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travelled to their meetings for worship, sometimes as disturbers of zeal of the Quaker body abated. Foreign missions had the clergy in their office because they spoke in churches, sometimes as guilty of breaches of the peace because they preached in streets

no existence except in the occasional travels of some or markets, sometimes for refusing to pay tithes, sometimes for wandering minister. The notion that the whole Christian refusing to take off their hats, sometimes for refusing to swear.

church would be absorbed in Quakerism, and that the So matters remained till the Restoration of Charles II., when the Quakers were in fact the church, passed away; and in its publication from Breda of his declaration for liberty of conscienco place grew up the conception that they were again raised hopes of case in the hearts of the Friends. But these

a peculiar these people hopes were again destined to disappointment. The laws under

to whom had been given a clearer insight into which the Quakers vero persecuted during the revived Stuart the truths of God than to the professing Christian world period wero (1) the common law, (2) the old legislation in ecclesi- around them, and that this sacred deposit was to be astical matters which was revived on Charles's accession, (3) the guarded with jealous care. Hence the Quakerism of this special legislation of the period, and (4) the ecclesiastical laws as period was mainly of a traditional kind: it dwelt with administered by the ecclesiastical courts. In the first class was the general law as to breakers of the peace; in the second class increasing emphasis on the peculiarities of dress and lanmay be mentioned the statute of O Hen. VIII. by which im- guage which tended to shut Quakers off socially from their prisonment was appointed as a punishment for non-payment fellow-men; it rested much upon discipline, which developed of tithes, the statuto of Elizabeth imposing the oath of supremacy, and hardened into rigorous forms; and the correction or the Act of Uniformity passed in the first year of Elizabeth, the Acts of the 23rd and 29th years of the saine qucen which im- exclusion of its members was a larger part of the business posed fines and penalties for non-attendance of church and the of the body than the winning of converts either to Christistatuto of tho 35th year of Elizabeth by which an obstinato anity or to Quakerism. offender in that matter was made a felon without benefit of clergy,

Excluded from political life by the constitution of the and, lastly, the statute of 3 James I. imposing the oath of allegianco. (3) The special legislation during this period under which country, cxcluding themselves not only from the frivolous the Quakers suffered included (a) a statute 13 & 14 Car. II. c. 1, pursuits of pleasure but from music and art in general, especially directed against them and punishing their refusal to with no high average of literary education (though they take an oath, or the taking part in assemblies for worship, with produced some men of eminence in medicine and science, fino, and a second conviction with an obligation to abjure the

as Dr Fothergill and Dr Dalton), the Quakers occupied realm, or transportation to any of the king's plantations ; (b) the Act of Uniformity (13 & 14 Car. II

. c. Å), more stringent than themselves largely with trade, the business of their society, that of Elizabeth ; (c) the Five-Mile Act passed in 1665 (17 Car. and the calls of philanthropy. In the middle and latter II. C. 4); and, lastly, the Conventicle Act of 1670 (22 Car. II.

part of last century they founded several institutions for c. 1). (4) The ecclesiastical courts, on the return of the Stuarts,

the vero restored to their former vigour, and Quakers were continually

thorough education of their children, and proceedled against in them for non-payment of tithes, oblations, entered upon many philanthropic labours. and other church claims, and also for non-attendance at the parish During this period Quakerism was sketched from the churches, and for contempt of the discipline and censures of the outside by two very different men. Voltaire (Dictionnaire church. Many of their body were accordingly excommunicated, Philosophique, s.rp. “Quaker,” “ Toleration”) has described and under the writ de cxcommunicato capicnilo confined to prison.

