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to have been the limit of his voyage in this direction. It would not permit them to swallow an animal larger than
must be observed also that amber is found on the western a half-grown sheep. The way in which they seize and
coasts of Germany, as well as in the Baltic, though not in kill their prey does not differ from that observed in num-
equal abundance.

It is a very singular fact that no mention is found in
any ancient writer, in connexion with the voyage of Pytheas,
of the Cassiterides or Tin Islands, the exploration of which
might naturally have been supposed to have been one of
the chief objects of his voyage. It is indeed not im-
possible that the statements on this subject preserved to
us from Timæus, who wrote less than a century after him,
were derived from Pytheas, though there is no proof of this.
The trade with those islands was probably at this period
exclusively in the hands of the Phænicians, but we know
that at a later time a considerable portion of the supply
was carried overland through Gaul to Massilia. Whether
the voyage of Pytheas had any effect in contributing to
bring about the diversion of this lucrative trade we have
unfortunately no information.

Whatever uncertainty still hangs around all that has been trans-
mitted to us concerning the actual explorations of Pytheas. it is
certain that he had one merit which distinguished him from almost
all his contemporaries : he was a good astronomer, and was one of
the first who made observations for the determination of latitudes,
among others that of his native place Massilia, which he fixed with
remarkable accuracy, so that his result, which was within a few
miles of the truth, was adopted by Ptolemy, and became the basis
of his map of the Western Mediterranean. Pytheas was also the
first among the Greeks who arrived at any correct notion of the
tides, and not only indicated their connexion with the moon but
pointed out their periodical fluctuations in accordance with the
phases of that luminary. Other observations concerning the
manners and customs of the inhabitants of these remote regions
are ascribed to him that are undoubtedly correct and tend strongly
to prove that he had himself really visited them. Among these
are the gradual disappearance of various kinds of grain as one
advanced towards the north ; the use of fermented liquors made
from corn and honey; and the habit of threshing out their corn in
large covered barns, instead of on open threshing-floors as in Greece
and Italy, on account of the want of sun and abundance of rain.
The fragments of Pytheas have been collected by Arvedson (Upsala, 1824)

Python reticulatus (India).
and by Fuhr (De Pythea Massiliensi, Darmstadt, 1835). Of the numerous
treatises and dissertations on the subject see for those of earlier date Ukert's erous other non-venomous snakes: after having seized
“ Bemerkungen über Pytheas” (in vol. i

. of his Geog.


. Griechen u. Römer, their victim, they smother it by constriction, throwing
Sir G. C. Lewis, in his llistorical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients (pp; they always commence with the head; and, as they prey.
cerning the author and his work. The question has been also discussed by several coils of the body over and round it. In swallowing
(vol. i. 'chap. xv. sect. 2), and by Mr Elton, in his Origins of English llistory | exclusively on mammals and birds, the hairs and feathers
(London, 1882). A very elaborate but prolix and somewhat confused investiga-

offer a considerable impediment to the passage through
tion of the whole subject will be found in Müllenhoff's Deutsche Alterthums-
kunde (vol. i. pp. 211-497, Berlin, 1870).

(E. H. B.) the narrow but distensible throat. The process of deglu-
PYTHON, a genus of gigantic snakes inhabiting the tition is therefore slow, although facilitated by the great
tropical parts of Africa and Asia, and known in some parts quantity of saliva discharged over the body of the victim.
of the British possessions by the name of “rock-snakes.” During the time of digestion the snake is very lazy, and
On account of their general appearance, beautifully-marked unwilling to move and to defend itself when attacked.
skin, large size, and similarity of habits they are frequently At other times these animals are fierce enough, although
confounded with the true boas of the New World and always harmless to man if left unmolested. In captivity
misnamed “boa-constrictors." They differ from them, they seem to become used to those who attend upon

them, however, by having a double row of scutes under the tail, but their apparent tameness is due rather to the depresspits in the shields round the margins of the upper and ing influence of a colder climate than to a change of their lower jaws, and teeth in the intermaxillary bone.

