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Ruhr, and there are also extensive coal-fields in Silesia. With the IIanover, while hops are raised chiefly in Posen and Saxony. The exception of the Danube Prussia is traversed by all the chief rivers cultivation of rape-seed for oil has failen off since the use of petroof Germany, comprising almost the entire course of the Oder and leum has becoine general. The tobacco of Silesia, Brandenburg, the Weser. Nearly the whole of the German coast-line belongs to Hanover, and the Rhine province is inferior to that of southern Prussia, and it possesses all the important seaports except the two Germany; the annual value of Prussian-grown tobacco is about most important of all, Hamburg and Bremen.

£500,000, or one-fourth of the total produce of the empire. Only Climate. Climate. — The climate of Prussia is rendered more uniform than a comparatively small part of the Rhenish wine district falls within

it would otherwise be by the fact that the average elevation in- | Prussia, which pes not claim more than a sixth (200,000,000 creases from north to south. The greatest extremes of temperature gallons, value £100,000) of the annual produce of Germany; but are found between the east and west, the mean annual warmth in this includes many of the choicest varieties, such as Steinberger, the bleak and exposed provinces of the north-east being about 14° Johannisberger, and Rüdesheimer. The best vineyards of the Fahr., while that of the sheltered valley.of the Rhine is 6° higher. Moselle also belong to Prussia, and inferior kinds of wine are proThe difference is greatest in winter, when the respective means are ducel in Saxony and Lower Silesia. Great quantities of apples, 26° and 35° ; in summer the difference is not above 2 to 4'. In cherries, and plums are raised on the Rhine, in Saxony, and other Prussia as a whole the thermometer ranges from 100° to - 30', but districts, while market-gardening on an extensive scale is practiseal these extremes are rarely reached. The average annual rainfall is near Erfurt and some other large towns. The hay-meadows of the about 21 inches; it is highest in the hilly listrict on the west (34 eastern provinces are the largest, but those in the west bear heavier inches) and on the north-west coast (30 to 32 inches), and lowest (16 crops. The richest pasture is afforded by the marshlands along the inches) in the inland parts of the eastern provinces.

North Sea and by the plain of the lower Rhine, while the large
Soil, Soil. - According to the most recent official returns, about 29 per moors of Westphalia anıl Hanover are of comparatively little value

cent. of the soil of Prussia consists of good loam or clay, 32 per in this respect. The accompanying table shows the yield in tons
cent. is melliocre or of loam and sand mixed, 31 per cent. is pre of the principal crops in 1883, in which year, however, the returns
clominantly sandy, and 6 per cent. is occupied by boys and marshes. were rather below the average :-
The north-eastern provinces contain a high proportion of poor soil,
and in the north-west occur large tracts of heath and moor. The Province. Rye. Whert. Barley:


Hay. reclaimed marshlands in both districts, as well as the soil in the

East Prusia. 330,565 immediate neighbourhool of the rivers, are usually very fertile,

71,987' 211,139 586,640 600,231

West Prussia 209,0:30 $33.60S 699,000 119,710 838,953 320,984 and admirable tracts of fruitful ground are found in the valleys of Brandenburg

35,903 74,330 140,382 | 2,555,660 699,751 the Rhine and its affluents and in the plain around Vagilebury.

310,78 61,406 599,551 183,534 | 1,240,691

71,1563 Patient and long-continuel effort has, however, done much to

93,670 1,377,857 435,534 Silesia.

451,700 177,981 · 174,671' 330,810 1,929,859 703,269 equalize production, and large crops are now grown in some of the Saxony

377,259 1997,2231 278,237 204,808 1,744,9841 424,477 most unpromising parts of the kingilom. Prussia contains a greater Schleswig 191,793 73,019 60,773 196,731 224,869 375,469 proportion of tilled land than any of the countries of south Germany,


459,780 130,438 47,053' 177,401 | 1,003,765' 715,734 while it is surpassed in this respect by Saxony, Hesse-Darmstalt, Westphalia 204,3.38 i

SS, 1.33

116, +33 714,486' 333,8:13 and tho Thuringian states. The most fertile Prussian province is Hesse-Nassau 117,935 60,110 8,136 90,042 642,360 386,781 Saxony, while the least productive are East and West Prussia.

Rhenish Prussia


43,075 24,720 1,383,132 478,575

Ilohenzollern The following table shows the (listribution of the cultivable area in

1,894 11,403

99,433 19,955 18,197 the different provinces and in the country as a whole :

3,898,6:17 1,257,710 1,010,0:36 2,125,435 14,263, 211 0,101,125
Arable Land,

Meadow and


Forests, 50 per cent.

About one-half of the cultivable soil is in the possession of owners 20-4 percent 233 percent.

with properties exceeding 150 acres in extent and averaging 860

acres, while one-half of the total number of owners occupy only Sq. miles. lcres.


East Prussia
14,250 4,70:9,293
2,127,317 1,081,057

one-fortieth of the entire area. The manner of distribution varies West Prussia..

9,8.30 3,155,000 1,124,885 1.349,392 greatly in different parts of the kingilom, large properties prevailing Brandenburg

15,410 4,586,360 1,187,872 3,203,63.5 in the less fertile regions in the cast and easant-holdings in the Pomerania 11,020 4,152,002 !

