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travelled to their meetings for worship, sometimes as disturbers of zeal of the Quaker body abated. Foreign missions had the clergy in their oflice because they spoke in churches, sometimes
no existence except in the occasional travels of some as guilty of breaches of the peace because they preached in streets
The notion that the whole Christian or markets, sometimes for refusing to pay tithes, sometimes for
wandering minister. refusing to take off their hats, sometimes for refusing to swear. church would be absorbed in Quakerism, and that the So matters remained till the Restoration of Charles II., when the Quakers were in fact the church, passed away; and in its publication from Breda of his declaration for liberty of conscience place grew up the conception that they were a peculiar again raised hopes of case in the hearts of the Friends. But these people” to whom had been given a clearer insight into hopes were again destined to disappointment. The laws under which the Quakers were persecuted during the revived Stuart
the truths of God than to the professing Christian world period were (1) the common law, (2) the old legislation in ecclesi- around them, and that this sacred deposit was to be astical matters which was revived on Charles's accession, (3) the guarded with jealous care. Hence the Quakerism of this special legislation of tho period, and (4) the ecclesiastical laws as administered by the ecclesiastical courts, In the first class was
period was mainly of a traditional kind: it dwelt with tho general law as to breakers of the peace ; in the second class increasing emphasis on the peculiarities of dress and lanmay bo mentioned the statuto of 6 Hen. VIII. by which im- guage which tended to shut Quakers off socially from their prisonment was appointed as a punishment for non-payment fellow-men; it rested much upon discipline, which developed of tithes, the statuto of Llizabeth imposing the oath of supremacy, and hardened into rigorous forms; and the correction or tho Act of Uniformity passed in tho first year of Elizabeth, the Acts of the 23rd and 20th years of the saine queen which inn
exclusion of its members was a larger part of the business posed fines and penalties for non-attendance of church and the of the body than the winning of converts either to Christistatuto of the 35th year of Elizabeth by which an obstinato anity or to Quakerism. ollender in that matter was made a felon without benefit of clergy,
Excluded from political life by the constitution of the and, lastly, the statute of 3 James I. imposing the oath of alle. giance
. (3) The special legislation during this period under which country, excluding themselves not only from the frivolous The Quakers sullered included (a) a statute 13 & 14 Car. II. c. 1, pursuits of pleasure but from music and art in general, especially directed against them and punishing their refusal to with no bigh average of literary education (though they take an oath, or the taking part in assemblies for worship, with produced some men of eminence in medicine and science, fino, and a second conviction with an obligation to abjuro the
as Dr Fothergill and Dr Dalton), the Quakers occupied realm, or transportation to any of the king's plantations ; (b) the Act of Uniformity (13 & 14 Car. II. c. 4), more stringent than themselves largely with trade, the business of their society, that of Elizabeth ; (c) the Five-Mile Act passed in 1665 (17 Car. and the calls of philanthropy. In the middle and latter II. c. 4); and, lastly, tho Conventicle Act of 1670 (22 Car. II.
part of last century they founded several institutions for c. 1). (4) Tho ecclesiastical courts, on tho return of the Stuarts,
the more were restored to their former vigour, and Quakers were continually
thorough education of their children, and proceeded against in them for non-payment of tithes, oblations, entered upon many philanthropic labours. anil other church claims, and also for non-attendanco at the parishi During this period Quakerism was sketched from the churches, and for contempt of the discipline and censures of the outside by two very different men. Voltaire (Dictionnaire church. Many of their body were accordingly excommunicated,
“Quaker," and under tho writ de cecommunicato capiendo confined to prison.