the body, which attracted his curiosity, his sympathy, and The passing of the Conventicle Act gave fresh vigour his sneers, with all his brilliance. Clarkson Portraiture to the persecution of Dissenters. But, on 15th March of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic ac1671-72, King Charles II. issued his declaration for count of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled suspending the penal laws in matters ecclesiastical, and amongst them from house to house on his crusade against shortly afterwards by pardon under the great scal released the slave trade. above four hundred Quakers from prison, remitted their 4. It cannot be denied that the theology of Quakerism fines, and released such of their estates as were forfeited had become somewhat mystic and quietist during the by pramunire. The dissatisfaction which this exercise of long period we have just considered. About the year 1826 the royal prerogative created induced the king in the an American Quaker named Hicks (4.7'.) openly denied following year to recall his proclamation, and the suffer- the divinity of Christ, depreciated the value of the Scripings of the Quakers revived; and, notwithstanding repre- tures, and recognized no other Saviour than the inwari sentations and appeals to King Charles II., the persecution light. A large body of the American Qunkers followed continued throughout his reign. On the accession of him, and still maintain a separate existence. It was this Jamos II., the Quakers addressed him with some hope movement which led to a counter movement in England, from his known friendship for William Penn, and pre- known in the Quaker bouly as the Beacon controversy, sented to him a list of the numbers of their members from the name of a book published in 183), advocating undergoing imprisonment in each county, amounting in views more nearly akin to those known as evangelical than all to fourteen hundred and sixty King James not long; were held loy many Quakers. I considerable discussion afterwards directed a stay of proceedings in all matters ensued, and a certain number of the Friends lolling these pending in the Exchequer against Quakers on the ground more evangelical doctrines departed from the parent stock, of non-attendance on national worship. In 1687 came leaving, however, behind them many intinential members the king's celebrated declaration for liberty of conscience, of the society who strove to give a more evangelical tone and in the following year the Revolution, which put an end to the Quaker theology. Joseph John Gurney, loy his to all persecution of the Quakers, though they remained various writings (some published before 1835), was the for many years liable to imprisonment for non-payment of most prominent actor in this movement. This juriod has tithes, and though they long laboured together with other also been marked, especially within the last few years, boy Dissenten under various disabilities—the gradual removal some revival of ausressive action, and Quakers liave takin of which is part of the general history of England. ! far more part in the teaching in Sunday schools in the

The Toleration Act was by no means the only legisla-' preaching of the gospel to the poor, and in the estabili-htion of the reign of William and Mary which brought casement of foreign missions than in the juriond immediately to the Quakers. The legislature carly hnd regard to their preceding. In 1817 an aviation was putablished to refusal to take oaths; and from 1689 to a very recent promote Sunday-chools in the boily: in 1979 a Friends' date numerous enactments have respected the peculiar foreign mission was estalilisheel; and the Quakers lave now scruples of the Friends. This special legislation may be a fow regular labourers in Malasir, India, Syria, and conveniently studied in Davis's Digest of Legislatie ('onstantinople. ments relating to Fricnls (Bristol, 1820).

. Other causes have bern at work modifying the Quaker 3. With the cessation of persecution in 1689 the body. The repeal of the Test Act, the admission of

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Quakers to parliament, the establishment of the university silent both in family worship and in their meetings. Of
of London, and more recently still the opening to Dis- late years, however, in some places passages from the Bible
senters of Oxford and Cambridge, have all operated on the are read in their meetings for worship. Furthermore the
body. It has almost entirely abandoned its peculiarities Quakers maintain the equal right of women with men to.
of dress and language; the cultivation of music and the preach and pray in their assemblies; and they cite the four
other arts is no longer discouraged except by a very few; daughters of Philip who prophesied, and other women
and literary and scientific tastes have been cultivated all who are mentioned in the New Testament as having
the more because their attention was not preoccupied with laboured much in the Lord, as showing that their practice
the love of field sports or of dancing. In fact a number is in accord with that of the early church.
of men either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivi Refusing to acknowledge the ministry of the Estab-
ties, large in proportion to the small body with which they lished Church, and holding that they could thus best
are connected, occupy positions of influence in English testify to “the spiritual reign and government of Christ,"
society, and carry with them, not the full body of Quaker the Quakers refused to pay all church rates, tithes, and
doctrine, but some leaven of Quaker habits and thoughts other ecclesiastical demands. To the year 1875 they
and feelings.

