; in 1709 (Tatler, No. 16) it seems precluded by the fact that, while there are traces of was to be found in a representation of the Deluge, though the gradual development of the northern Punch from the in a different part from that of the Momus Polichinelle of Neapolitan Pulcinella, the latter with its grey hat, white Piron's Arlequin-Deucalion (1722); and in 1710 (Spectator, smock and trousers, masked face, and undistorted body is No. 14) it is mentioned as a leading figure in Powell's widely different from its alleged prototype. It seems puppet show at Covent Garden. The alleged satire on necessary, therefore, to regard the Pulcinella as in large Robert Walpole, entitled A Second Tale of a Tub, or the part a distinct creation of comparatively modern date. History of Robert Powel, the Puppet-Showman (1715), Prior to the 17th century there is no indication in the furnishes some details of Punch performances, and has an Italian burlesque poets of the existence of Pulcinella, interesting frontispiece representing Powell with Punch though Riccoboni places the creation of the part before and his wife. The Judy (or Joan, as she appears to have 1600.

been sometimes called) is not of a specially grotesque Andrea Perrucci (1699) and Gimma assert with some order, but the Punch is easily recognizable in all but the show of authority that Silvio Fiorillo, a comedian named features, which are of the normal puppet type. Other after his principal part Captain Matamoros (the Italian allusions are to be found in Gay's Shepherd's WeekJ/iles Gloriosus), invented the Neapolitan Pulcinella. It Saturday (1714) and Swift's Dialogue between Jad Mulliwas afterwards improved by Andrea Calcese, surnamed | nir and T'imothy (1728). The older Punchinello was far Ciuccio, who died of the plague in 1656, and who, accord- less restricted in his actions and circumstances than his ing to Gimma, imitated in the character the peasants of modern successor. He fought with allegorical figures Acerra. This would place the origin of the Italian Pulcin- representing want and weariness as well as with his wife ella somewhere about the commencement of the 17th and with the police, was on intimate terms with the century, the original character appearing to have been that patriarchs and the seven champions of Christendom, sat of a country clown, hook-nosed, shrill-voiced, cowardly, on the lap of the queen of Sheba, had kings and dukes boastful, and often stupid, yet given at times to knavish for his companions, and cheated the Inquisition as well as tricks and shrewd sayings. In thorough accordance with the common hangman. Powell seems to have introduced a this date, we find that the earliest known appearance of trained pig which danced a minuet with Punch, and the Polichinelle in France is at the commencement of the reign French have occasionally employed a cat in place of the of Louis XIV., in the show of the puppet-playing dentist dog Toby, whose origin is somewhat uncertain. A typical Jean Brioché. It might have been expected that the version of the modern play, with illustrations, was published shrewder and wittier side of the character would most com- by Payne Collier and Cruikshank in 1828. (R. M. w.) mend itself to the French mind, and there is good reason PUNCTUATION. See PALEOGRAPHY, vol. xviii. p. to believe that the Polichinelle of Brioché was neither a 163. blunderer nor a fool. The puppet was almost immediately PUNJAB,1 the most northern province of British India. seized upon as the medium of political satire of the kind | Geographically the region called by this name is the triexemplified in the Letter of Polichinelle to Cardinal Vazarin angular tract of country of which the Indus and the Sutlej (1649), and it is described in the Combat de Cyrano de (Satlaj) to their confluence form two of the sides, the third Bergerac as a "petit Esope de bois, remuant, tournant, being the lower Himalaya hills between these two rivers. virant, dansant, riant, parlant, petant” and as “cet hétéro- The British province now includes a large extent of country clite marmouset, disons mieux, ce drolifique bossu.” In outside these boundaries, on all three sides—beyond the this there appear signs of transformation, whether the im- Indus to the range of hills running parallel to it on the portation to France took place before or after the alleged west ; beyond the Sutlej eastward to the Jumna (Jamna) improvements of Calcese. The hunchback had been long and south ward to a distance of 60 miles below Delhi; associated in France with wit and laughter, and there are, within the hills, a large highland tract on the east and therefore, some grounds for Magnin's theory that the another on the west

