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furniture, dyeing, shipbuilding, coachbuilding, hoops and staves, | Boiled, smoke-dried, and packed in bags, the trepang sells for
turnery, gunstocks, veneering, &c. Among the Eucalypti are those exportation to China, though its agreeable and most nourishing
known as Moreton Bay ash, mahogany, yellow box, blackbutt, soup is relished by Australian invalids. At Cooktown and Port
iron bark, turpentine, bloodwood, messmate, with the blue, red, Douglas more than £100 per ton may be had for the produce. The
grey, forest, swamp, scented, and spotted gum trees. The ironwood, pearl fishery is a prosperous and progressive one in or near Torres
brigalow, and myall are of the Acacia genera. Among the Casu- Straits. A licence is paid, and the traffic is under Government
arinæ are the he, she, swamp, forest, and river oaks. Names are supervision. Thursday Island is the chief seat of this industry.
found oddly given by colonists. Their red cedar is the Cedrela The shells are procured by diving, and fetch from £120 to £200 a
Goona ; white cedar, the Mclia composita ; pencil cedar, the Dysoxy- | ton. Mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell constitute important exports
lon Muelleri ; white wood, the Alstonia ; light yellow wood, the of the colony, capable of great expansion. Oysters are as fine fla-
Flindersia orleyana; dark yellow wood, the Rhus ; beech, the voured as they are abundant. Turtles are caught to the northward.
Gmelina Leichhardtii ; coachwood, the Ceratopetalum ; ebony, the Commerce. —So extensive a coast-line, and so much of that pro-
Malba ; musk, the Marlea ; Leichhardt's tree, the Sarcocephalus tected by the Barrier Reef, cannot but be favourable to commerce.
corilatus ; mahogany, the Tristania; tulip, the Stenocarpus sinuatus; The Torres Strait mail service has opened up increased opportunities
honeysuckle, the Banksia ; pea-tree, the Melaleuca ; bottlebrush, for trade with China, India, Java, &c. Contiguity to New Cale-
the Callistemon lanccolatus ; beefwood, the Banksia ; satinwood, donia and the Pacific Isles will conduce to mercantile relations.
the Xanthoxylum brachyacanthum ; coral tree, the Erythrina ; There are several lines of coasting steamers. The great develop-
apple, the Angophora subvelutina; teak, the Dissilaria balo ment of the mining, pastoral, and sugar industries, the rapid
ghioides ; feverbark, the Alstonia constricta ; sandalwood, the growth of railways, an easy tariff, and the settlements of York
Eremophila Alitchelli ; lignum vita, the Vitex ; silky oak, the Peninsula are giving a great impetus to commerce. The exports
Grevillea robusta. Among the so-called native fruits, the plum for 1882 were £3,534, 452 ; of which wool brought £1,329,019;
and apple are the Owenia ; orange and lime are the Citrus; cum gold £829,655 ; tin £269,904 ; stock £280,466 ; sugar £153,188;
quatis is the Atulantia ; cherry, the Exocarpus ; pomegranate, the tallow £129,549 ; preserved meats £119,343 ; pearls £105,869 ;
Capparis nobilis ; olive, the Olea ; chestnut, the Cantharospermum hides £88,359 ; bêche-de-mer £25,032. The imports for that year
australe ; pear, the Xylomelum pyriforme; quandong, the Fusanus; were £6,318,463. Among these imports some items may be cited :
nut, the Asacadamia ternifolia; tamarind, the Diploglottis Cunning -for manufactured cotton, silk, and woollen goods £839,352, un-
hamii. The nonda, a native fruit, grows up to 60 feet. The nut manufactured £194,489 ; for metal goods and hardware £910,029 ;
of the bunya bunya, so prized by the blacks, is reserved over a flour and grain, £453,307 ; oilman's stores, £376,987; spirits,