maintained the same objection against tithe-rent charge,
Doctrine.—It is not easy to state with certainty the and then abandoned it.
doctrines of a body which has never adopted any creed, The Quakers deny the lawfulness for a Christian of all
and whose views have undoubtedly undergone from time war, defensive or otherwise, and have always refused,
to time changes more or less definite. But the accepted often at the expense of much suffering, to take any part
writings of its members and the statements as to doctrine in military matters; they equally deny the lawfulness for
contained in the Book of Christian Discipline of the a Christian man to take any oath, even in a court of
society furnish materials.

justice, and the law of England has long recognized their The most characteristic doctrine of Quakerism is un- affirmations as giving validity to their evidence; they doubtedly this—that there is an immediate revelation of have denied themselves the cultivation of music, attendthe Spirit of God to each individual soul, that this light is ance at the theatres, and hunting, shooting, and field universal and comes both to the heathen and the Chris- sports generally as vain amusements inconsistent with tian, and thereby the love and grace of God towards man- the gravity and seriousness of Christian life; they have kind are universal. It is almost needless to call attention insisted on the duty of using language not only free from to the direct antithesis between this doctrine of the that profanity which was so common until lately but Quakers and the various doctrines of election held by the stripped of all flattery and purged of all dross of heathenPuritans, so that, if Quakerism be called the climax of ism; they enforced the duty of plainness of dress and of Puritanism, it is so only as the rebound is the climax excluding from it, and from the modes of salutation and of the wave. From the doctrine of the sufficiency of the address, everything calculated to satisfy vanity. in ward light proceed several other of the peculiar views of The result of these doctrines on Quaker manners was • Quakers. They have denied the necessity and abstained notorious, and proved a continual source of objection to

from the practice of the sacraments of baptism and the them on the part of their fellow-men, and frequently led · Lord's supper. The one baptism, says Barclay (12th pro- to persecutions. They adopted the singular number in. position), "is a pure and spiritual thing, to wit, the baptism addressing a single individual, however exalted; and the of the spirit and fire ..... of which the baptism of " thou” and “thee” used to a magistrate or a judge was John was a figure which was commanded for a time, and often a cause of great irritation. They refused to say not to continue for ever.” “The communion of the body

“The communion of the body "good night,” "good morrow,” or “good speed"; they and blood of Christ,” says the same author (13th proposi- adopted a numerical nomenclature for the months of the tion), “is inward and spiritual, which is the participation year and the days of the week. They refused to bow or of his flesh and blood by which the inward man is daily to remove their hats, and for this they suffered much.1 nourished in the hearts of those in whom Christ dwells, They forbore the drinking of healths, not merely as a ranity, of which things the breaking of bread by Christ with his but as a provocation to drink more than did people disciples was a figure.”

good.” They adopted a remarkable simplicity in their But not merely do the Quakers dispense with the sacra- marriages and their funerals. They used also great plainments; they exist without any priesthood or regular or ness in their houses and furniture and in their dress; and, ordained ministry; they allow the liberty of unlicensed by their tenaciously adhering to forms of attire which had preaching and prayer to every member of their society in fallen into disuse, their dress both for men and women their assemblies, and those in whom the body recognizes became antique and peculiar, and Quakers were easily rethe true gifts are publicly acknowledged as ministers. cognized as such by the garments they wore. FurtherBut by this act they attain to no greater power in the more they discarded the usual symbols of grief on the society than they possessed before. By the strength and death of their relations. power of the light of God, says Barclay in his 10th pro One point of morality on which the Friends have long position, every true minister of the gospel is ordained, insisted deserves notice. They require their members prepared, and supplied in the work of the ministry; and who may have been released from their debts by bankby the leading, moving, and drawing thereof ought every ruptcy or composition, when able to pay their debts in full, evangelist and Christian pastor to be led and ordered in to do so notwithstanding their legal discharge. his labour and work of the gospel both as to the place In the great doctrines of Christianity embodied in the where, the persons to whom, and as to the times when he apostles' creed the Quakers are in accord with their fellowis to minister.