,” “Toleration”) has described
the body, which attracted his curiosity, his sympathy, and Tho passing of the Conventicle Act gave fresh vigour his sneers, with all his brilliance. Clarkson (Portraiture to the persecution of Dissenters. But, on 15th March of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic ac1671-72, King Charles II. issued his declaration for count of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled suspending the penal laws in matters ecclesiastical, and amongst them from house to house on his crusade against shortly afterwards by pardon under the great seal released the slave trade. above four hundred Quakers from prison, remitted their 4. It cannot be denied that the theology of Quakerism fines, and released such of their estates as were forfeited had become somewhat mystic and quietist during tho by præmunire. The dissatisfaction which this exercise of long period we have just considered. About the year 1826 the royal prerogative created induced the king in the an American Quaker named Hicks (2.v.) openly denied following year to recall his proclamation, and the suffer the divinity of Christ, depreciated the value of the Scripings of the Quakers revived ; and, notwithstanding repre- tures, and recognized no other Saviour than the inward sentations and appeals to King Charles II., the persecution light. A large body of the American Quakers followed continued throughout his reign. On the accession of him, and still maintain a separate existence. It was this James II., the Quakers addressed him with some hope movement which led to a counter movement in England, from his known friendship' for William Penn, and pre- known in the Quaker body as the Beacon controversy, sented to liim a list of the numbers of their members from the name of a book published in 1835, advocating undergoing imprisonment in each county, amounting in views more nearly akin to those known as evangelical than all to fourteen hundred and sixty. King James not long were held by many Quakers. A considerable discussion afterwarıls directed a stay of proceedings in all matters ensued, and a certain number of the Friends holding these pending in the Exchequer against Quakers on the ground more evangelical doctrines departed from the parent stock, of non-attendance on national worship. In 1687 came leaving, however, behind them many influential members the king's celebrated declaration for liberty of conscience, of the society who strove to give a more evangelical tone and in the following year the Revolution, which put an end to the Quaker theology. Joseph John Gurney, by his to all persecution of the Quakers, though they remained various writings (some published before 1835), was the for
many years liable to imprisonment for non-payment of most prominent actor in this movement. This period has tithes
, and though they long laboured together with other also been marked, especially within the last few years, by Dissenters under various disabilities—the gradual removal some revival of aggressive action, and Quakers have taken of which is part of the general history of England.
far more part in the teaching in Sunday schools, in the The Toleration Act was by no means the only legisla- preaching of the gospel to the poor, and in the establishtion of the reign of William and Vary which brought case ment of foreign missions than in the period immediately to the Quakers. The legislature early had regard to their preceding. In 1817 an association was established to refusal to take oaths; and from 1659 to a very recent promote Sunday schools in the body; in 1859 a Friends' date numerous enactments have respected the peculiar foreign mission was established; and the Quakers have now scruples of the Friends. This special legislation may be a few regular labourers in Madagascar, India, Syria, and conveniently studied in Davis's Digest of Legislative Enact- Constantinople. ments relating to Friends (Bristol, 1820).
Other causes have been at work modifying the Quaker 3. With the cessation of persecution in 1689 the body. The repeal of the Test Act, the admission of
Quakers to parliament, the establishment of the university silent both in family worship and in their meetings. Of
maintained the same objection against tithe-rent charge,
war, defensive or otherwise, and have always refused,
justice, and the law of England has long recognized their
the Spirit of God to each individual soul, that this light is ance at the theatres, and hunting, shooting, and field
from the practice of the sacraments of baptism and the them on the part of their fellow-men, and frequently led
a provocation to drink more than did people
good.” They adopted a remarkable simplicity in their
Christians: they believe in the Father, Son, and Holy
1 See Thomas Ellwood's Journal for an account of his sufferings iv mitting addresses from their members, they sit frequently this matter, at once pathetic and ludicrous.
in the Book of Discipline, may usefully be consulted on these dates it is obvious that the last century saw a vigorthis point.
ous development of the disciplinary element in QuakerOrganization and Discipline.—The duty of watching ism; it was probably the time of greatest rigour as over one another for good was insisted on by the early regards external matters and of the greatest severity in Friends, and has been embodied in a system of discipline. punishing so-called delinquencies. In Aberdeen the meetIts objects embrace (a) exhortation and admonition to ing entered on their minutes an elaborate description of those who walk contrary to the standard of Quaker what was and what was not to be endured in the dress of cthics, and the exclusion of obstinate or gross offenders men and women; and York quarterly meeting was so from the body, and as incident to this the hearing of disturbed at the presence of young women in long cloaks appeals from individuals or meetings considering them and bonnets that they were ordered to take advice before selves aggrieved; (b) the care and maintenance of the coming to York, and one monthly meeting directed that poor and provision for the Christian education of their those young women who intended to go to York were to children, for which purpose the society has established