district 30 miles by 12. Other trees are also protected by Govern- wines, and beer, £320,925 ; books and stationery, £113,798; tea,
ment. The native grasses are nearly a hundred in number. The £109,286. Few of these articles are yet re-exported. The ex-
desert drought-resisting Mitchell grass is Danthonia pectinata ; the ports for 1883 advanced to £4,652,880, to which wool contributed
weeping Polly is Poa cæspitosa ; the dogtooth, Chloris divaricata ; £2,277,878, and sugar £538,785. The shipping exceeds 1,500,000
the blue star, Chloris ventricosa ; the barcoo or Landesborough, tons. Dock conveniences, ships, and colonial-made steam dredgers
Anthistiria membranacca ; the kangaroo, Anthistiria australis ; exercise the state care. The development of coal mines is aiding
another kangaroo, Andropogon refractus ; the rat-tail, Andropogon both shipping and railway extension. With the establishment of
nervosus ; the oat, Anthistiria venacea ; another perennial oat, British rule in New Guinea, a serious danger to Queensland interests
Microlæna stipoides; the umbrella, Aristida cramosa and Panicum will be averted, and a happy opportunity offered for the enlarge-
virgatum. The native carrot is Daucus brachiatus ; the native ment of its commerce.
plantain, Plantago varia ; the sorghum or rice, Aryza sativa ; and Manufactures. The colony is too young, its population too
the bamboo, Stipa ramosissima. The salt-bush (Atriplex, Rhago- scattered, its resources in raw material too extensive, for any great
dia, Chenopodiuin, &c.) is found useful in the absence of grasses. advance at present in the industrial stage. Yet already large
The danthonia and sporobolus strike deep roots. The Burdekin foundries are established, in which agricultural instruments, mining
cane is relished by stock. The seeds of Panicum lævinode are used machinery, sugar appliances, steam engines, and locomotives are
as food by the natives. Among plants poisonous to animals are the constructed. Tanneries, breweries, sugar-mills, distilleries, tobacco-
poison pea, fuchsia, scab-lily, indigo, thorn-apple, box, mistletoe, factories, cotton-ginning, woollen factories, wine-making, meat-
and nutgrass. Many English and foreign varieties of fodder are preserving, boot-factories, &c., are being carried on. The sawmills
being now introduced. Useful fibres are of a number of kinds. near Maryborough are, perhaps, equal anything in the southern
Ferns are plentiful on the eastern side. Climbing ferns abound. hemisphere, relays of men working at night by electric light.
Grammitis ampla has leaves a yard long. A Rockingham Bay Roads and Railways.- Nearly ninety divisional boards, through-
fern, one foot high, has the habit of a tree fern. The epiphytes, out the colony, raise means by rates for highway improvements,
growing on trees, are often very beautiful in tropical scrubs. Elk's Government supplementing their revenue, as in the case of muni-
horn, Platycerium alcicorne, as well as the large stag's horn, are in cipalities, by special grants in aid. Coaches travel inland 700 miles
much esteem. Forest ferns are similar to those in neighbouring from the capital. At the end of 1884, besides several hundreds of
colonies, excepting some tufted Lindsæa. The Australian bracken miles of railway in process of construction, the lines opened to traffic
is peculiar to the southern hemisphere. Rock ferns are very grace were 1201 miles. The western line is from Brisbane, over Darling
ful. The North Queensland Asplenium laserpitiifolium is greatly Downs, through Roma. The south-west will be reached by Cun-
admired. A tropical Aspidium, with leaves 6 feet long, throws out namnulla. From Rockhampton westward the railway has gone