naturally excitable temper. Rock-snakes are mostly arbo-
Africa is inhabited by three species(Python sebæ, P.regius, real, and prefer localities in the vicinity of water to which
and P. natalensis), and Asia by two (Python molurus and animals resort for the purpose of drinking. They move;
P. reticulatus), the former of these two species being found climb, and swim with equal facility. It has now been well
on the continent of India and in Ceylon, the latter in the established by observations on specimens in a state of
large islands of the Archipelago and in the Malayan Pen-nature as well as in captivity that the female rock-snake
insula. In Australasia and New Guinea similar snakes incubates her eggs for about two months, at the end of
occur, but they are of much smaller size and differ in which period the young are hatched, and probably remain
essential structural characters from the rock-snakes. These under the protection of the mother for a few weeks longer,
latter are among the largest of living reptiles; although The snake collects the eggs into a conical heap, round
their dimensions and strength have been much exaggerated, which she coils herself, entirely covering them so that
specimens of 18 and 20 feet have been brought to Europe, her head rests in the centre on the top of the cone.

and reliabl statements of the occurrence of individuals this position the animal remains without food throughout
which measured 30 feet are on record. Snakes of this the whole period of incubation, and an increase of the
size will easily overpower and kill one of the small species temperature between the coils of the snake has been ob-
of deer or antelopes which abound in their native haunts, served in every case.
a sheep, or a good-sized dog; but the width of their mouth PYX. See Mint, vol. xvi. p. 483.

R.liniarn del





was written in Greek with the straight stroke verti- | simultaneously with the consulship in 509 B.c.1 The

cal, P, as in the Phænician alphabet from which it number of the quæstors was originally two, but this was was borrowed, and was called koppa, the equivalent of the successively increased to four (in 421 B.C.), eight (in 267 Hebrew koph. It is found sparingly on some old inscrip- or 241 B.c.), and by Sulla (in 81 B.C.) to twenty. Cæsar tions of Rhodes, of some of the gean islands, of Corinth raised the number to forty (in 45 B.c.), but Augustus and of Syracuse, and most frequently in the Chalcidian reduced it again to twenty, which remained the regular colonies of Sicily and Italy. But it was soon supplanted number under the empire. When the number was raised by kappa, and survived only in numeration as the repre- from two to four in 421 B.c. the office was thrown open sentative of the number 90. It went to Rome with the to the plebeians, and it was the first office that was so Chalcidian alphabet of Cumæ, and was written at first opened. It was the lowest of the great offices of state, with the vertical line; but the stroke soon became slant, and hence it was regularly the first sought by aspirants so that the symbol got the form it still retains (Q). to a political career. Towards the close of the republic,

There is a slight but real distinction of sound between | if not earlier, the successful candidate was bound to the so-called palatal and velar k. The first is the ordinary have completed his thirtieth year before he entered on k, for which the back of the tongue is raised against the oflice, but Augustus lowered the age to twenty-five. back part of the hard palate. The second is produced by Originally the quæstors seem to have been nominated raising the tongue against the soft palate or velum palati, by the consuls independently, but later, perhaps from that is