1,108,882 1,180,990 Posen

West. In the district of Stralsund the average number of land11,150 4,152,360 9,34,150 1,464,413 Silesia 13,560 5,588,090 1,055,487 2,907,570

owners for each German square mile is 100, while in the district Saxony

9,750 3,836,192 826,352 1,269,920 of Wiesbaden it is ten times as high. In Silesia and Posen latiSchleswig-Holstein 7,250 2,712,575 1,357,905 257,917 Hanover

funulia occupy nearly half the total area, though this disproportion 14,840

3,120,182 4,345,115 1,512,567
7,800 2,121,745 1,202,5:30 1,111,085

is gradually disappearing there as elsewhere. As a general rule the Hesse-Nassau

6,060 1,361,552 (23,572 1,772, +32 best crops seem to be raised on the holdings of intermediate size. Rhenish Prussia

10,420 3,134,190 1,158,005 2,073,550 Lirc Štuck.-:lccording to an enumeration made in 1883, Prussia Live Hohenzollern 140 130,907 50,212 94,032

contains 2,117,611 horses, 8,737,367 cattle, 14,752, 328_sheep, stock. Total.... 134,-190 13,500,510 17,782,944 20,311,299 5,819, 1:36 pigs, and 1,680,686 goats. The province of East Prussia,

with the principal Government stud of Trakehnen, is the headPrussia contains a greater proportion of woodland than any other quarters of horse - rearing, and contains the greatest number of large country in the south or west of Europe (France 17 per cent., Horses both relatively (1 per 5 inhabitants) and absolutely (383,555). Italy 12 per cent., Great Britain 3 per cent.), though not so largé The horses bred there are generally suitable for the lighter kind of a proportion as Russia, Iustria, and some of the minor German work only, and are in great request for military purposes. Horses states. The most extensive forests are in East and West Prussia, of a stouter type are breel in Schleswig-Holstein and on the Rhine, Silesia, and Brandenburg, where coniferous trees prevail, and in but heavy draught horses have to be imported from France, Holland, the Rhenish and Ilessian districts, where oaks and beeches are the Belgium, and Denmark. The best cattle are reared in the maritime most prominent growths. The north-west is almost entirely desti- provinces, and the highest proportion (65 per 100 inhabitants) is tute of timber, and peat is there used universally as fuel. The found in Schleswig-Holstein, whenee, as well as from the marshy Government forests cover about 6,000,000 acres, or upwarls of one lowlands of Hanover, large numbers are exported to England. fourth of the whole, and are aılmirably managed, bringing in an As a rule, however, the south German states are richer in cattle annual revenue of 11 millions sterling. The state also controls the than Prussia. Irussia is one of the leading sheep-breeding countries management of forests in private possession, and exerts itself to of Europe, and much has been done to improve the race and increase secure the planting of waste lands.

the value of the flesh and wool. In Pomerania there are 170 sheep Products. Products. The principal crop in Prussia is rye, of which the for every 100 inhabitants, and West Prussia and l'osen also contain

or linary breal of the country is madle; it grows in all parts of the a high proportion. The total number of sheep in l’russia is, howkingilom, especially in the north and cast, and occupies about one ever, diminishing owing to the spread of agriculture and the infourth of the whole tille surface. Oats occupy an area equal to creased importation of wool; in 1861 it was nearly 21 millions. about half that devoted to rye, and are also grown most extensively Swine abound in the central provinces, and hams and sausages are in the north-eastern districts. Wheat, which is chiefly cultivated largely exported from Westphalia, llanover, and Saxony. Huge in the south and west, does not cover more than a fourth as much flocks of geese are reared in Pomerania, and bee-keeping is a profitground as rye. Barley is most largely grown in Saxony and Silesia. able industry in IIanover, East and West Prussia, and the province Other grain crops are spelt (chiefly on the Rhine), buckwheat of the Rhine. (Hanover and Schleswig-lIolstein), and millet; maize is grown for Fisheries. — The fishery on the Baltic Sea and its haffs employs Fisheries, fodder in some districts. The produce of grain scarcely covers the about 15,000 men, and that on the North Sea about 2000 more. consumption and is supplemented by imports of rye and other in the former the take consists mainly of herrings, flat fish, salmon, cereals from Russia and Ilolland. Potatoes, used both as food and mackerel, and cels, while the chief objects of the latter are cod and for the distillation of spirits, are cultivated over nearly as large an oysters. Inland fishery has been encouraged by the foundation of area as rye and are especially predominant in the eastern provinces. numerous piscicultural establishments and by the enactment of The common beet is extensively grown for the procluction of sugar close-time laws. Carp, pereh, pike, and salmon, the latter especiin Saxony, Hanover, Silesia, Pomerania, and Brandenburg. Flax ally in the Rhine, are the principal varieties; sturgeon are taken and hemp occupy considerable areas in East Prussia, Silesia, and in the Elbe and Oder, and the lakes of East Irussia swarm with

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bream and lampreys. Game of various kinds abounds in different development in the district of the Rulr. Steel is made most exparts of Prussia, and the lakes are frequented by large flocks of tensively in the districts of Arnsberg (Westphalia) and Diisseldorf ; water-fowl.

at Essen in the latter is Krupp's celebrated cannon-foundry, with Minerals. Minerals. Although it is obvious that the recent formations 20,000 workmen. Small iron and steel goods also coine chiefly

of the north German plain can boast of little or no mineral wealth, from the Westphalian and Rhenish districts; and the cutlery of Prussia still takes rank among the great mining states. Its produce Solingen, the tools of Remscheid, and the needles of Aix-laof coal and iron exceeds that of any country in Europe, except Great Chapelle enjoy a widespread reputation. Berlin is the chief seat Britain ; in the production of zinc it is the foremost country in the of the manufacture of machinery and locomotives. Small arms are world ; and its stores of salt are very considerable. In 1882 the made at Suhl, Spandau, Potsdam, and Sömmerdla (Erfurt). Articles total value of the mineral produco of Prussia was about 172 millions in bronze, brass, and electro-plate are largely made at and exported sterling. About 370,000 persons are employed in its mines, the from Berlin, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Iserlohn, and Altena, while larger part of whom are engaged in the production of coal. For gold and silver goods are produced chiefly at Berlin and Hanan. purposes of alministration and supervision the entire country is The textile industries of Prussia are also important, employing divided into five mining districts (Oberbergamtsbezirke), the headl-400,000 workpeople, though they do not rank in extent with those quarters of which are Breslau, Halle, Klausthal (in the Harz), Dort of Great Britain. Until recently the chief textile manufacture mund, and Bonu.