Christians : they believe in the Father, Son, and Holy The Quakers not only have no stated ministry, but Spirit, in the atonement by Christ, and in sanctification they hold that no form of worship is so good as a patient by the Spirit; they receive and believe the Scriptures as waiting upon God in silence “by such as find no outward proceeding from the Spirit of God. A letter addressed ceremony, no observations, no words, yea not the best and by George Fox and others to the governor of Barbados in purest words, even the words of Scripture, able to satisfy 1671 (Journal, 1st ed., p. 358), and the “General Advices” their weary and afflicted souls." Hence, although per i See Thomas Ellwood's Journal for an account of his sufferings in mitting addresses from their members, they sit frequently this matter, at once pathetic and ludicrous.


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in the Book of Discipline, may usefully be consulted on these dates it is obvious that the last century saw a vigorthis point.

ous development of the disciplinary element in QuakerOrganization and Discipline.--The duty of watching ism ; it was probably the time of greatest rigour as over one another for good was insisted on by the early regards external matters and of the greatest severity in Friends, and has been embodied in a system of discipline. punishing so-called delinquencies. In Aberdeen the meetIts objects embrace (a) exhortation and admonition to ing entered on their minutes an elaborate description of those who walk contrary to the standard of Quaker what was and what was not to be endured in the dress of cthics, and the exclusion of obstinate or gross offenders men and women ; and York quarterly meeting was from the body, and as incident to this the hearing of disturbed at the presence of young women in long cloaks appeals from individuals or meetings considering them and bonnets that they were ordered to take advice before selves aggrieved; (b) the care and maintenance of the coming to York, and one monthly meeting directed that poor and provision for the Christian education of their those young women who intended to go to York were to children, for which purpose the society has established appear before their own meeting “in their clothes that numerous boarding schools in different parts of the they intend to have on at York." country; (c) the amicable settlement of "all differences Of late years the stringency of the Quaker discipline about outward things,” either by the parties in contro- has been relaxed : the peculiarities of dress and language versy or by the submission of the dispute to arbitration, have been abandoned; marriage with an outsider has and the restraint of all proceedings at law between ceased to be a certain ground for exclusion from the members except by leave; (d) the recognition of ministers body; and, above all, many of its members have come to as such ; (e) the cognizance of all steps preceding marriage “the conviction, which is not new, but old, that the virtues according to Quaker forms; (f) the registration of births, which can be rewarded and the vices which can be deaths, and marriages; (g) the issuing of certificates or punished by external discipline are not as a rule the letters of approval granted to ministers travelling away virtues and the vices that make or mar the soul” (IIatch, from their homes, or to members removing from one Bampton Lectures, 81). meeting to another; and (h) the management of the pro The Quakers maintain that their system of church perty belonging to the society. The present organization government and of discipline is in close accordance with of the Quaker church is essentially democratic—it has that of the early church. That it has some great differnot and never had any president or head; and in theory ences cannot be denied, especially when we think of overy person born of Quaker parents is a Quaker and baptism and the Lord's supper; that it has some importentitled to tako part in all the general assemblies of tho ant points of likeness, especially in the care of each body. The members are grouped together in a series of member for the others and in the maintenance of the subordinated meetings which recall to the mind the Pres poor, is equally certain. The portraiture of the carly byterian model. The unit is known as a “particular Christian church recently drawn by Dr Ilatch in his meeting "; next in order comes “the monthly meeting,” Bampton Lertures is in many respects likely to recall the usually embracing several particular meetings called to lineaments of Quakerism. gether, as its name indicates, monthly; then the quarterly Philanthropic Interests.-A genuine vein of philanmeeting,” embracing several monthly meetings; and lastly thropy has always existed in the Quaker body. In “the yearly meeting,” embracing the whole of Great nothing has this been more conspicuous than in the matter Britain. Representatives are sent from cach inferior to of slavery. George Fox and William lenn laboured to cach superior meeting; but all Quakers may attend and secure the religious teaching of slaves. As carly as 1676 take part in any of these meetings. This system is the assembly of Barbados passed “An Act to prevent double, cach meeting of "men Friends” having its the people called Quakers from bringing negrues to counterpart in a meeting of “women Friends"; and they their meetings." John Woolman' laboured amongst the usually meet at the same time, and join together in the Quakers of America for the liberation of the slaves with devotional gatherings which take place before or after the the most winning tenderness. The Quakers were the meetings for discipline. The mode of conducting these first Christian body that purged themselves of the stain meetings is noteworthy. There is no president, but only of dealing in slaves. As carly as 1780 not a slave was A secretary or clerk; there are no formal resolutions; and owned by any Friend in England or America with the there is no voting. The clerk ascertains what he con- knowledge and consent of the society. In 1783 the first siders to be the judgment of the assembly, and records it petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the in a minute.

slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and The offices known to the Quaker body are—(1) that of throughout the long agitations which ensued before that minister : (9) of elder, whose duty it is "to encourage prayer was granted the society took an active and proand help young ministers, and adviso others as they in minent part. the wisdom of God see occasion "; and (3) overseers to In 1798 Lancaster opened his first school for the educawhom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care tion of the poor; and the cause of unsectarian religious for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize education found in the Quakers steadly support. They av obligatory in all the members of a church. These have taken also an active part in Sir Samuel Romillys otticen hold from time to time meetings separate from the efforts to ameliorate the penal code: in prison reformation mineral ademblies of the members.

(1813), with which the name of Elizabeth Fry is opcrially This present form both of organization and discipline connerteil; in the efforts to ameliorate the condition of has been reached only by a process of development. The lunaties in Englanıl (the Friends Retreat at York, founded 49.arterly or general meetings seem to have been the first in 179-, having been remarkalole as an early example of union of Nepamte congregations. In 1666 Fox established kindly treatment of the insane); and in many other phil. monthly meetings In 1672 was held the first yearly anthropoie movements. messing in London. In 1675 certain "canons and institu One thing is noteworthy in Quaker (thirts for the cdution" were issued to the quarterly meetings. In 17:27 ! cation of the games and philanthropis in general: whi!-t elders were first appointed. In 1732 overseers were

::: 11 : fi tu..arhoile lasinin added : and in 1737 the right of children of Quakers to of a qualitical :tolased lint on selles lui on line 1.6 le considered as Quakers was fully recognized. From on de-ire lout on setlerinal.

they have always been Christian in character, they have Quakers, and in 1678 Fenwick with a large company of not to any considerable extent been used as a means of his co-religionists crossed the Atlantic, sailed up the Delabringing proselytes within the body.

ware, and landed at a fertile spot which he called Salem. Quakerism in Scotland.—Quakerism was preached in Byllinge, having become embarrassed in his circumstances, Scotland very soon after its rise in England ; but in the placed his interest in the State in the hands of Penn and north and south of Scotland there existed independently others as trustees for his creditors, and they invited buyers, of and before this preaching groups of persons who were and companies of Quakers in Yorkshire and London were dissatisfied with the national form of worship and met amongst the largest purchasers. In 1677-78 five vessels together in silence for devotion. They naturally fell into with cight hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in this society. In Aberdeen the Quakers took considerable the colony (now separated from the rest of New Jersey hold, and were there joined by some persons of influence under the name of West New Jersey), and the town of and position, especially Alexander Jaffray, some time pro- Burlington was established. In 1677 the fundamental vost of Aberdeen, and Colonel David Barclay of Ury and laws of West New Jersey were published, and recognized his son Robert, the author of the apology. Much light in a most absolute form the principles of democratic has been thrown on the history of the Quakers in Aber- equality and perfect freedom of conscience. Notwithdeenshire by the discovery in 1826 at Ury of a MS. Diury standing certain troubles from claims of the governor of of Jaffray, since published with elucidations (2nd ed., New York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, London, 1836).

and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony, Ireland. The father of Quakerism in Ireland was consisting mainly of Quakers, was held. They agreed to William Edmondson ; his preachings began in 1653–54. raise an annual sum of £200 for the expenses of their The Ilistory of the Quakers in Ireland (from 1653 to 1752), commonwealth ; they assigned their governor a salary of by Wright and Rutty, may be consulted.