, rather farther back in the mouth. This sound the fall of the decemvirs (449 B.c.), they were elected by Jias a tendency to be accompanied by a slight rounding of the people assembled in tribes (comitia tributa) and prethe lips ; this causes an equally slight w sound after the k. sided over by a consul or another of the higher magistrates. It is probable that the velar k with this parasitic w was in The quæstors held office for one year, but, like the consuls uso for a time in Greece, and that it was represented by and prætors, they were often continued in office with the the koppa; the symbol would otherwise have been totally title of proquæstor. Indeed it was a regular rule that the unnecessary; also the koppa is generally followed by u quæstor attached to a higher magistrate should hold oflice or o, which, on this view, is natural. We know that in as long as his superior; hence, when a consul regularly Crecco kw must have been an intermediate sound between presided over the city for one year, and afterwards as k and p in words where k was labialized, such as Topal proconsul governed a province for another year, his from root suk (sce under K). But this intermediate questor also regularly held office for two years. Before sound was not retained in the language: either the w was the election of the quæstors the senate decided the duties dropped and the sound reverted to k, or p was produced to be undertaken by them, and after clection these duties by the assimilating force of the w; therefore all need for were distributed amongst the new quæstors either by lot or a symbol koppa vanished. But in Latin the middle step by the choice of the higher magistrates to whom a quæstor remained, as in sequor; therefore the symbol was needed. was assigned. A peculiar burden laid on the questors, But the parasitic sound became a complete w; and to not so much as an official duty, but rather as a sort of denoto this v was regularly written after the q.

There-fee exacted from all who entered on the political career, fore even in Latin the symbol was really otiose, for kv was the paving of the high roads, for which Claudius would have been quite sufficient, and did actually sullice substituted the exhibition of gladiatorial games. Various for the Umbrian and Oscan, which never possessed the q. classes of quæstors may be distinguished according to the In old inscriptions we find q alone when the following duties they had respectively to discharge. Up to 421 B.C. vowel is u, as in Mirqurios, pequnia. In later times, there were only two quæstors, and when fresh ones were when o passed by weakening into u, a preceding qu was added the two original quæstors were distinguished by the written


quom became cum, to avoid the double u appellation of urban quæstors (quastores urbani), doubtless of quum. Tho qu of the Latin naturally passed on into because they were bound to remain in Rome during their the Romanic languages. It passed into the Teutonic term of oflice. langunges in borrowed words, such as quart, but made its 1. The Urban Quæstors.-Originally the duties of the questors, way into Teutonic words also; thus, in English, cwén, like those of the consuls, were of a general and undefined nature; cuellan are now spelt queen, quell.

specialization of function had not yet arisen—the consuls were QUADRILATERAL, a military term applied to any simply the superior, the quæstors simply the inferior magistrates combination of four fortresses mutually supporting cach other, but especially to that of the four fortified towns of possessed criminal to the exclusion of civil jurisdiction. The very Mantun, Peschiera, Verona, and Legnago, the two former tigator," " inquisitor.” In the code of the Twelve Tables they of which are situated on the Mincio and the two latter murder", and perhaps originally this was their full title, which was on the Adige. The real value of the Quadrilateral, which afterwards abbreviated into quæstors when their functions as crimgare Austria such firm hold on Lombardy, lay is the inal judges fell into the background. In addition to parricide or estmordinary natural strength of Mantua and in the murder we can hardly donbt that all other crimes fell within the readiness with which troops and supplies could be poured jurisdiction of the quastors; political crimes only seem to have into Verona from the north.

been excepted. The criminal jurisdiction of the quæstors appears Sia "The Quadrilateral," in the Cornhill Magazine, 1862; and i Plutarch (Popl., 12) states that the office was instituted by the first Professor Malfatti, Il Qunurilatero, Milan, 1860.

consul. Tacitus, on the other hand (11nn., Ii. 22), says that it dated

from the time of the kings, but his ground merely that they were QUADRUMASA. See MAMMALIA, vol. xv. P. 411, mentioned in the Lee Curiata of the consul Brutus, which Tacitus anllre, rol. ii. p. 11S.

assumes to have been identical with that of the kings, QUESTOR was the title of a Roman magistrate whose

• The etymology and original meaning of parricidium are doubtful. functions at least in the later times of the republic, were

In the latter part of the wond we have, of course, the same ront as in muainly financial. The origin of the quæstorship is some

calere, “to kill," but whether or not the former part is from pater,

father," or from the same root that we have in per-putum, perjurium, what olseure, but on the whole it was probably instituted lis a moot point. Mommsen takes the latter view,