was linen, which was largely made by hand in Silesia, Westphalia, The two great deposits of coal are in the basin of the Ruhr on and Saxony. The clomestie mode of manufacture has now to a the west, where about 20 million tons are raised annually, and in great extent disappeared, but Westphalian and Silesian linens still Upper Silesin, where the beds are still more extensive but the coal maintain their reputation. The manufacture covers the home of a somewhat inferior quality. The greater part of the smaller demand, but about one-third of the necessary flax and hemp has but valuable coal-field of the Saar also belongs to Prussia, and other to be importeil. Jute is made at Bielefeld and Bon. The manuimportant beels occur in Lower Silesia, near Talle, and near Aix-la facture of cotton las of late maile great progress, though it is not Chapelle. In 1882 Prussia produced upwards of 17 million tons so important in Prussia as in the kingilom of Saxony and in of conl, equal to 90 per cent. of the total yield of Germany, anıl Alsace. The chief centres of this branch of industry are Diisseldouble the output of 1869. Nearly three-fourths of this amount dorf, Miinster, Elberfeld-Barmen, Hanover, Breslau, and Liegnitz. came from the western coal-fiells and upwarıls of one-fourth from About 65 per cent of the woollen yarn of Germany is maile in the coal-measures of Silesia. The total value was £11,636,250. Prussia, and woollen cloth of good quality is produced in the proBrown coal or lignite is found throughout the whole of Prussia, vince of the Rhine, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Saxony:

The except in the extremo north-east and north-west, but occurs most spinning and weaving of worsted and woollen cloth are also still plentifully in Saxony, Brandenburg, and north Silesin. In 1882 carried on throughout the country as domestic industries, but not the produce was nearly 11 million tons, value 14 millions sterling: to such an extent as formerly. Wool and worsted yarn are imported Peat' is cut in large quantities in Hanover, where 15 per cent of from England and other countries, but the clotli manufactured is the surface consists of moorland. Iron is found in all parts of much in excess of the home demand and forms an important article Prussia, occurring in the form of boy-iron ore even in the northern of export. Carpets are made at Berlin and at Düreri in the Rhine lowlins. The richest districts are those of C'oblentz in the province province. Silk'is manufacture at Crefeld, Elberfeld-Barmen, and of the Rhino, Arnsbery in Westphalia, Oppeln in Silesia, and other places near the Rhine. Though hardly reaching the high Wiesbaden. A valuable bel of magnetic-iron ore occurs in the standaril of that of Lyons, Rhenish silk commands a good price, Harz. In 1882 fully 4,000,000 tons of iron ore were raised in anl is exported to England, America, Russia, and Austria. l'russia, valucıl at £1,415,950 and forming 70 per cent. of the total Tobacco and cigars are largely manufactured at Berlin and yielil of Germany. The quantity of piy-iron smelted from these numerous other towns, and to soine extent wherever the tobacco and from imported ores was 2,467,500 tons and its value £7,490,000 plant is cultivated. The amual consumption of tobacco amounts I'russia prolures nearly the whole of the zine of Germany, and to about 4 lb) per head of population, or nearly thice as much as Silesia three-fourths of that of Prussia ; in 1882 the amount was in Great Britain ; but the revenue derived from the tobacco excise, 113.300 tons, valued at £1,795,000. The produce of lead in the owing to the small impost on home-made tobacco, is not more than sine year was 88,300 tons, valued at £1,200,000 and found mainly 61. a heall as compared with os. per head in England. A comin the valley of the Lahn near Coblentz, in Silesia, in the Harz, anil paratively modern but very important branch of industry is the in lleswaxxau. L'opper was proluced to the extent of 15, 400 manfarture of sugar from the common beet. The great centre of tons and the value of £1,025,000 ; five-sevenths were raised in this industry is the province of Saxony, which in 1882-83 contained Sarony, which includes some of the procluctive mines of the Harz. nearly half the 200 sugar-works in the kingdom, the remainder Silver and gold aro extracted from the copper ore of Mansfell in being chiefly in Hanover and Silesia. Ipwards of 600,000 tons of Siriony, anil silver also from the leail or's of Silesia, Aix-la 1.W sugar and 100,000 tous of molasses are produced annually.' Chapelle, Wiesbaden, anil Arnsberg. In 1882 the value of the About 320 million gallons of beer are bewed in lrussia pur annum sylser snelted out was £1,214,700, of gold only £9050. Salt also an, about 35 million more are imported from Bavaria and Bohemia ; ranks high in importance among the mineral treasures of Prussia. the consumption pwr head, amounting from 65 to 70 quarts, is In 1854 The total yiell included 252,300 tons of boiled salt, 210,100 about half of the English and one-fourth of the Bavarian rate. torn of ro«k-salt, and 85, 100 tons of other salts, with a total value Wine-making, as already mentioned, is an important industry on of 2719,600. Brine springs occur throughout almost the whole the Rline, and large quantities of spirits are listilled from potatoes kuglom, but by far the most prodluctive provinces are Saxony in Brandenburg an the eastern provinces. The remaining imlusand Hanorer. Roek-salt is mined at Stassfurt in the province of trial products of Prussia include chemicals, chiefly made in Saxony; Sorony, and in Posen. Chloride of potash and potassium salts are Silesia, and the Rhenislı province: dyes, at Elberfelel-Banmen and alw extensively found in Saxony. The other mineral products Cofoll; paper, in the districts of aix. la Chapelle, Ansbury, and in lule manganese, nickel, Pyrites, cobalt, quiksilver, alum, Liegnitz ; . * " Bolemian glans", in Silesia; pianos, at Berlin, KVINIni, anil sulphuric acid. Good buil.liny-stone is common Breslau, Cassel, an Erfut; and intite instuments, at Berlin thomashout the country, marble is found in Silesia, and rooting an: Ilalle. The artistic furniture and popielain of Berlin arı clar lutes in the Theronian formations of the Rhine and the Harz. acteristic specialities. In nearly every depintment there has been Chalk pits and cliffs abound in the Island of Rugin. The amber in rerent years a steadly advance both in quantity and quality. lof the Baltic coast is picked up on the back after a storm, au is Tru, — The commerer of Prussia is amounty fu ilitatudliyitniantral Trade. alu foonil hy ligging and drying: Alout 3000 persons are em-position, which enables it to carry on a veryotensive transit tuale; played in the search, anel in favourable seasons 3000 to 4000 cuts. But, as the returns ille not separated from those of the other nemlurs arou rollertal Mineral springs are numerous among the mountains of the Zollverein, it is impossible to do more than ess at its of Silesia, the Taunus, and the Eifel. The most generally known annual value. According to the whole luthu, the total value ar them in the district of Wiesbaden, including Wiesbaden itselt, of the exports and imports of the German (austoins l'nion in 1883 Ers, Homburg. Schlangenbal, and Sihwalbach.