, with the Kashmir and Chamba terrinorthern Punch is of French origin, a Gallic type under tories between. The British province stretches north and an Italian name, though there does not seem to be suffi- south from 35° 10' N. lat. at the head of the hill district cient reason for adopting his suggestion that Polichinelle of Hazára to 27° 40' at the south end of the Gurgaon diswas a burlesque portrait of Béarnais. The date of its in- trict, and east and west from 69° 36' E. long. on the Dera troduction into England has been disputed, Payne Collier Ghází Khán and Sind frontier to 78° 55' on the Jumna. being of opinion that Punch and King William came The length of the central line of communication across the together, a second theory suggesting an earlier origin province from Delhi to Peshawar by rail is 615 miles. with the Huguenot refugees. In view of its popularity The name Punjab signifies “[country of] five rivers," Rivers. in France prior to the Restoration, however, it would be

Panjah, according to received modern spelling ; but, as in other strange if its migration had been so long delayed, and it

cases of important and fauriliar names, the old form is commonly is more than probable that it crossed the Channel in the retained.

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the five rivers being the great tributaries of the Indus adjoining rivers. The country between the Sutlej and the (4.v.), namely, the Jhelum, Chináb, Rávi, Biás, and Sutlej.1 Biás is called the Jalandar Doáb; it includes the districts These are all rivers of large volume, but, on account of Jalandar and Hushiarpur. The long strip between the the great width of sandy channel in their passage through Biás-Sutlej and the Råvi, containing the greater part of the plains, their changing courses, and shifting shoals, they the Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Lahore, Montgomery, and Júltán are of very moderate value for steam navigation, though districts, is called the Bári Doáb. And Rechna Doáb is they all support a considerable boat-traffic. The Indus the tract between the Ravi and the Chinah, embracing has a course of about 550 miles through the Punjab. The the Sialkót and Gujranwala districts with the trans-Ravi Jhelum enters the plains a little above the town of Jhelum. portions of the districts of the Bári Doáb. Chaj or Jach Thence it flows south-west about 200 miles to join the is the doáb between the Chináb and the Jhelum (Gujrát Chináb. The Chináb (called Chandrabhága in the hills, and Shahpur districts and part of Jhang), and Sind Ságar being formed by the union of the Chandra and the Bhága, 1 (Indus Sea) is the name of the large doáb between the both from the Bára Lácha Hills) enters the Punjab about 15 miles north of Sialkót. About 200 miles lower down it receives the Jhelum on the right, and

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M I R about 60 miles farther the Rávi on the left. After a further course of about 120 miles it joins the Sutlej. The Rávi, after reaching the plains, follows a very winding course to its

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LAHORE! of the district of Montgomery. The Bias enters the Punjab in the Gurdaspur (listrict, and has a course in the plains of nearly 100 miles to its Den Gheo then junction with the Sutlej

{ near Hari-ki- Patan. The Sutlej Hows nearly 500 miles through the plains Refore it unites with the (hináb, which is the junction of the five tributaries. Thence the united rivers (sometimes called Pamj-neret or "the five streams ") flow

! in one channel about 50 iniles to the Indus.

Map of Punjab. Whilst the general name l'unjab is applied to the wholo ' Jhelum and the Indns, including the Ráwal Pindi, Jhelum, country of the five rivers, there are distinct names for each and Muzaffargarh districts, with parts of Shihpur, Bannú, of the "dvábs" («lo, two; vil, water) or tracts between two 'Dera Ismail Khan. The higher and drier parts of the

doabs are called "bár." They are waste but not barren, | The name first given by the Aryans after their immigration was Spa Sindhi " [lanıl of] seveu rivers," these being the five rivers of scantily covered with low shrubs, capable, when watered, the mern Punjal with the addition of the Indus on the one side anl of being well cultivated. The bar is the treat camelof the Siraswati on the other. In the Vedic poenis they are severally grazing land. Larve areas of the Muzaffargarh and Múltán adel reveal as Sindhi, the Indus (the river) ; l'itustel, the Jhelum; districts are "thal," barren tracts of shifting sanıl. The dokni, (hináb; tiramuti ond Varuoridhor, Rávi; l'ipnåsor, Blás: midille part of the Bari Dváls