The Grammitis Muelleri, with scaly hairs, is peculiar to 350 miles on towards the downs of the Barcoo. The line from North Queensland. Swamp ferns are mostly seen to the north- Townsville, parallel to the last, after passing Charters Towers, will east. Trec ferns attain magnificent proportions, rising 20 and 30 feet. go on to Hughenden and the Flinders river region. The three

Fauna. — The Queensland fauna is much like that described under great lines will be hereafter connected, and the Cloncurry and gulf NEW SOUTH WALES. But forms are now living there whose allies country united with the western ports. Maryborough is thus conare elsewhere recognized as Tertiary Fossils. The marsupials consti nected with Gympie and Burrum, Bundaberg with Mount Perry, tute a prominent family. The platypus or water mole is duck-billed Brisbane with Warwick, and Brisbane with several suburbs. The and web-footed. The dingo is a howling, nocturnal dog. Queens- heavy loans of the colony are mainly devoted to the construction land birds are very beautiful. One is something like the New of railways. Guinca bird of paradise. Other species of the feathered order are Administration. — The governor is appointed by the Queen. kindred to some in the Asiatic islands. Bower birds have a satin The executive council has 8 members, the legislative council 33, plumage, and indulge in play-bowers, adorned with shells and and the assembly 55. The term of parliament is five years. stones. The regent bird and rifle bird are peculiarly attractive in There were in January 1884 42 electorates, 18 municipalities, 4 colours. Mound builders lay their eggs in sand heaps. The wild boroughs, 85 divisional boards, 49 police districts. Excepting very turkey and other game may be easily obtained. North Queensland occasional difficulties with blacks in remote and scrubby districts, has a fine cassowary. Reptiles consist of alligators, lizards, and order is thoroughly observed. Numerous religious and temperance snakes ; few of the last, particularly of larger species, are hurtful organizations are of assistance in securing respect for law. Among

official departments are those of the colonial secretary, treasurer, Fisheries.—The sperm whale has become rare of late in North auditor-general, public works and mines, public lands, customs, Australian seas. Deep-sea fishing is unknown in Queensland. administration of justice, post office, police, immigration, and About the coasts are the usual edible Australian forms, as whiting, medical board. rock cod, bream, flathead, schnapper, guardfish, &c. Sharks and Revenue.—Of a revenue of £2,102,095 in 1881-2, £806,719 came alligators are there. The shell-grinder, Cestracion, is similar to a from taxation. For the year ending June 30, 1884, the total was shark found as fossil in Europe. Sword fish grow to a great size. £2,566,358. Of this, the customs gave £866,475 ; excise, £34,441 ; Somo Queensland fish resemble varieties in Indian scas. The land sales, £365,536; pastoral rents, £246, 103; railways, £581,642; Chinese are the best fishermen in Australian waters. The huge post and telegraph, £155,996. The expenditure was £2,317,674. dugong, or sea cow, feeding on bay grasses, has a delicate flesh, of In the settled districts, during 1883, 304 runs had an area of 11,162 the flavour of veal, and furnishes an oil with the qualities of cod square miles, at a rental of £21,419. In the unsettled districts liver oil. The fishery of the trepang, bêche-de-mer, or sea slug 8039 runs had 475,601 square miles, paying £216,638, averaging employs a considerable number of boats about the coral reefs. less than a farthing an acre. Expired and renewed leases realize in



to man.

creasing rates. The absolute public debt in 1884 was £16,570,850. QUEENSTOWN, formerly COVE OF Cork, a market Of that amount the outlay on railways was about 12 millions ; immigration, 2 ; harbours, 11. Roads and telegraph lines took

town and seaport in the county of Cork, Ireland, is other sums.

picturesquely situated, 13 miles east-south-east of Cork, Education.—Queensland led the way among the Australian colo on the south side of Great Island, on the slope of an nics, in the establishment of a system of public instruction free, eminence rising somewhat abruptly above the inner Cork unsectarian, and compulsory. At the same time, however, the harbour. It consists chiefly of terraces, rising above each parliament declined to grant further state aid to the clergy and religious edifices of Protestant Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Wes- other, and inhabited by the wealthier classes. On account leyans, and Roman Catholics, formerly drawing from the treasury.

of the mildness of the climate it is much frequented State or provisional schools are formed wherever there is a suffi- by valetudinarians in winter. Previous to the American cient gathering of children. The annual public cost was £2, 178. War the Cove of Cork was a very small fishing village, but per scholar. There are, however, self-supporting private schools. Masters and mistresses of state schools are paid by the Government

within tủe last fifty years it has rapidly increased. It according to their own educational status, the number of children, received its present name on the occasion of the visit of and the proficiency of instruction. Excellent training schools for Queen Victoria in 1849. The harbour, which is 4 miles teachers are established. Five superior grammar schools are partly long by 2 broad, and is defended by the Carlisle and supported by the state ; the municipal councils have voluntarily Cainden Forts at its entrance, and by Fort Westmoreland aided those institutions, and offered scholarships to their pupils

. The Government gives free education in grammar schools to suc on Spike Island, can afford shelter to a very large fleet of cessful scholars in state schools, besides three years' exhibitions to vessels. The port is the calling station for the American universities to a certain number passing a high examination. State aid is also rendered to schools of art, schools of design, free libraries, Catholic cathedral for the diocese of Cloyne, and the Pro

mail steamers. Among the principal buildings are the new and technical schools.