appear before their own meeting “in their clothes that numerous boarding schools in different parts of the they intend to have on at York.” country; (c) the amicable settlement of all differences Of late years the stringency of the Quaker discipline about outward things,” either by the parties in contro- has been relaxed : the peculiarities of dress and language versy or by the submission of the dispute to arbitration, have been abandoned; marriage with an outsider has and the restraint of all proceedings at law between ceased to be a certain ground for exclusion from the members except by leave; (d) the recognition of ministers body; and, above all, many of its members have come to as such ; (e) the cognizance of all steps preceding marriage the conviction, which is not new, but old, that the virtues according to Quaker forms ; (f) the registration of births, which can be rewarded and the vices which can be deaths, and marriages; (g) the issuing of certificates or punished by external discipline are not as a rule the letters of approval granted to ministers travelling away virtues and the vices that make or mar the soul” (Hatch, from their homes, or to members removing from one Bampton Lectures, 81). meeting to another; and (1) the management of the pro- The Quakers maintain that their system of church perty belonging to the society. The present organization government and of discipline is in close accordance with of the Quaker church is essentially democratic——it has that of the early church. That it has some great differnot and never had any president or head; and in theory ences cannot be denied, especially when we think of overy person born of Quaker parents is a Quaker and baptism and the Lord's supper; that it has some importentitled to take part in all the general assemblies of the ant points of likeness, especially in the care of each body. The members are grouped together in a series of member for the others and in the maintenance of tlo subordinated meetings which recall to the mind the Pres. poor, is equally certain. The portraiture of the early byterian model. The unit is known as a particular Christian church recently drawn by Dr Hatch in his meeting ”; next in order comes “the monthly meeting,” Bampton Lectures is in many respects likely to recall the usually embracing several particular meetings called to lineaments of Quakerism. gether, as its name indicates, monthly; then "the quarterly Philanthropic Interests.-A genuine vein of philanmeeting," embracing several monthly meetings; and lastly thropy has always existed in the Quaker body. In "the yearly meeting,” embracing the whole of Great nothing has this been more conspicuous than in the matter Britain. Representatives are sent from each inferior to of slavery. George Fox and William Penn laboured to cach superior meeting; but all Quakers may attend and secure the religious teaching of slaves. As early as 1676 take part in any of these meetings. This system is the assembly of Barbados passed "An Act to prevent double, cach meeting of “men Friends” having its the people called Quakers from bringing negroes to counterpart in a meeting of “ women Friends”; and they their meetings.” John Woolman 1 laboured amongst the usually meet at the same time, and join together in the Quakers of America for the liberation of the slaves with devotional gatherings which take place before or after the the most winning tenderness. The Quakers were the meetings for discipline. The mode of conducting these first Christian body that purged themselves of the stain moetings is noteworthy. There is no president, but only of dealing in slaves. As early as 1780 not a slave was
I a secretary or clerk; there are no formal resolutions; and owned by any Friend in England or America with the there is no voting. The clerk ascertains what he con- knowledge and consent of the society. In 1783 the first siders to be the judgment of the assembly, and records it petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the in a minute.
slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and / The oflices known to the Quaker body aro-(1) that of throughout the long agitations which ensued before that minister; (?) of clder, whoso duty it is “to encourage prayer was granted the society took an active and proand help young ministers, and adviso others as they in minent part. the wisdom of God sco occasion ”; and (3) overseers to
In 1798 Lancaster opened his first school for the educawhom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care tion of the poor; and the cause of unsectarian religious for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize education found in the Quakers steady support. They as obligatory in all the members of a church. These have taken also an active part in Sir Samuel Romilly's officers hold from time to time meetings separate from the efforts to ameliorate the penal code; in prison reformation general assemblies of the members.
(1813), with which the name of Elizabeth Fry is especially This present form both of organization and discipline connected; in the efforts to ameliorate the condition of has been reached only by a process of development. The lunaties in England (the Friends' Retreat at York, founded quarterly or general meetings scem to have been the first in 1792, having been remarkable as an early example of union of separate congregations. In 1666 Fox established kindly treatment of the insane); and in many other philmonthly meetings
. In 1672 was held the first yearly anthropic movements. meeting in London. In 1675 certain "canons and institu- One thing is noteworthy in Quaker efforts for the edutions" were issued to the quarterly meetings. In 1727 cation of the poor and philanthropy in general: whilst elders were first appointed. In 1752 overseers
i Woolman's Journal and Works are remarkable. He had a vision added; and in 1737 the right of children of Quakers to of a political economy to be based not on selfishness but on love, not be considered as Quakers was fully recognized. From
on desire but on self-denial.
they have always been Christian in character, they have | Quakers, and in 1678 Fenwick with a large company of
ware, and landed at a fertile spot which he called Salem.