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only to have terminated when towards the close of the republic | the body is reddish-brown, irregularly banded and marked
trial by permanent courts (quæstiones perpetuæ) was extended to with dark brown stripes, stronger on the head and neck
criminal cases. 1

The quæstors had also charge of the public treasury (ærarium) and gradually becoming fainter until lost behind the
in the temple of Saturn, and this was in the later times of the shoulder. There is a broad dark median dorsal stripe.
republic their most important function. They kept the keys of The under surface of the body, the legs, and tail are nearly
the treasury and had charge of its contents, including not only white, without stripes. The crest is very high, surmounted
coin and bullion but also the military standards and a large by a standing mane, banded alternately brown and white.
number of public documents, which in later times comprised all
the laws as well as the decrees of the senate. Their functions as Though never really domesticated, quaggas have occasion-
keepers of the treasury were withdrawn from the urban quæstors ally been trained to harness. The accompanying figure is
by Augustus and transferred to other magistrates, but the oflice
itself continued to exist into the 3d century, though as to the
nature of the duties attached to it we have little or no information.

2. The Military Quæstors. These were instituted in 421 B.C.,
when two new quæstors were added to the original two. They
never had a distinctive appellation like that of the urban queestors,
from whom, however, they were clearly distinguished by the fact
that, while the wban quæstors did not stand in a special relation
of subordination to any particular magistrate, a non-urban quæstor
was regularly assigned as an indispensable assistant or adjutant to
every general in command, whose name or title the quæstor usually
added to his own. Originally they were the adjutants of the
consuls only, afterwards of the provincial prætors, and still later
of the proconsuls and proprætors. The dictator alone among
military commanders had no quæstor, because a quæstor would
have been a limitation to his powers. The governor of Sicily had
two quæstors; all other governors and commander's had but one.
Between the quæstor and his superior a close personal relation,
analogous to that between a son and his father, existed, and was
not severed when their official connexion ceased. Not till the
close of the republic do cases occur of a quæstor being sent to a
province invested with prætorial and even consular powers; in one
case at least the quæstor so sent had a second quæstor placed
under him. The duties of the military quæstor, like those of the
treasury quæstor, were primarily financial. Moneys due to a
provincial governor from the state treasury were often, perhaps

regularly, received and disbursed by the quastor; the magazines reduced from a painting made from one of a pair which
seem to have been under his charge; he coined money, on which

were driven in Hyde Park by Mr Sheriff Parkins in the
not unfrequently his name appears alone. The booty taken in war
was not necessarily under the control of the quaestor, but was

early part of the present century. The name is an imita-
dealt with, especially in later times, by inferior officers called tion of the shrill barking neigh of the animal, ouag-ga,
præfecti fabrum. But, though his duties were primarily financial, ouag-ga," the last syllable very much prolonged. It must
the questor was alter all the chief assistant or adjutant of his be remembered, however, in reading books of African
superior in command, and as such he was invested with a certain
degree of military power ; under the republic his military rank travel that the same word is very commonly applied by
was superior to that of the legates, though under the empire hunters to another and more completely striped species,
this relation was reversed. When the general left his province called by zoologists Burchell's zebra.
before the arrival of his successor he usually committed it to the QUAIL (Old French Quaille, Mod. French Caille,
care of his quæstor, and, if he died or was incapacitated from
naming his successor, the questor acted as his representative.

Italian Quaglia, Low Latin Quaquila, Dutch Kwakkel, and
Unlike the urban quæstor, the military quæstor possessed not a Kwartel, German Wachtel, Danish Vagtel), a very well-
criminal but a civil jurisdiction corresponding to that of the ædiles known bird throughout almost all countries of Europe,
at Rome.