£20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits to the America.—The earliest appearance of Quakers in America Indians, and forbade imprisonment for debt. is a remarkable one. In July 1656 two women Quakers, But beyond question the most interesting event in conMary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived at Boston. Under nexion with Quakerism in America is the foundation by the general law against heresy their books were burnt by William PENN (4.2.) of the colony of Pennsylvania, where the hangman, they were searched for signs of witchcraft, he hoped to carry into effect the principles of his sect—to they were imprisoned for five weeks and then sent away. found and govern a colony without armies or military During the same year eight others were sent back to power, to reduce the Indians by justice and kindness to England.

civilization and Christianity, to administer justice without In 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the oaths, and to extend an equal toleration to all persons introduction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was professing theism. Such was "the holy experiment,” as enacted that on the first conviction one car should be cut Penn called it, which he tried, and which seemed as if it off, on the second the remaining ear, and that on the third was destined to put Quakerism to practical proof. In conviction the tongue should be bored with a hot iron. 1681 he obtained a grant of the colony from Charles II., Fines were laid upon all who entertained Quakers or were and in the following year settled the frame of government present at their meetings. Thereupon the Quakers, who for the State and sailed for America. Here he entered were perlaps not without the obstinacy of which Marcus into his celebrated treaty of unity with the Indians,“ lo Antoninus complained in the carly Christians, rushed to seul traité entre ces peuples et les Chrétiens qui n'est point Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the été juré et qui n'est point été rompu.” What was the general court of the colony banished them on pain of : result of this attempt to realize Quaker principles in a new death, and four Quakers, three men and one woman, were country and on a virgin soil ? The answer is in some respects hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or indecisive. During the time that the Quaker influence obstinately returning within it. That the Quakers were was predominant, and for seventy years after the foundairritating cannot be denied : some of them appear to have i tion of Pennsylvania, the Indians are said never to have publicly mocked the institutions and the rulers of the taken the life of a white man; and once when five hundred colony and to have interrupted public worship; and some Indians were assembled to concert a massacre they were of their men and women too acted with fanaticism turned from their purpose by six unarmed Friends. From and disorder. But even such conduct furnishes. but a England and Wales, from Scotland and Ireland, from the poor apology for inflicting stripes and death on men and Low Countries and the banks of the Rhine, where Penn's

The particulars of the proceedings of Governor missionary visit had made a deep impression, emigrants Indicott and the magistrates of New England as given crowded to Pennsylvania; in two years Philadelphia had in Besse are startling to read. On the Restoration of risen to be a town of six hundred houses, and in three Charles II. a memorial was presented to him by the years from its foundation that city had increased more Quakers in England stating the persecutions which their than New York in fifty years; and the first century of the fellow-members had undergone in New England. Even life of the colony exhibited in an unusual degree a scene the careless Charles was moved to issue an order to the of happiness and peace. But, on the other hand, little colony which effectually stopped the hanging of Quakers progress was made in winning the Indians to Christianity, for their religion, though it by no means put an end to and the annals of the infant State were full of petty the persecution of the body in New England.