amounted to upwards of L:3:30,000,000 ; an. to juletrom the Almeries. — Prussia now takes a high place among the manufais ('llstons recipes, alwut throw-fiftles of this amount musi meloditel turing states of Europe, though the foundation of its industrial im to l'russi... The chuirf imponis alu test, coffee, sugar, all othel portance cannot be dateel farther back than the reign of the Great colonial products, Tinin, win, to stile feliciis, fruit. jutroleum, and Fletori 1640-83). As a grneral rule, apart from a few of the lary't manufatural articles of various hinda Among the primijual estowns, the husiest manufacturing centres are found on the lower pots are hain, cattle, wine, postafors, woollen and linen kools, slog and outskirts of the mountainous districts, such as the hides and leather, hent !s, iron and prel waters, loud, and zinc Rhenish rallers Lasatia, anil the vicinity of the Silesian coal. The export of rain to Frank anl England has fallen of greatly tells Aluvut 35 per cent of the population are supporter logo of rernt Pears, owing to the inmasina demand at home. The infustrial pursuits' The district of Dusselorf is the busiest in inlanil traile is fontorill, 1961011- fair, the noont important of Isis, and Berlin anil Elberfeld-Barmen are among the chief whii l tanke place at the two Frankforts, Brusla", and Micele bura hires of industry on the Continent. The principal manufactured the money-marhre of Berlin aul Frankfurt-outh.-Mainali amon: products are woollen, linen, cotton, silk, and iron gols.

the most intuntinl in Fuoju. The metallic inlustrira, as might be expertel. Hourish chietly in Tovejs-luth, Plateal

let pomocion all flir liteh lunity: 1 the orighhourhool of the coal-fields and have reached their highest lexpurtatz: n. 1900 a warrison in the 1.verty in 1994.

In 1883 Prussia possessed upwards of three-fifths of the merchant vinces and the losses in the Franco-German War. The rate of ships of Germany, including 2586 sailing vessels and 229 steamers, increase in the latter part of the period 1867-84 has, however, been manned by 17,315 men. Their burden, however, amounting to considerably more rapid than in the first half. The increase is 449,391 tons, was little more than one-third of the whole, and was entirely due to the surplus of births over deaths, as emigration is exceeded by that of Bremen and Hamburg taken together. None very much in excess of immigration. With the exception of Saxony of the Prussian seaports vies with either Hamburg or Bremen ; the and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly largest is Stettin, which possesses a fleet of 40 steamers and 280 in population than any other member of the German empire. Its sailing ships. In 1881 the Prussian harbours were entered by rate of increase is fully twice that of France and about the same 38,054 vessels of 3,483,545 tons burden, and cleared by 38,005 of as that of the United Kingdom. The highest rate of increase in 3,518,098 tons burden. The best seamen are furnished by the 1875-80 took place in Berlin (2.92 per annum) and Westphalia fishing population of Friesland or Frisia.

(1:39), the lowest in Hohenzollern (0-35) and East Prussia (0.82). Com

Communication. With most internal means of communication The birth-rate, which for the entire country is 40 per 1000, is munica- Prussia is well provided. Almost none of its excellent highroads highest in West Prussia, Posen, and Westphalia and lowest in tion.

existed in the time of Frederick the Great, and many of them date Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, and Hesse-Nassau. The death-rate from the Napoleonic era. The first Prussian railway was laid in for the whole monarchy is about 27 per 1000, considerably higher 1838, but the railway system did not receive its full development than that of Great Britain, which is about 20 per 1000. Pomerania until the events of 1866 removed the obstacles placed in the way is remarkable for its low death-rate, West Prussia and Silesia for a by Hanover. Most of the lines were easy of construction, and high one. Both the birth-rate and the death-rate show a tendency absorbed comparatively little capital. The great majority were to diminish. Of the births in 1882 8:11 per cent. were illegitimate, laid by private companies, and the Government confined itself to the proportion varying from 2.92 per cent. in Westphalia to 11 per establishing lines in districts not likely to attract private capital. cent. in Pomerania, and nearly 15 per cent. in Berlin. Between In 1879, however, a measure was passed authorizing the acquisi 1872 and 1880 the number of marriages diminished with almost tion by the state of the private railways, and in 1884 nine-tenths unvarying steadiness ; since 1880 it has risen again and now of the 13,800 miles of railway in Prussia were in the hands of amounts to about 8 per 1000 inhabitants. An interesting feature Government. The proportion of railway mileage in Prussia (5 is the large proportion of mixed confessional marriages, amounting miles per 10,000 inhabitants) is nearly as high as in Great Britain, as a rule to about 7 per cent. of the whole. Between 1871 and but the traffic is much less. Thus in 1880-81 the Prussian rail 1881 the annual emigration from Prussia amounted to 1.8 per 1000 ways carried only 124 million passengers, while the British lines inhabitants ; in 1882 no fewer than 129,894, and in 1883 104,167 conveyed 622 millions. The expenses swallowed up 56 per cent. of emigrants left the country by the German ports and Antwerp. the gross receipts, or 4 per cent. more than those of Eugland in the The highest proportion of emigrants comes from Pomerania (5:6) same year ; but in the matter of railway accidents the comparison and Posen (4-3), the lowest from Silesia, the Rhineland, and Saxony. is more favourable to the Prussian railways, on which only 235 A study of the figures in the table given above will show that as a persons lost their lives as compared with about four times as many rule the density of population increases from north to south and from in Great Britain. The passenger traffic has not increased in pro east to west. As might be expected, the thickest population is portion to the extension of the railway system and the growth of found in the mining and manufacturing district of the Rhine, which population, but the goods traffic has steadily advanced. The canal is closely followed by the coal-regions of Silesia and parts of Saxony system of Prussia is little beyond its infancy, the total length of all and Westphalia. The proportion for the whole kingilom is about the canals in the kingdom being only 1200 miles, a very small 200 per square mile, but in the district of Düsseldorf this figure number as compared with either England or France. Among the rises to 750 and in the moorlands of Hanover it sinks to less than most important are those uniting the Pregel with the Memel, and 50. According to the census of 1880, 57.4 per cent of the populathe Vistula with the Oder (via the Netze), and those bringing the tion is rural, and 42:6 per cent, urban, i.c., lives in communities Spree and Havel iuto communication with the Elbe on the one of more than 2000 inhabitants. The relative proportions vary side and the Oder on the other. Canals uniting the Ems and the greatly in the different provinces, as much as 62 per cent. of the Rhine, the Ems and the Weser, and the Weser and the Elbe are population living in towns in the Rhineland, and as little as 23 or still desiderata. On the other hand, Prussia has a large supply of 24 per cent. in East Prussia and Posen. About 17 per cent. of the navigable rivers.