3. The Italian Quæstors.—The subjugation of Italy occasioned Asia, and Africa, in modern ornithology the Coturnix
the institution (in 267 B.C.) of four new quæstors, who appear to

communis or C. dactylisonans. This last epithet was given
have been called quæstores classici because they were originally from the peculiar three-syllabled call-note of the cock, which
intended to superintend the building of the fleet (classis); their has been grotesquely rendered in several European lan-
functions, however, are very imperfectly known. Though no
doubt intended to assist the consuls, they were not subordinated guages, and in some parts of Great Britain the species is
(like the military quæstors) to a special consul

. They were popularly known by the nickname of “Wet-my-lips” or
stationed at Ostia, at Cales in Campania, and in Gaul about the

* Wet-my-feet.” The Quail varies somewhat in colour, and
Padus (Po). The station of the fourth is not mentioned ; perhaps the variation is rather individual than attributable to local
it was Lilybæum in Sicily.

causes; but generally the plumage may be described as
QUAGGA, or Couagga, an animal of the genus Equus reddish-brown above, almost each feather being trans-
(see HORSE, vol. xii. p. 175), nearly allied to the zebra, versely patched with dark brown interrupted by a longitu-
which formerly was met with in vast herds on the great dinal stripe of light buff'; the head is dark brown above,
plains of South Africa between the Cape Colony and the with three longitudinal streaks of ochreous-white; the sides
Vaal river, but now, in common with most of the larger of the breast and flanks are reddish-brown, distinctly striped
wild animals of that region, becoming extremely scarce, with ochreous-white; the rest of the lower parts are pale
owing to the encroachments of European civilization. In buff, clouded with a darker shade, and passing into white on
length of ears and character of tail it more resembles the the belly. The cock, besides being generally brighter in
horse than it does the ass, although it agrees with the tint, not unfrequently has the chin and a double-throat
latter in wanting the small bare callosity in the inner side band of reddish or blackish-brown, which marks are want-
of the hind leg, just below the hock, characteristic of the ing in the hen, whose breast is usually spotted. Quails
horse. The colour of the head, neck, and upper parts of breed on the ground, as all gallinaceous birds commonly

do, and lay from nine to fifteen eggs of a yellowish-white,
1 It is often supposed that the quæstores parricidii were an old blotched and spotted with dark brown. Though essenti-
magistracy quite distinct from the ordinary quæstors. For the

ally migratory by nature, not a few Quails pass the winter
identification of the two, see Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, ii.,
pt. 1, p. 506.

in the northern hemisphere and even in Britain, and many
2 Thus Cicero speaks of the provincia consularis of the questor, and more in southern Europe. In March and April they cross the
we lind quæstor Cn. Pompci, &c.

Mediterranean from the south on the way to their breed


ing homes in large bands, but these are said to be as | fornia, Lophortyx californica, has also been tried in nothing compared with the enormous flights that emigrate Europe without success. All these American Quails or from Europe towards the end of September. During both Colins seem to have the habit of perching on trees, which migrations immense numbers are netted for the market, none of the Old-World forms possess. since they are almost universally esteemed as delicate Interesting from many points of view as is the group of meat. On capture they are placed in long narrow and low Birds last mentioned, there is another which, containing a cages, darkened to prevent the prisoners from fighting, and, score of species (or perhaps more) often termed Quails or though they are often so much crowded as to be hardly able Button-Quails, is of still greater importance in the eyes of to stir