quarrels and jealousies. Penn was a feudal sovereign, It is not wonderful that the Quakers, persecuted and haviny over him a Stuart king as his lord paramount at oppressed at home and in New England, should turn their home, and the absolute democracy which he had estabeyes to the unoccupied parts of America, and nourish the lished as his immediate dependents beneath him. In such hope of founding amidst their woods some refuge from relations there were necessarily elements of difficulty, and oppression and some likeness of a city of God upon earth. soon dissensions broke out between the governor and the In 1671-73 George Fox had visited the American planta- colonists ; a popular party was headed by members of the tions from Carolina to Rhode Island and had preached | Quaker body and opposed the founder, and the influx of alike to Indians and to settlers; and in 1674 a moiety of members of other religious persuasions led to dissensions New Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to John Fenwick in the assembly. The officials of the Court of Admiralty in trust for Edward Byllinge. Both these men were set up claims at variance with Penn's notions ; differences

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broke out between the province properly so-called and the QUARANTINE (Fr. quarantaine, a period of forty territories which afterwards became the State of Delaware. days) is, in the original sense of the term, a thing of the Penn was engaged in protracted quarrels as to the bound past in the United Kingdom and in several of the other aries of his State; the English crown made requisitions states of Europe, as well as in America. Its interest is on the colonists for men and money to support the war in therefore largely historical, and a sketch of the history America against France. Penn was during some years will be given at the end of this article. But, in common suspended by the crown from his rights as governor; his usage, the same word is applied to the modern substitutes son and one of the deputy governors whom he sent out for quarantine, although these are a complete departure in disgraced themselves by their licentious conduct; the principle or theory from the indiscriminate system of colony gradually passed away from under the influence detention of ships and men, unlading of cargo in lazarets, of Quakerism; and Penn's "Civitas Dei” faded into an fumigation of susceptible articles, and the like, which used American republic. For many years large numbers of to be carried to great lengths on account of the plague and Quakers emigrated from England to America. The most - in connexion with the Levantine trade. noteworthy incidents in their history are the part which Substitute for Quarantine in the United Kingdom.—The they have taken in that movement which has ended in the modern practice is to detain or refuse “pratique” to no abolition of slavery in the United States and the interest ship unless there be a communicable form of sickness on which they have exhibited in the native Indians.

board, or there had been such during the voyage.

It is France. The origin of the few Quaker congregations which exist the duty of the officers of customs to question the captain in France is curious. It seems that amongst the Camisards were as to the existence of any catching disease among the pasfound a few who disapproved of the inilitary operations by which i their friends resisted the persecution of Louis XIV., who believed sengers or ship's company; if there be any evidence or in a spiritual light, who met for silent worship, and in other suspicion of communicable infection, the officers of cusrespects were like Quakers. Certain it is that towards the end of

toms report the same to the port sanitary authorities, who last century a small boily of persons holding these views and these have power to deal with the case under the Public Health practices existod at Congenies and other villages at the foot of the Act, and according to an order of the Local Government quent on the American struggle for independence a Quaker was · Board first issued in 1873. The medical officer of health part owner in two luggers, which, against his protests, were employed proceeds at once to make an inspection, detaining the ship as privateers and captured two valuable prizes; he took his share of and all on board only until such time as the inspection can the spoil, invested and accumulated it, and on the conclusion of be satisfactorily made, the sick removed to hospital

, and the captured ships. This advertisement came to the knowledge of disinfectants applied. This practice was adopted with the little boily at Congeniès, and hence a communication was estab success in the case of several arrivals from Baltic and lished between the French and English Quakers. Probably about North Sea ports with cholera on board in 1873, no extenthe same time certain American Quakers, on the invitation of the 'sion of the disease on shore ensuing, and again in 1884 in French Government, migrated from Nantucket to Dunkirk, for the purpose of extending the fisheries. A curious episode in Quaker the case of a troopship arrived at Portsmouth direct from history is the presentation, on 10th February 1791, to the National Bombay, and of at least two arrivals (at Liverpool and Assembly of a petition from these two bodies of French Quakers, am Cardiff) from Marseilles, with cholera on board. It is also the replý of the president. Thu petition anıl answer were printeil adopted from time to time on account of small-pox cases, by Baudoin, printer to the Assembly.