population is absorbed by towns each with 20,000 inhabitants and Popula Population. The last census of Prussia was taken in 1880, and upwards, while in Great Britain half the population is massed in tion the accompanying table summarizes the principal results then ascer the large towns and from 65 to 70 per cent is urban. In Prussia

tained. The total population amounts to about 60 per cent. of that also there is observable a strong movement towards concentration of the German empire.

in towns, the annual rate of increase in the urban population being

six times as great as that in the rural communities. In 1880 Other

Prussia contained 24 towns each with upwards of 50,000 inhabit-
Popula Protest-

Jews. Others.

ants, and 7 with upwards of 100,000 inhabitants, the correspondSects.

ing numbers in Great Britain being 59 and 26. The following are

the towns with upwards of 100,000 inhabitants each :-
East Prussia 1,933,936 135 1,654,510 250, 162 7,483 18,2181 3,263
1,405,898 142 672,102 693,719 12,390 26,517

.1,122,330 Königsberg

..140,909 Brandenburg 3,389,155 220 3,182,486 131,7816,087 66,245


272,912 Frankfort-on-the-Main ..136,819 1,540,034 132 1,498,930 23,877 1,962 13,886 1,379


. 108,551 1,703,397 152 532,499 1,112,020 45156,009 1,818


4,007,925 257 | 1,867,170 2,082,08+ 3,328 52,682 2,361
2,312,007 237 | 2,154,655 145,518 3,394 0,700 1,710 Elberfeld and Barmen practically

form one town with a populaSchleswig-Hol. 1,127,149 154 1,111,252 8,903 1,687 3,522 1,785 tion of 189,479 ; and Magdeburg, Diisseldorf, Stettin, and Astona

are all above 90,000. The annual rate of suicides in Prussia is Hanover

2,120,168 142 | 1,842,136 258,824 2,738 14,790 1,680 Westphalia. 2,013,442 262 949,044 1,070,212 2,614 18,810 2,162

18 to 20 per 100,000 inhabitants, a proportion seldom exceedel 1,55-1,376 250 1,087,901 420,206 3,073 41,316 1,850 among European states. Divided according to nationalities, the 4,074,000 390 1,077,173 2,944,186 7,015 43,694 1,932

present (1885) population of Prussia consists roughly of 24,000,000 Hohenzollern.. 67,624 153 2,221 64, 491

Germans, 2,800,000 Poles in the eastern provinces, 150,000 Lithu27,279,111 202 17,633,279,9,206,283 52,225 363,790 23,534 anians in the north - east, 180,000 Danes in Schleswig-Holstein,

90,000 Wends in Brandenburg and Silesia, 60,000 Czeclis in Silesia, The following table shows the growth of the population since the and 12,000 Walloons near the Belgian frontier. In the rural disdeath of Frederick, the first king of Prussia. The first trustworthy tricts of Posen and in parts of Silesia the Poles form the predominant census of Prussia was taken in 1816; the earlier figures are only element of the population. more or less reasonable estimates.

In 1882 a census of occupations was taken in the German empire, Area in square

the main results of which, so far as they relate to Prussia, aro Date. Population.

Average per miles. square mile.

summarized in the following table. The figures include the wives,

families, and other dependants of those actually engaged in the 1,731,000 43,425

several occupations. The actual workers are about 11 millions in 2,486,000

45,900 5,430,000 75,220

number and their dependants 16 millions. 8,700,000

118,000 10,349,031

108, 100 13,038,070 108,100

Number of per

Percentage 19,254,019 108,430


sons supported.
134, 190

population. 1. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

11,904,407 Between 1816 and 1831 the increase of the population of Prussia 2. Industrial pursuits

9,393,750 was about 30 per cent., and between 1831 and 1864 it was 46 per 3. Trade


10 cent. Some districts have more than doubled their population since

4. Domestic servants (and general labourers) 690,892


5. Official, military, and professional classes 1816, but the annual increment since 1866 has not exceeded 1 per

6. Persons not returned under any occupation 1,207,810 cent., a fact due to the less rapid multiplication in the new pro



Pop. per
sq. mile.