, the loss by death that ensues is but trifling. Tood, the systematist. This is that comprehended by the genus usually millet or hempseed, and water are supplied in Turnix, or Hemipodius of some authors, the anatomical troughs hung in front, and thus these little birds are trans- structure of which removes it far from the genera Coturnix, ported by tens of thousands from the shores of the Ortyr, and their allies, and even from any of the normal Mediterranean for consumption in the most opulent and Gallinæ. Prof. Huxley, as already stated (ORNITHOLOGY, populous cities of Europe. The flesh of Quails caught in vol. xviii. p. 36), would regard it as the representative of a spring commonly proves dry and indifferent, but that of generalized stock from which the Charadriomorpha and those taken in autumn, especially when they have been Alectoromorpha, to say nothing of other groups, have kept long enough to grow fat, as they quickly do, is sprung. Want of space prevents our here dwelling upon excellent. In no part of the British Islands at present do these curious birds. One species, T. sylvatica, inhabits Quails exist in sufficient numbers to be the especial object Barbary and southern Spain, and under the name of of sport, though there are many places in which a few, and Andalucian Hemipode has been included (though on in some scasons more than a few, yearly fall to the gun. evidence not wholly satisfactory) among British Birds as a When made to take wing, which is not always easily done, reputed straggler. The rest are natives of various parts they rise with great speed, but on such occasions they of the Ethiopian, Indian, and Australian Regions. It is seldom fly far, and no one seeing them only thus would be characteristic of the genus Turnix to want the hind toe; inclined to credit them with the power of extensive migra- but the African Ortyrelus and the Australian Pedionomus tion that they possess, though this is often overtaxed, and which have been referred to its neighbourhood have four the birds in their transmarine voyages frequently drop toes on each foot, and, since nothing is known of the exhausted into the sea or on any vessel that may be in anatomy or habits of the first and but little of those of their

way. In old days they were taken in England in a the second,3 their position must at present be considered net, attracted thereto by means of a Quail-call,—a simple doubtful.

(A. N.) instrument, the use of which is now wholly neglected,--on QUAKERS. The Quakers, or, as they call themselves, which their notes are easily imitated.

the Society of Friends, are a body of Christians small in Five or six other species of the restricted genus Coturnix number but presenting several features of interest. To the are now recognized; but the subject of the preceding student of ecclesiastical bistory they are curious as exhibitremarks is generally admitted to be that intended by the ing a form of Christianity widely aberrant from the prevaauthor of the book of Exodus (xvi. 13) as having supplied lent types, and as a body of worshippers without a creed, food to the Israelites in the wilderness, though a few a liturgy, a priesthood, or a sacrament; to the student of ornithological writers have thought that bird to have been social science they are interesting as having given to a SAND-GROUSE (2.v.). In South Africa and India allied women an almost equal place with men in their church species, C. delegorguii and C. coromandelica, the latter organization, and as baving attempted to eliminate war, known as the Rain-Quail

, respectively occur, as well as the oaths, and litigation from their midst. The student of commoner one, which in Australia and Tasmania is wholly English constitutional history will observe the success with replaced by C. pectoralis, the Stubble-Quail of the colonists. which they have, by the mere force of passive resistance, In New Zealand another species, c. novx-zelandir, was obtained from the legislature and the courts indulgence formerly very abundant in some districts, but is considered for all their scruples and a recognition of the legal validity to have been nearly if not quite extirpated within the last of their customs; whilst to the student of American twenty years by bush-fires. Some fifteen or perhaps morc history the Quakers will ever be remarkable for the prospecies of Quails, inbabiting the Indian and Australian minent part they played in the colonization of New Jersey Regions

, have been separated, perhaps unnecessarily, to and Pennsylvania. form the genera Synacus, Perdicula, Ercalphatoria, and so Iristory. The history of Quakerism in England may forth; but they call for no particular remark.

conveniently be divided into four periods :-(1) from the America has some fifty or sixty species of birds which first preaching of Fox in 1618 to the establishing of a are commonly deemed Quails, though by some authors church organization in 1666; (2) from that date to the placed in a distinct l'amily or Sub-family' Odontophorinæ.Revolution of 1688; (3) from the Revolution to 1835; The best known is the Virginian Quail, or Colin, as it is and (4) from 1835 to the present time. frequently called--that being, according to Hernandez, its 1. George Fox (9.v.), the son of a weaver of Drayton in old Mexican name.