Population. The estimated population in January 1884 was testant Episcopal church for the united parishes of Clonmel 290,000, of whom three-fifths were males. Polynesian labourers, and Temple Robin. A fine promenade, over a mile in imported for three years, are about 8000. The Chinese, now re

length, connects Queenstown with Rushbrook, a favourite stricted by a heavy poll tax, may be 18,000. Tho Aborigines, very watering-place. The population of Queenstown in 1871 fast dying out, mainly by contact with civilization, may be from 10,000 to 12,000.

was 10,334, and in 1881 it was 9755. llistory. - The Portuguese may have known the northern shore QUERCITRON is a yellow dye-stuff obtained from nearly a century before Torres, in 1605, sailed through the strait the bark of the quercitron oak, Quercus tinctoria (see vol. since called after him, or before the Dutch landed in the Gulf of xvii. p. 693). The tree is a native of the United States, Carpentaria. Captain Cook passed along the eastern coast in 1770, taking possession of the country as New South Wales. Flinders but is now also cultivated in France and South Germany. visite Moreton Bay in 1802. Oxley was on the Brisbane in 1823, The dye-stuff is prepared by grinding the bark in mills and Allan Cunningham on Darling Downs 1827. Sir T. L. after it has been freed from its black epidermal layer, and Mitchell in 1846–7 made known the Maranoa, Warrego, and Barçoo sifting the product to separate the fibrous matter, the fine round the gulf to Port Essington, but was lost in his third great yellow powder which remains forming the quercitron of journey. Kennedy followed down the Barcoo, but was killed by the commerce. The ruddy-orange decoction of qucrcitron Wacks whilo exploring York Peninsula. Burke and Wills crossed contains quercitannic acid (vol. xvii

. p. 692) and an active western Queensland in 1860. Landesborough, Walker, M‘Kinlay, dyeing principle, quercitrin, C3311.30017 The latter subSquatters and miners have opened new regions. Before its separa- stance is a glucoside, and in aqueous solution under the tion in 1859 tho country was known as the Moreton Bay district of influence of sulphuric acid it splits up into a rich tinctorial New South Wales. A desire to form fresh penal depôts led to the principle, quercetin, C.,-H 502, and a variety of sugar called discovery of Brisbano river in December 1823, anul tho proclamation isodulcite, CH4O; "The reaction may be thus formuof a penal settlement there in August 1826. The convict population was gradually withdrawu again to Sydney, and the place was