West Prussia


810 2,556









• 73


of total

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Religion. Religious Statistics. -.Iccording to the census returns of 1890 (sce “Analphabeti," or men unable to read or write, among the recruits

table, p. 16), 61-64 per cent. of the population of Prussia were Pro- levied was only 2 per cent., the rate varying from 9.75 per cent.
testants, 34 per cent. Roman Catholics, and 1.33 Jews. A glance in Posen to 0.03 in Schleswig-Holstein, where there was only one
at a confessional map of Prussia shows that the centre of the king illiterate recruit among 3662. The teachers for the clementary
dom is solidly Protestant, the proportion of Roman Catholics increas- schools are traineil in normal seminaries or colleges establisheil
ing as the eye travels cast or west and reaching its maximum on the and supervised by the state, and much has been done of late years
Rhine and in the Slavonic provinces. East Prussia, however, with to improve their position. In most of the larger towns the ele-
the exception of Erınland, is Protestant. The Roman Catholics out mentary schools are supplemented by midille schools (Bürgerschuleil,
number the I'rotestants in the provinces of the Rhine (3 to 1), Stadtschulen), which carry on the pupil to a somewhat more advanced
Posen, Silesia, and West Prussia. All religious bodies are granted stage, and are partly intended to draw off the unsuitable clements
freelom of worship, and civil rights are not conditional upon from the higher schools.
religious confession.

The secondary schools of Prussia may be roughly divided into The Evangelical or Protestant State Church of Prussia consists as classical and moleru, though there are comparatively few in which it now stands of a union of the Lutherans and Calvinists, effected Latin is quite omittel. The classical schools proper consist of under royal pressure in 1817. According to the king this was not (imnasia and I'rogymnasiu, the latter being simply gymnasia a fusion of two faiths but an external union for mutual admission wanting the higher classes. In these boys are prepared for the to the Eucharist and for the convenience of using the same liturgy, universities and the learned professions, and the full course lasts prepared under the royal superintendence. Those who were unable for nine years. In the modern schools, which are divided in the from conscientious scruples to join the union became Separatist or same way into liculgymnasia and Realprogymnasiu, and also have Owl Lutherans and Old Calviuists, but their numbers were and are a nine years' course, Latin is taught, but not Greek, and greater insignificant. The king is “summus episcopus,” or supreme pontill stress is laid upon modern languages, mathematics, and natural of the church, and is represented in the exercise of his ecclesiastical SC nce. The three lower classes are practically ilentiral with functions by the minister of public worship and instruction. The those of the gymnasia, while in the upper classes ile thoroughness highest authority for the ordinary management of the church is the of training is assimilate as closely as possible to that of the classical "Oberkirchenrath," or supreme church council at Berlin, which sehools, though the subjects are somewhat alterel. Ranking with arts through provincial consistories and superintendents appointed the realgymnasia are the Oberrealschulen, which lifler only in the by thu crown. Recent legislation has made an effort to encourage fact that Latin is entirely omittel, and the time thus gainel deself-government and give a congregational character to the church voted to modern languages. The Ilöhere (or upper) Bürgerschwin, by the granting of a presbyterial constitution, with parish, diocesan, in which the course is six years, rank with the middle schools provincial, and general synodls. The clergy, of whom there were above mentionel, and are intended mainly for those boys who 9116 in 1880, are appointed by the crown, by the consistories, by wish to enter business life immediately on leaving school. All private or municipal patronaye, or by congregational election. these secondary schools possess the right of granting certificates

The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church in Prussia consists entitling the holders, who must have attained a certain standing
of two archbishops (Cologne, Gnesen - l'osen) and ten bishops. in the school, to serve in the army as one-year volunters. The
Thir prince-bishop of Breslau and the bishops of Ermlanı, Hildes- ymnasial “certificate of ripeness "Jaturitutsrugniss', indicating
hrim, and Osnabrück are directly under the pope, and the bishop- that the holder has passed satisfactorily through the highest i lass,
ries of Fuldn and Limbury are in the archiepiscopal diocese of enables a student to enroll himself in any faculty at the university,
Freiburg in Bvlen. The higher ecclesiasties receive payment from but that of the realgymnasium qualities only for the oneral or
the state, and the annual appropriation appearing in the builget for philosophical” faculty, and does not open the way to melicine',
the Roman Catholic (hurch is as high as that made for the State the churih, or the bar. Consiilerable efforts are, however, now
Churh. All the Roman Catholic religious orders in Prussin have being made to have the realgymnasium certificate recognized as a
luon suppressed except those mainly or wholly occupied with attend sufficient qualification for the study of medicine at least.
aner on the sick.

of these schools a thoroughly good clucation may be obtained at
The relations of the state with the dissenting Christian sects, a cost seldom exceeding, in the highest classes, per annum,
suh as the Baptists, Mennonites, and Moravian Brethren, are prae The teachers are men of scholarship and ability, who liave pris:vel
ially contine to grinting them charters of incorporation which stringent Government examinations and been submitted to a year
ensure them toleration. The Mennonites were formerly allowed to of probation. The great majority of the secondary shools se
us an extm tax in lieu of military service, which is inconsistent been established and endowed by municipal corponations. In 1 - 1
with their belief, but this privilege has been withiliawn. The Oil Prussin containeel 2.51 gymnasia, 61 progymnasiil, Dealgymnasia,
Catholiis number about 311,000, but do not seem to be increasing 1.3 oborrealschulen, 27 realsedulull, 17 hohe?e bulului, il
The Jews belong mainly to the urban population and form 20 to 270 llohere. To htoiselulell, or higher shools for yil Bestiles
O jus erit. of the inhabitants in some of the towns in the Slavonii these there are, of coms, melons commercial, toluiral, illis-
provints They are especially prominent in commerce, finance', trial, and other special se liools.
and on the stage, and also exercise great intluence on the press. Prussia possess ton of the twenty German universities, attukal
Ir the actual majority of newspaper cditors and proprietors are ly 12, 00 students, or at the rate of one student for 2120 indulil.:uts.
of Jewish blowl. The warii of social persecution to which they were

The largest Prusian Wiversity is that of Burlin, attended by more "zlope Cost from 1576 onwards. pspcially in Berlin and l'omerania, un 1000 students, while Bresl.11, Bonn, lintuingel, um Halle lavo hus to some ottent at least, subsidel.

ih upwards of 1000. The ollent is the university of Grilla!!!, Finom. – In Prussia education is lookeil upon as the provinen rol in 11'. Like the mother unities ale siste inns!j., and they weneral level attaineel is very high. All | 11:2015, il tir potes 01.120:1pbWill I :: pil bis corrum 1::. s bois

, public and private, are under state supervision, and no one Wichilam.chelilolian 91.1111 - Prahotus.ukylin 1:1. Lowolto egerrim the profession of them until he has given the full oblig: vt collis of sinsuous them, and in th: stilofletory proof of his qualitications. It the head of the mi l'ile of muliin toill 1.1.