It is the Ortyr virginianus of modern Leicestershire, was the founder of the Quakers. He began ornithology, and has a wide distribution in North America, to preach in 1618, and in a few years gathered around in some parts of which it is known as the “ Partridge,” as him a great body of followers and a considerable number well as by the nickname of "Bob-White," aptly bestowed of itinerant preachers like himself, who zealously promul upon it from the call-noto of the cock.' Many attempts gated his doctrines

. Amongst these Edward Burrough was have been made to introduce this bird to England (as one of the most remarkable. In 1655 these preachers numindeed similar trials have been made in the United States bered seventy-three. Fox and his fellow-preachers spoke with Quails from Europe); but, though it has been turned whenever opportunity offered — sometimes in churches, out by hundreds, and has been frequently known to breed after liberation, its numbers rapidly diminish until it 3 Col Legge's observations on the habits of Pedionomus in the wholly disappears. The beautiful tuited Quail of Cali- Zoological Society's Proceedings (1869, pp

. 236-238) woulul scem to

shew à Linicoline affinity. Garrod in the same work (1873, p. 34) One is figured in Rowley's Ornithological Miscellany (ii. p. 363).

figured the skull as that of a Turnicine, in which view Forbes ? They form the entject of a monograph in folio ly Gould, published acquiesced (Ibis, 1882, IT. 389, 431); but against it Col. Legge im. between 1841 and 1830.

mediately protested (tom. cit., p. 610).

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sometimes in barns, sometimes at market-crosses. There 2. The second period in the history of Quakerism is is some evidence to show that the arrangement of this mis- marked by the introduction into the body, bitherto unorsion, as it would now be called, rested mainly with Fox, ganized, of an organization and a discipline principally due and that the expenses of it and of the foreign missions to the mind and energy of Fox, by a more scholarly and were borne out of a common fund. Margaret Fell

, the learned air given to the Quaker productions by the writings wife and afterwards the widow of Judge Fell—who sub- of William Penn and Robert Barclay, and by the part sequently married George Fox-opened her house at which the Quakers played in the colonization of New Swarthmore Hall, near Ulverston, to these preachers, and Jersey and of Pennsylvania. It is not wonderful that the probably contributed largely to the common fund from introduction of an organization and a discipline met with which the expenses were paid. Fox's teaching was great opposition amongst a people taught to believe that primarily a preaching of repentance; and he and his the inward light of each individual man was the only true friends addressed vast. congregations much as Wesley guide for his conduct. The project met with some oppoand Whitefield did at a later date. But his teaching had sition at the time, and at a later period (1683), from certain marked peculiarities--especially his insistence on persons of considerable reputation in the body. Wilkinthe universality and sufficiency of the light of God's Spirit. son, Rogers, Story, and others raised a party against Fox He regarded the work in which he was engaged as in no as regards the management of the affairs of the society, wise the founding of a new sect or society, but, to use his and asserted that the meetings for discipline which had own words, as “the appearance of the Lord's everlasting been established were useless, and that every man ought truth, and breaking forth again in His eternal power in to be guided by the Spirit of God in his own mind, and not this our day and age in England.” Such teaching and to be governed by rules of man. They drew a considersuch views necessarily brought Fox and his friends into able following away with them, but the greater number direct conflict with all the religious bodies of England, adhered to their original leader. and they were continually engaged in strife with the Pres- Robert BARCLAY (2.v.), a Scotsman of family, who had byterian ministers who then filled the pulpits of English received a polite education, principally in France, joined the churches, with the Independents, with the Baptists, with Quakers about 1666, and William PENN (2.v.) joined the the Episcopal Church, and with the wilder sectaries, like body about two years later. The Quakers had always the Fifth Monarchy men, the Ranters, the Seekers, and the been active controversialists, and a great body of tracts Muggletonians. This strife was conducted on both sides and papers was issued by them ; but hitherto they had with a zeal and an acerbity of language not consonant not been of much account in a literary point of view. with our present notions of decorum. The movement was Now the writings of Barclay, especially his celebrated accompanied, too, by most of those physical symptoms Apology for the True Christian Divinity (1675), published which usually go with vehement appeals to the conscience by him in Latin and English, and the works of William and the emotions of a rude multitude. The trembling Penn (amongst which his No Cross no Crown was one of amongst the listening crowd caused or confirmed the name the best known) gave to the Quaker literature a more of Quakers given to the body: men and women some- logical and a more scholarly aspect. times fell down and lay grovelling on the earth and One peculiarity of the conduct of the Friends down to struggling as if for life. But the Quaker preachers scem the Revolution of 1688, and more or less down to the not to have encouraged these manifestations, but rather present time, must not be overlooked. They were essentito have sought to assuage them by such reasonable means ally non-political. They opposed the most dogged peras carrying the affected to bed or administering a cordial sonal and individual resistance to what they thought or medicine.