, in the Amritsar district, Sutudri, Sutlej: and Sirasini, Saruti. It may be remarked that Sinihi itself means "river," and Surrosurati, "having running water,", bears the distinctive name of Manjha (middle) as the and that each is applied as an epithet to other great river. The centre and headlynarters of the Sikli nation, containing Samswati, alone of the seren, is not now great. It is represented by their two screel tanks of Amritsar and Taran Táran, and a channel cor channels, nccupying the position assigned to the ancient nich praised stream, but now nearly dry for a great part of the year; a dense and fine population of Jits, Rajputs, and Gujars. for, unlike the others, it comes only from the lower hills, not from The Malwa Sikhs, acain, are those of the vis-Sutlej country. perpetual snows. The large lwy of water which it carries for a time Besides the great rivers, the distingri-ling feature of Minor in the rainy season never reaches the Indus, towarıls which it directs the l'unjalı, there are some others deserving of notice. rivers, its conrer, but is lost in the desert lanıls of northern Rajputana and! The Calul river joins the Inclus alcove Attock after Rahawalpur. In writings of the 6th or 7th century B.C. tlie Saraswati 1* un appar and pass underground to join the Ganges and Jumna recriving, alont 122 miles north-case of Peshawar, the s! This Allahabill, which triple confluence received therefore the Swat river, which enters Britislı territory at Ilazai. The rame Trimmi The Saraswati droppeul out of the enumeration of the kunhár, from the Kashmir hills, flows down the Kaghan river of the early Aryan settlement: anıl, when in Inter day the Indus, which reives all the others, reared to be reckoned along with them,

valley (the upper part of the Hazara distriitand joins the country towk its nanie Panchonada, and afterwards, in Persian the Jhelum at Muzaffarabad. The Siran and the Door in firm, ranih,

Hazám unite and near Torlwila run into the Inelu, which

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below Attock also receives the Harro from Hazára. The cultivated in the Kángra district. Flax has been pro-
Kurram, rising in Afghanistan and flowing through the duced successfully, but the cultivation has not been ex-
Bannú district, falls into the Indus near Isa Khil, and tended. Hops have been grown experimentally, for the
the Sohán, from the lower hills of Kashmir, joins it above Murree brewery, on neighbouring hills; the cultivation in
Kálábágh. The Bimbar, from the Kashmir Hills, below Kashmir has been more encouraging. Potatoes are grown
the Pír Panjal Pass, runs into the Chináb near Wazírábád. extensively on cleared areas on the hills. The Punjab
The Dég, from the Jammu Ilills, joins the Rávi near produces freely many of the Indian fruits, but none of
Gugaira. South of the Sutlej the Markanda, the Saras- special excellence except the peaches of Peshawar. Grapes
wati, the Gaggar, and the Chitang, from the lower hills are grown in many of the Himálayan valleys, where the
of Sirmur, which are violent torrents during the rainy rain is not excessive, also at Peshawar; but they are in-
season but nearly dry at other times, flow towards the ferior to those brought from Cabul.
Indus, but never reach it, beiny lost in the sands of the The forest arca of the Punjab consists of 4694 square Forests.
Bikanir and Bahawalpur desert.

miles reserved, under the management of the forest departArea The area of the Punjab proper, the triangular tract of ment, and 13,000 square miles under the district officers.

country between the Indus and the Sutlej, is about 62,000 The demarcation of protected and reserved forests is being square miles; the whole area of the British province is extended. The wasteful destruction of trees is checked 106,632, and of the feudatory states 35,817, making a in the hill forests rented from native states by the British

total of 142,449 square miles. This area is for the most Government. The principal reserved forests are the deodár Physical part a great alluvial plain. The north-east side of the (Cedrus Deodara) and chil (Pinus longifolia) tracts in the features province is a belt of hill-country, the outer margin of the hills, the plantations of shisham (Dalbergia Sissu) and sál