Iri, 1:0!ivil, not 101 102 1.411lilafration stand the ministrs of public instruction, to whom the radical students ho to flid lour Vale di th. univ; 1:1, el 1111100ullies are dintly subordinate. The secondary slowls ille t?lis llitus to mishi!. Stillity:19 "'??**?\w by provincial "Shul ollesi..," or -1100l-borils, all los a l'1 in Goirill, 1:1 1:11: i lit i!!!!!! Mind to "lidot

al by Government, while the management of the elementary leent thr tous ! Iu!t-sun.....!! ut i l'risil, lisiin and printinis lills within the jurisdiction of the ordinari Rinkin with the Unive... :li 11., 11. lubeni con Rozrungan," or department officials. This they carry oil, Blin, Ilavir, lit--11.0"', ille ...,11 of alumul qualities bwl-in-pitors, frently on trommons Berlin un ..l-ul, adil 11. nobilio: furil"... 8! 10. All children mist attend Siloul from their sisch to a'ril Mon 11. lif!!1!!mdin to: 11.1.3:1. og te..."JI.Ibad

to my v: :: 11111111 111-1. intr.: 10:111:., Ihrefpunlws of the primary sahvois (

Thuions are borne by that those of us!!!!!' it lilli liwe tu!:--.:!... Muin, 1; con un sie ideed we are 1.5 Thir ! anobiol I':1-1 I... this 11.6.2: 01-" !...',-1!.

The sulgjasts of instruction illo theole (1) juin ... 1..- -:...: ilii, ili antins, sylling, arithmetic, the elements of 2017,

1.' Hiji.: li... lin............... 1.Sonraphy anul 1.adural si je me, singing, drawingung t!. hi: : . ! .-;:-.1', 'il'il'. All the fans are strmly small, mounting in the Romans of pubens - Du will win..!, Irine to one wil. pus Werk, and in Berlin and some milie!

1.11., JH.

1: ***?* tiny hasslu en entire come away with. Iulo 11....21S. T; , :::.. ... ... . . . . . . . . . . .:: "Ano?.!!!primary lion sith 39.917 town.2.12 1.3.??

,, de skin":::;: !11!.!. ''. This shony an average of 1.39 i hileron : le linee - 1;...] t!... l', '.'.';.

iiiiii!. ...s 100) inhabitants, el proper 101 Darvin: 0:..'11-01..

!*.1 AD
rrn popuriners to 110 tolmin Wropol...:11

1 i l'risia. The humloso! i 187... Tovui: :21,10.14 1:0
11pniah riarto serve in threatforilaca 1.7:): 1.1:. I. il...) file ilip...!'.'.
LiiYeruilty of eien utary cluation. 11i 1:52:55th pit o videlis snitis lidl. iii



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constitution affirms the legal equality of all citizens in the eye of system works in some respects inconveniently, as the reichstag and the law, provides for universal military service, and guarantees the Prussian landtag are often in session at the same time and many personal liberty of the subject, the security of property, immunity persons are members of both. Where imperial and Prussian legislafrom domiciliary visits, the inviolability of letters, toleration of tion come into conflict the latter must give way. religious sects, freedom of the press, the right of association and For alministrative purposes Prussia is divided into Provinzen or public meetings, and liberty of migration.

pirovinces, Regicrungsbezirke or governmental departments, Kreise The monarchy is hereditary in the male line of the house of or circles, and Gemeinden or communes. The city of Berlin and Hohenzollern, and follows the custom of primogeniture. The king the district of Hohenzollern are not included in any province, and alone exercises the executive power, but shares the legislative power the larger towns usually form at once a commune and a circle with his parliament. He appoints and discharges the ministers (Stadtkreis). Recent legislation has aimed at the encouragement and other officials of the crown, summons and dissolves parliament, of local government and the decentralization of adininistrative possesses the right of pardon and mitigation of punishment, declares authority by admitting lay or popularly elected members to a share war and concludes peace, and grants orders and titles. He is held in the administration alongside of the Government officials. Certain to be irresponsible for his public actions, and his decrees require branches of administration, such as the care of roads and the poor, the countersign of a minister, whose responsibility, however, is have been handed over entirely to local authorities, while a share not very clearly defined. The national tradition and feeling lend is allowed them in all. As a general result it may be stated that the crown considerable power not formulated in the constitution, the Prussian administrative system intervenes between the strongly and the king is permitted to bring his personal influence to bear centralized government of France and the liberty of local governupon parliament in a way quite at variance with the English con ment enjoyed in England. In the province the Government is ception of a constitutional monarch. The annual civil list of the represented by the Oberpräsident, whose jurisdiction extends over king of Prussia amounts to £600,000.