wrong, but they never attempted by combination or Some of the early Quakers indulged in eccentricities otherwise to exert political influence. "Keep out of the and extravagances of no measured kind. Some travelled powers of the earth” was Fox's exhortation; and, when and preached naked or barefoot or dressed in sackcloth; | in 1688 a discussion was introduced into the yearly others imitated the Hebrew prophets in the performance gathering of the body on the choice of parliament men, of symbolical acts of denunciation or warning; even the Fox strenuously opposed the introduction of politics into women in some cases distinguished themselves by the the meetings of his followers. impropriety and folly of their conduct. In some cases

During the whole time between the rise of the Quakers and the religious excitement seems to have produced or been passing of the Toleration Act they were the objects of an almost attended by insanity, and the aberrations of Naylor and continuous persecution, which they endured with extraordinary Ibbit can only be attributed to that cause. For, though not constancy and patience. In 1656 Fox computed that there were altogether free from acts of fanaticism, the Quaker leaders seldom less than a thousand in prison, and it has been asserted

that between 1661 and 1697 13,562 Quakers were imprisoned, 152 discouraged and disowned the grosser acts of enthusiasm.

were transported, and 338 died in prison or of their wounds. The activity and zeal of the early Quakers were not con- Having come into being after the death of Charles I., the Quakers fined to England ; they passed into Scotland and Ireland. first endured persecution under the Parliament and then under Fox and others travelled to America and the West Indian

Cromwell. In 1645 an ordinance of the Parlinment had made the Islands; another reached Jerusalem, and testified against of the years 1646 and 1648 were passed for the preventing of

directory of the Westminster divines obligatory; and ordinances the superstition of the monks ; Mary Fisher, “a religious blasphemies and heresies, which comprehended under these hard maiden,” visited Smyrna, the Morea, and the court of names some doctrines afterwards promulgated by the Quakers, as Mohammed IV. at Adrianople; others made their way to

that the two sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper are not Rome; two women suffered imprisonment from the In- defence, be the cause ever so just, is unlawful.

commanded by the word of God, and that the use of arms for

Furthermore quisition in Malta; two men passed into Austria and these or other ordinances of the Parliament placed the decision of Hungary; and William Penn, George Fox, and others questions as to tithes in the hands of the justices of the peace, preached Quakerism in Holland and Germany.

The instrument of government under which Cromwell assumed
As early as 1652 meetings of the followers of Fox,

power as the Lord Protector had held out a promise of protection

in the exercise of their religion to “such as professed faith in calling themselves at first the Children of Light, gathered God by Jesus Christ” (art. 37); and the Protector himself, in a together in various places in England, and were speecli addressed to Parliament on the 12th September 1654, had established in considerable numbers. The meetings at

declared liberty of conscience to be a natural right; nevertheless Bristol were often attended by from three to four thousand secution. They were sometimes dealt with under the ordinances

the Quakers found that they were still the subjects of bitter perpeople.

already referred to, sometimes as Sabbath-breakers because they


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