and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony,
£20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits to the
civilization and Christianity, to administer justice without
was predominant, and for seventy years after the foundairritating cannot be denied : some of them appear to have tion of Pennsylvania, the Indians are said 'never to have publicly mocked the institutions and the rulers of the taken the life of a white man ; and once when five hundred colony and to have interrupted public worship; and some Indians were assembled to concert a massacre they were of their men and women too acted with fanaticism turned from their purpose by six unarmed Friends. From and disorder. But even such conduct furnishes, but a England and Wales, from Scotland and Ireland, from the poor apology for inflicting stripes and death on men and Low Countries and the banks of the Rhine, where Penn's
The particulars of the proceedings of Governor missionary visit had made a deep impression, emigrants Endicott and the magistrates of New England as given crowded to Pennsylvania ; in two years Philadelphia had in Besse are startling to read. On the Restoration of risen to be a town of six hundred houses, and in three Charles II. a memorial was presented to him by the years from its foundation that city bad increased more Quakers in England stating the persecutions which their than New York in fifty years; and the first century of the fellow-members had undergone in New England. Even life of the colony exhibited in an unusual degree a scene the careless Charles was moved to issue an order to the of happiness and peace. But, on the other hand, little colony which effectually stopped the hanging of Quakers progress was made in winning the Indians to Christianity, for their religion, though it by no means put an end to and the annals of the infant State were full of petty the persecution of the body in New England.
quarrels and jealousies. Penn was a feudal sovereign, It is not wonderful that the Quakers, persecuted and having over him a Stuart king as his lord paramount at oppressed at home and in New England, should turn their home, and the absolute democracy which he had estabeyes to the unoccupied parts of America, and nourish the lished as his immediate dependents beneath him. In such hope of founding amidst their woods some refuge from relations there were necessarily elements of difficulty, and oppression and some likeness of a city of God upon earth. soon dissensions broke out between the governor and the In 1671-73 George Fox had visited the American planta colonists; a popular party was headed by members of the tious from Carolina to Rhode Island and had preached | Quaker body and opposed the founder, and the influx of alike to Indians and to settlers ; and in 1674 a moiety of members of other religious persuasions led to dissensions New Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to John Fenwick in the assembly. The officials of the Court of Admiralty in trust for Edward Byllinge. Both these men were set up claims at variance with Penn's notions ; differences
broke out between the province properly so-called and the QUARANTINE (Fr. quarantaine, a period of forty territories which afterwards became the State of Delaware. days) is, in the original sense of the term, a thing of the Penn was engaged in protracted quarrels as to the bound- past in the United Kingdom and in several of the other aries of his State; the English crown made requisitions states of Europe, as well as in America. Its interest is on the colonists for men and money to support the war in therefore largely historical, and a sketch of the history America against France. Penn was during some years will be given at the end of this article. But, in common suspended by the crown from his rights as governor; his usage, the same word is applied to the modern substitutes son and one of the deputy governors whom he sent out for quarantine, although these are a complete departure in disgraced themselves by their licentious conduct; the principle or theory from the indiscriminate system of colony gradually passed away from under the influence detention of ships and men, unlading of cargo in lazarets, of Quakerism; and Penn's “Civitas Dei” faded into an fumigation of susceptible articles, and the like, which used American republic. For many years large numbers of to be carried to great lengths on account of the plague and Quakers emigrated from England to America. The most in connexion with the Levantine trade. noteworthy incidents in their history are the part which Substitute for Quarantine in the United Kingdom.- The they have taken in that movement which has ended in the modern practice is to detain or refuse “pratique” to no abolition of slavery in the United States and the interest ship unless there be a communicable form of sickness on which they have exhibited in the native Indians.
board, or there had been such during the voyage. It is France. - The origin of the few Quaker congregations which exist the duty of the oflicers of customs to question the captain in France is curious. It seems that amongst the Camisards were
as to the existence of any catching disease the
among found a few who disapproved of the military operations by which
pastheir friends resisted the persecution of Louis XIV., who believed sengers or ship's company; if there be any evidence or in a spiritual light, who met for silent worship, and in other suspicion of communicable infection, the olficers of cusrespects were like Quakers. Certain it is that towards the end of toms report the same to the port sanitary authorities, who last ceretury a small body of persons holding these views and these have power to deal with the case under the Public Health practices existed at Congenies and other villages at the foot of the Act, and according to an order of the Local Government Cevennes. During the war between England and France consequent on the American strugglo for independence a Quaker was