all matters affecting more than one department. He is assisted The legislative assembly consists of two chambers, which are by a council (Provincialrath), consisting, besides himself as chairconvoked annually at the same time but meet separately. The man, of one member appointed by Government and five members right of proposing new measures belongs equally to the king anıl elected by the provincial committee (Provinzialausschuss). The each of the chambers, but the consent of all three estates is neces latter forms the permanent executive of the provincial diet (Prosary before a measure can pass into law. The chambers have con vinzial-Lanultay), which consists of deputies elected by the kreise trol of the finances and possess the right of voting or refusing taxes. or circles, anıl forms the chief provincial organ of local government. Financial questions are first discussed in the lower house, and the The regierungsbezirk is solely a Government division and is only upper house can accept or reject the annual budget only en bloc. indirectly represented in the scheme of local administration. The All measures are passed by an absolute majority, but those affect Government authorities are the Regierungs - Präsident, who is at ing the constitution must be submitted to a second vote after an the head of the general internal administration of the department, interval of at least twenty-one days. Members may not be called and the Regierung, or Government board, which supervises ecclesito account for their parliamentary utterances except by the chamber astical and educational affairs and exercises the function of the in which they sit. No one may at the same time be a member state in regard to the direct taxes and the domains and forests. of both chambers. The ministers of the crown have access to The departmental president is also assisted by a Bezirksrath or both chambers and may speak at any time, but they do not vote district council, consisting of one official member and four others unless they are actually members. The general scheine of govern selected from inhabitants of the department by the provincial comment, though constitutional, is not exactly “parliamentary” in mittee The governmental official in the kreis (county, circle) is the English sense of the word, as the ministers are independent of the Lanúlrath, an office which existed in the Mark of Brandenburg party and need not necessarily represent the opinions of the par as early as the 16th century. He is aided by the Krcissausschuss, liamentary majority: The Herrenhaus, or house of peers, contains or executive committee of the Kreistag (the diet of the circle), thé two classes of members, the hereditary and non-hereditary. The members of which are elected by the rural and urban communes. former consists of the adult princes of the house of Hohenzollern, The kreis is the smallest state division ; the communes, divided the mediatized princes and counts of the old imperial nobility, and into urban and rural, are left almost entirely to local government, the heads of the great territorial nobility. The non - hereditary though the chief officials must obtain the sanction of the central members comprise life peers chosen by the king from the ranks of authority. In the rural communes the head magistrate, called a the rich landowners, manufacturers, and men of general eminence, Schulze or Dorfrichter, is elected for six years and is assisted by and representatives "presented” for the king's approval by the assessors called Schöffen. The regulations for the government of landowners of the nine old provinces, by the larger towns, and by towns still rest in great measure on the liberal reforms effected by the universities. The Abycordnetenhaus, or chamber of deputies, Stein at the beginning of the century. The chief power rests in consists of 433 members, elected for periods of three years by the hands of the Stadtrath, which consists of Stadtverordneten, or indirect suffrage, exercised by all male citizens who have reacheil town deputies elected by the citizens for six years. The practical the age of twenty-five and have not forfeited their communal rights. executive is entrusted to the magistracy (Jagistrat), which usually The original clectors are arranged in three classes, according to the consists of a burgomaster, a deputy burgomaster (both paid officials), rate of taxes paid by them, in such a way that the gross amount of several unpaid inembers, and, where necessary, a few other paid taxation is equal in each class. The country is accordingly dividel members. The unpaid members hold office for six years; the paid into electoral districts, with the elector's grouped in three cate members are elected for twelve years, and their election requires gories, each of which selects a Wahlmann or electoral proxy, who ratification from the state. The administrative system above deexercises the direct suffrage. Members of the lower house must scribed applies as yet in its full extent to about three-fourths of the be thirty years old and in full possession of their civic rights. provinces only, but is to be extended to the others in due course. They receive a daily allowance (Diäten) during the sitting of the Though in some respects rather cumbrous in its machinery, the house.

system is on the whole found to work well and with economy. The king exercises his executive functions through an irrespons In the seven eastern provinces, Westphalia, and part of the ible Staatsrath, or privy council, revived in 1881 after thirty years Rhenish province the common law of Prussia (Landrecht), codified of inactivity, and by a nominally responsible cabinet or council of in 1794, is in force, while the common law of the German empire, ministers (Staats-llinisterium). The latter consists at present of formed by an amalgamation of Roman, canon, and German law, the minister-president and of the ministers of foreign affairs, war, prevails in the three new provinces and part of Pomerania. The justice, finance, the interior, public worship and instruction, in Code Napoléon, however, still exists in the greater part of the Rhine dustry anıl cominerce, public works, agriculture, domains, and listrict, and the commercial law has been consolidated in the forests. Ministers conduct the affairs of their special departments German commercial code of 1861, A new penal code, promulgated independently, but meet in council for the discussion of general in 1850, did away with the old patrimonial or seigniorial jurisquestions. They represent the executive in the houses of parlia- diction, and the administration of justice is now wholly in the ment and introduce the measures proposed by the crown, but do hands of Government. The courts of lowest instance are the Amtsnot need to belong to either chamber. The affairs of the royal gerichte, in which sits a single judge, accompanied in penal cases household and privy purse are entrusted to a special ininister, who by two Schöffen or lay assessors (a kind of jurymen, who vote with is not a member of the cabinet.

the judge). Cases of more importance are decided by the LandThe Prussian governmental system is somewhat complicated by gerichte or county courts, in which the usual number of judges is its relation to that of the empire. The king of Prussia is at the three, while in important criminal cases a jury of twelve persons is same time German emperor, and his prime minister is also the generally empanelled. From the landgerichte appeals may be made imperial chancellor. The ininistries of war and foreign affairs to the Oberlandesgerichte or provincial courts. The oberlandesgericht practically coincide with those of the empire, and the customs-dues at Berlin is named the Kammergericht and forms the final instance and the postal and telegraph service have also been transferred to for summary convictions in Prussia, while all other cases may be the imperial Government. Prussia has only seventeen votes in the taken to the supremo imperial court at Leipsic.

The judges federal council, or less than a third of the total number, but its (Richter) are appointed and paid by the state, and hold office for influence is practically assured by the fact that the small northern life. After finishing his university career the student of law who states almost invariably vote with it. To the reichstag Prussia wishes to become a judge or to practise as qualified counsel (Rechtsansends more than half the members. The double parliamentary I vult, barrister and solicitor in one) passes a Government examina

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