lated declared open to free persons only in 1842. The first land sale in C33H30017+ 11,0 = C-11:012+ C,H,O. Brislune was on August 9, 1843. An attempt was made in 1816, Quercetin precipitates in the form of a crystalline powder under the ministry of Sir James Graham and Mr Gladstone, to of a brilliant citron yellow colour, entirely insoluble in for ticket-of-leave men from Britain and Van Diemen's Land. Enrl cold and dissolving only sparingly in hot water, but quite Grey's Government under strong colonial appeals arrested this soluble in alcohol. Either by itself or in some form of policy, and broke up the convict settlement. În. 1841 there were its glucosido quercitrin, quercetin is found in several 178 males and 24 females; in 1844, 540 in all; in 1846, 1867, vegetable substances, among others in cutch, in Persian In 1834 the governor and the English rulers thought it necessary berries (Rhamnus catharticus), buckwheat leaves (PolyThe first stoek belonged wholly to the colonial Government, but gonum fagopyrum), Zante fustic wood (Rhus Cotinus), and tlocks and herls of settlers came on the Darling Downs in 1811, in rose petals, dc. Quercitron was first introduced as a 203 in Darling Downs, having 13,295 cattle and 184,651 sheep. In yellow dye in 1775. For many years it has been used 1849 there were 2812 horses, 72,096 cattle, and 1,077,983 sheep. principally in the form of Flavix (7.4.). Flavin is preBut there were few persons in Brisbane and Ipswich. The Rev. pared by boiling quercitron in water and precipitating the Dr Lang theo began his agitation in England on behalf of this tinctorial principle by sulphuric acid. By one method northern district. Somo settlers, who sought a separation from soda crystals are added in preparing the solution. The grantel independence. In answer to their memorial a shipload of yellow precipitate is washed to free it from acid, pressed, ticket-of-leave men was sent in 1850. In spite of the objection of and dried. From 100 parts of quercitron about 85 of Srolnes, the Jureton Bay district was proclaimed the colony of flavin are obtained, having a tinctorial power more than Queensland on December 10, 1859. The population was then twice that of the original bark. Quereitron and its inabout 20,000, and the revenue £6475. Little tradle, no manu dustrial derivatives are principally employed in calicofatores, whethed mals, defective wharfage, struggling townships, ani pamor schools marked that epoch. Political liberty occasioned printing. With alumina (red liquor mordant) they yield a general advance. The first parliament, with the ministry of a bright canary colour, with tin salt a tine clear yellow, Mi Dow Sir R. G. W. Herbert, organized a good school system, with iron liquor grey, olive, or black according to the While the pastoral interest rapidly grew, the agricultural and trail strength of the mordant, and with mixed alumina and iron ing classrs goe firm footing. The revelation of gold and copper liquor an crange tint. trare increase the prosperity. But a renction followel; wool QUERÉTARO, a city of Mexico, capital of the state prives fell, cotton-growing ecased, carly sugar-cane efforts failed, of the same name, lies on a plateau 5900 feet above the straly application to legitimate pursuits, however, soon restored sea, 1524 miles north-west of Mexico loy the Central mafidence; and the colony, as its resources have gradually de Mexican Railway. It is a well-built place with a beautiful reloped, has continued to advance and prosper. (J. BO.) tree-filanted alameda, a cathedral, and several handsome

churches and convents (Santa Clara, worthy of special | tioner of the time, named Silva, having published a note), a hospital, and other public buildings; and it is sup- treatise on bleeding, which, though of little merit, was plied with excellent water from the mountains by a great loudly applauded by his friends, Quesnay wrote a refutastone aqueduct erected at the expense of the Marquis de tion of it, founded on the principles of hydrostatics, which Villar del Aquila whose statue adorns one of the squares. brought his name much into notice. When La Peyronnie In manufactures it occupies a high place, producing had procured about 1730 the foundation of an academy of cotton and woollen goods, leather, soas), and wood-carv- surgery with the view of elevating that profession, he ings. The great Hercules cotton-factory, about 2 miles selected Quesnay for the post of perpetual secretary. by rail from the town, is enclosed by a high loop-holed Coming to Paris to fill it, he obtained through La Peywall and defended by a small company of soldiers; in ronnie's influence the office of surgeon in ordinary to the this way the proprietors have maintained their position king. He was the author of the remarkable preface which since 18.40 in spite of all the revolutions that have swept was prefixed to the first volume of the Mémoires of the over the country. About 1400 operatives (all Mexicans) academy. He was for a long time much occupied with are employed, and work is carried on both day and night. the controversies between the faculty of medicine and the Unbleached cotton is the staple product. The population college of surgery concerning the respective limits of the of the city was stated at 38,000 in 1882.

two professions, and wrote most of the pieces in which Querétaro was captured by the Spaniards in 1536, and made a the claims of the latter were asserted. Finding that city in 1655. In 1818 it was the seat of a congress by which peaco frequent attacks of the gout were rendering him incapable between Mexico and the United States was ratified, and in 1867 the emperor Maximilian, unable to hold it against the republicans of performing manual operations, he procured in 1741 the under Escoberlo, was made prisoner and shot on the Cerro de las degree of doctor of medicine from the university of PontCampanas to the north of the town.