Board first issued in 1873. The medical officer of health part owner in two luggers, which, against his protests, were employed proceeds at once to make an inspection, detaining the ship as privateers and captured two valuable prizes ; ho took his share of and all on board only until such time as the inspection can the spoil, invested and accumulated it, and on the conclusion of be satisfactorily made, the sick removed to hospital, and peaco in 1783 advertised in the Gazette de France for the owners of the captured ships. This advertisement came to the knowledge of disinfectants applied. This practice was adopted with the little body at Congeniès, and hence a communication was estab- success in the case of several arrivals from Baltic and lished between the French and English Quakers. Probably about North Sea ports with cholera on board in 1873, no extenthe same time certain American Quakers, on the invitation of the
sion of the disease on shore ensuing, and again in 1884 in French Govornment, migrated from Nantucket to Dunkirk, for the purpose of extonding tho fisheries. A curious episode in Quaker the case of a troopship arrived at Portsmouth direct from history is the presentation, on 10th February 1791, to the National Bombay, and of at least two arrivals (at Liverpool and Assembly of a petition from these two bodies of French Quakers, and Cardiff) from Marseilles, with cholera on board. It is also the reply of the president. The petition and answer were printed adopted from time to time on account of small-pox cases, by Baudoin, printer to the Assembly. Germany and Norway. — In both these countries exist small bodies and of other catching importations at the discretion of the of persons who have adopted the views and practices of the Quakers. port sanitary authority. Theso bodies date from early in the present century:
The last importation of yellow fever into the United Statistics of Quakerism. - The number of Quakers in England and Wales in 1680 was probably about 40,000, and in 1906"about Kingdom was at Swansea in September 1865, by a wooden 32,000. In 1983 the total number of members in England, Wales,
vessel with copper ore from St Jago de Cuba. There had and Scotland was returned as 15,219 (193 were in Scotland), an been cases of yellow fever on board during the voyage; ivereasu of 106 on the previous year, and the number of habitual but at Swansea (as in many other instances) the infection ntteners of meetings of the body, not members, was 5380, an increase of 150. In Ireland there were, in 1883, 2812 Quakers.
spread rather from the ship’s hull and the unladed cargo The Quakers in America number probably (including all bodies
than from the crew or their effects, and some fifteen deaths which claim to be friends) from 50,000 to 60,000 or upwards. ensued. If such a case were to occur again, it would be Besides these there are in Norway about 200, in France from 70 to dealt with, like any other communicable disease, by the $0, in Germany from 50 to 60, and in Australia and New Zealand port sanitary authority under the Public Health Act. The from 500 to 600 Quakers.
Bibliography - The writings of the early Quinkers are numerous; the most yellow-fever incident of 1865 at Swansea is the last ocnota xorthy are the Journal of George Fox and ine Life of Thomas Ellwood, both casion on which the sanction of the Quarantine Acts bas antobiographies, the Apology of Robert Barclay, and the works of Penn and l'enington The History the Quakers by William Sewel, a Dutch Quaker.
been appealed to. The privy council merely directed the was translated into English, and has gone through several editions; a llistory of board of customs to warn the parties implicated of their bis (London, 1737), is the chief authority as to the persecutions they endured. liability to prosecution, although no prosecution would be T'he peculiarities of the Society of friends, and the other writings of Joseph Jolin Gurney, exhibit the modern Evangelical Quakerism. The Book of Discipline of the
instituted. The Quarantine Acts are still unrepealed, but Society in His successive clitions from 17s2 to 1583, is the only authoritative they may be said to have become practically obsolete ment, and a comparison of the different editions would throw light on the changes during the past twenty years.
The Inner Lire of the Religious Societies of the Come on a walth (London, 1876), by Robert Barclay, a descendant of the apologist,
Quarantine or its Substitutes in other European Countries. contains much curious information abont the Qunkers. Smith's Descriptire - The principle of inspection, and of isolation of the sick, Cataloushem of Friends' Books (London, 1967) gives the information which its titlo promised Bancroft's llistory of the Colonization of the United Sates may be
as stated above for the United Kingdom, was accepted with casuited for the American history of Quakers. The periodicals now issued by small reservation by the sanitary conference of Vienna in members of the Qnaker bruly in Great Britain are the friend, The British Friend, Fricuhs' Quarterly Eraminer, and Friends' heriew,
(E. F.) 1874, and it is now more or less consistently acted upon QUANTAMPOH, or KONTAMPON, a town of the Gold by all the larger European maritime states except Spain Const region of western Africa, situated about so miles and Portugal. In times of cholera panic, quarantine of the north-east of Coomassie, in 7° 36' N. lat. and 1° f'W. original kind has been imposed against all arrivals from an long According to Captain Brandon Kirby, who was “infected country” by ports of the Levant and Black Sea, the first white man to reach the place, it had in 1881 a and by several Mediterranean states besides Spain. But it resident population of 15,000, and traders passed through is only in the ports of the Iberian Peninsula that the old it to the number of about 25,000. Formerly it was one quarantine traditions remain in force from year to year; and of the great ivory-marts of this part of Africa, and it is it is only for them that any special account need be given. still a centre of the cola-nut trade, the slave trade, (c. The principal occupation of the quarantine establish
of sentiment in the body.