Germunny and Norway.-In both these countries exist small boilies and of other catching importations at the discretion of the of persons who have adopted the views and practices of tho Quakers. port sanitary authority. These boilies date froin early in the present century;

The last importation of yellow fever into the l'nited Statistics of Quakerism. — The number of Quakers in Englanıl and Walıs in 1680 was probably about 40,000, and in 1906"abont Kingdom was at Swansea in September 1865, by a wooden 32,000. In 1883 the total number of members in England, Wales, vessel with copper ore from St Jago de Cuba. There had and Suntland was returneul ns 15,219 (193 were in Scotland), an been cases of yellow fever on board during the royaye; increase of 106 on the previous year, anıl the number of habitual but at Swansea (as in many other instances) the infection attenders of meetings of the buily, not members, was 5380, an in- spread rather from the ship's hull and the unladed cargo The Quakers in America number pirobably (incluing ni boilies than from the crew or their effects, and some fifteen deaths which claim to le Friends) from 60,000 to 60,000 or upwards. ensued. If such a case were to occur again, it would be 1Busiles these there are in Vorway about 200, in France from 70 to dealt with, like any other communicable disease, by the $0, in (irrmany from 50 to 60, and in Australia and New Zealand port sanitary authority under the Public Health Ict. The from 500 to 600 Quakers.

RiM do-raphy.--The writings of the early Quakers are numerous: the mout yellow-ferer incident of 1865 at Swansea is the last ocnetecorely are the Journal of George Fox and the life of Thomas Ellwood, both casion on which the sanction of the Quarantine Acts has l'enington. was translated into English, and has gone through several editions; Whiteru o board of customs to warn the parties implicated of their

The History of the Quakers by William Sewel, a Dutch Quaker been appealed to. The privy council merely directed the les (London, 1754), is the chief authority as to the persecutions they endured liability to proscrution, although no prosecution would be

w pou'larities prihr Srirty of Friends and the other writings of Joseph Jolin lurry, rxhibit the moler Esangelical Quakerism. The berikut inscip'me of the instituted. The Quarantine Jets are still unrepealed, but Scters, in its successive colitions from 1 to 163, is the only authoritative they may be said to have become practically obsolete m-ne, anul a comparison of the different culitions would tlırow light on the changes during the past twenty purs, sif erntiment in the bowly. The Inner Life of the Royne Svir jos of the ramua! (London, 1976). by Robert Harclay, a descendant of the apwlogise !

Quirtine or its Substitutes in other Europam ('ountries. rintains mach curious information about the Qunkers. Sniith's D. Grere - The principle of inspection, and of isolation of the sick, ruline of Friomis' fonks (london, 1967) gives the inforination which is title primir Hanctuft's History of the Coloration of the Intel Suns may lien as stated above for the l’nited Kingdom, was arompted with mometer of the Quaker bowly in Great Britain are the minut British

in small reservation loy the sanitary conference of Vienna in Prin Quarterly Erambir, and Friends Person.

(C..F.) 1874, and it is now more or less consistently acted upon QUASTAMPOH, or kentampOH, a town of the Gold by all the larger European maritime state's except Spain l'inst region of western Africa, situated about 80 miles and Portugal. In times of cholera pune quarantine of the north-east of (ooniassic, in ņu 36' V. Int. and 1' f'W. original kinil has been impuesce a Saini-t all arrivals from an long. According to Captain Brandon Kirly, who was "infected country" by parts of the Levant and Black Sea, the first white man to reach the place, it had in 1881 a ani liy several Mediterranean stapromluvides lain. But it resident population of 15,000, and traders passed through is only in the mists of the Irrian Peninsula that the old it to the number of about 25,000. Formerly it was one quarantine traditions tumsin in force from par to var: and of the great ivory-marts of this part of Africa, and it is it is only for them that any pucial account nire le viven. still a centre of the cola-nut trade, the slave trade, &c. The principal verujiation of the quarantine establish

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