Himálayas, on which are the valuable hill-stations of Murree, (Shorea robusta) in the plains, and the fuel rakhs or pre-
Dalhousie, Dharmsala, Kassauli, Sabáthú, Dayshai, and serves (Acari, Prosopis, &c.). The average nett surplus
Simla. In the Delhi and Gurgaon districts is the north of forest income for the ten years 1875-85 was Rs. 161,800.
end of the Aravali range. A part of the extremity of The rainfall in the Punjab varies greatly in different Climate.
these hills became well known at the time of the siege of parts and from year to year. The maximum (126:55
Delhi in 1857 under the name of the “Ridge,” which was inches in the year) is at Dharmsala, on the face of the high
held by the British troops. Between the Jhelum and the north wall of the Kányra valley; the minimum (5.96) is
Indus is the hilly region known by the general name of in the Muzaffargarh district. In a country so open and so
the Salt Range, containing the inexhaustible stores of rock- far from the sea there are extremes of heat and cold. A
salt which have been worked for many centuries. The temperature of 128' Fahr. in the shade has been recorded,
salt is dug from enormous caverns entered by narrow and a winter temperature of 25° at sunrise is not in-
tunnels. The salt-hills are continued west of the Indus, frequent. At Lahore, on the grass, the thermometer has
where the salt is dug from open quarries. A double range been known to fall to 17'.
of low hills runs south-westward from the Inclus near the Of the whole area of British Punjab (106,632 square Cultiva-
mouth of the Kurram. The part near the south end called miles) 36,755 square miles are cultivated and 64,263 un- tion.
Sheikh Budín (Sheikh Shaláb-uddin) is a useful sana- cultivated, the remaining 5614 being reckoned uncultivable.
torium, though of no great height or great extent. The In area of 75,134 square miles (18,377,760 acres) is held
western boundary of the province is the fine range of the by :33,020 village communities, formed of small proprietors
Sulimán Mountains, dividing the Punjab from Afghan- haviny joint interests and joint responsibility for the land
istan. The British possessions do not extend beyond the revenue, but cultivating each his own land. Among the
base of the hills, which are occupied by very independent Pathans of the trans-Indus districts the tribe and not the
tribes. It is only within a short time past that any exact village community is in some cases the jointly responsible
knowledge has been obtained of the interior of these hills, body. There are 3106 estates of larger proprietors, with
beyond the parts visited in the course of the numerous a total area of 1,531,115 acres ; and there are 10,216,872
frontier expeditions for the punishment of inroads into acres of waste land, the property of the Government, of
British territory. A survey was made for the first time which less than one-half is capable of cultivation. The
in 1883 of the fine mountain mass containing the snowy total area uncler wheat is seven millions of acres. There
peak Takht-i-Sulimán (Solomon's throne) and its sur is an increasing export of wheat, gram, rice, and oil-
roundings.

seeds.
Mineral Besides the rock-salt the mineral products of the Punjab Irrigation for large areas is from canals and from reser- Irriga-
products. are not many. Limestone, good for building, is obtained voirs, and for smaller areas from wells. The canals are of tion.

at Chaniót on the Chináb and at a few other places. two kinds, those carrying a permanent stream throughout There are extensive alum-beds at Kálábágh on the Indus. the year, and those which fill only on the periodical rising A small quantity of coal is found in the Salt Range in of the rivers, the latter commonly known as “inundation disconnected beds, mostly at a considerable height above canals." There are only a few parts of the country prethe plain, and not very accessible, the beds thinning out senting facilities for forming reservoirs, by closing the westwards from the Jhelum to the Indus. Petroleum is narrow outlets of small valley's and storing the accumulated found in small quantities at a number of places in the rainfall. The old canals made by the Mohammedan rulers, Ráwal l'indi, Kohát, and Bannú districts, being gathered of which the principal are Firóz's Canal from the Jumna from the surface of pools or collected in shallow pits. It and the Hasli ("anal from the Rávi, have been improved is used for making yas for the station of Rawal Pindí. or reconstructed by the British Government. The principal In almost all parts of the Punjab there is “kankar,” new canals are the Sirhind, drawn from the Sutlej near rough nodular limestone, commonly found in thick beds, Rupar, and irrigating parts of the native states of Patiala a few feet below the surface of the ground, used for road and Nabha as well as British territory; the Bari Doáb Canal metalling and burned for lime.

from the Rávi; the Swát Canal, drawn from the Swát river Crops, As in other parts of India, there are commonly two har at Abazai; and inundation canals in the districts of Firóz

vests in the year. The spring crops are wheat, barley, pur, Shahpur, Múltán, and the Deraját, from the Sutlej, gram, various vegetables, oil-seeds, tobacco, and a little the Jhelum, the Chinab, and the Indus. Water was opium; the autumn crops, rice, millets, maize, pulses, admitted into the Sirhind Canal on 1st July 1882. Its cotton, indigo, and sugar-cane. Tea is now extensively branches are still under construction.

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