à-Mousson; but, though thus changing the nature of his QUERN. See Flour, vol. ix. p. 313-4.

practice, he continued to defend the rights of the surgical QUESNAY, FRANÇOIS (1694–1774), was one of the profession. He soon after purchased the reversion to the most eminent economists of the 18th century. He was office of physician in ordinary to the king, and afterwards born at Mérey, near the village of Montfort l'Amaury, about became his first consulting physician ; in this capacity he 28 miles from Paris, on the 4th of June, 1694, a year memor

was installed in the palace of Versailles, occupying apartable also for the birth of Voltaire. He was the son of a ments near those of Madame de Pompadour. Louis IV. worthy advocate, who had the reputation of ruining his own esteemed Quesnay much, and used to call him his thinker; practice by reconciling the parties who came to consult him when he ennobled him, he gave him for arms three flowers about their suits. The molest resources of the family were of the pansy (pensée), with the motto Propter excogitationem derived principally from the cultivation of a small landed | mentis. estate, Quesnay's mother in particular busying herself He now devoted himself principally to economic studies, much with the details of its management, which she taking no part in the court intrigues which were perpetuthoroughly understood. IIis boyish years were thus spent ally going on around him. About the year 1750 he amidst country scenes and the occupations of the farm, became acquainted with M. de Gournay, who was also an and he retained to the end a strong predilection for rural earnest inquirer in the economic field; and round these life and a special interest in the welfare of the agricultural two distinguished men was gradually formed the philopopulation. Little attention was given to his carly sophic sect of the Économistes, or, as for distinction's sake literary instruction; it is said that he could not read till they were afterwards called, the Physiocrates. The most he was eleven years of age, when he was taught partly by remarkable men in this group of disciples were the elder the family gardener, who used as the text book the Maison Mirabeau (author of L'ami des Hommes, 1756–60, and Rustique of Jean Liébault, a work “wherein " (to quote the Philosophie Rurale, 1763), the Abbé Baudeau (Introcluction words of its old English translator, Richard Surflet, 1606) a la Philosophie Économique, 1771), Le Trosne (De l'Ordre “is conteined whatever can be required for the building Social, 1777), Morellet (best known by his controversy or good ordering of a husbandman's house or countrey with Galiani on the freedom of the corn trade), Mercier farme.” This book Quesnay is said to have studied with Larivière, and Dupont de Nemours. Of the writings of the such assiduity as to have almost known it by heart. Ile last two, as well as of the general doctrine of the physiolearned Greek and Latin and the elements of several crats, some account has been given in the article POLITICAL sciences with scarcely any aid from masters.

ECONOMY (see vol. xix. pp. 359 sq.). The principal econopossessed with an ardent and untiring desire for know- mic work of Quesnay himself was the Tableau Économique, ledge, and we are told that more than once he walked to which Laharpe called l’llcoran des Économistes. A small Paris for a book, which he read on his way back the same édition de luxe of this work, with other pieces, was day, thus travelling twenty leagues on foot.

printed in 1758 in the palace of Versailles under the king's At the age of sixteen he became apprentice to a surgeon immediate supervision, some of the sheets, it is said, having in the neighbourhood of Mérey, who was not able to teach been pulled by the royal hand. Already in 1767 the book him much, and he soon went to Paris to continue his had disappeared from circulation, and no copy of it is now professional education. He there devoted himself with procurable ; but the substance of it is has been preserved great ardour for five or six years to the study of medicine in the dmi des lIommes of Mirabeau, and the Physiocratie and surgery, diligently attending the hospitals

, and of Dupont de Nemours. In Quesnay's Maximes Générales following the courses of anatomy, chemistry, and botany; du Gouvernement Économique d'un Royaume Agricole, which he also learned drawing and engraving, in which he was put forward as an Extrait des Economies Royales de acquired considerable skill

, and gave some attention to Sully, and was printed along with the Tableau in 1758, metaphysics, to which he had been attracted by the besides stating his economic doctrines, he expresses his reading of Malebranche's Recherche de lu l'érité. About opinion in favour of a legal despotism as the best form of 1718 he established himself at Mantes, and soon obtained government. “Let the sovereign authority be single, and a distinguished clientèle. IIe became known to the superior to all the individuals of society and all the unjust Maréchal de Noailles, who conceived a high esteem for enterprises of private interest. . ... The system of him, and persuaded the queen, whenever she came to counter-forces in a government is a harmful one, which Maintenon, which was not very far from Mantes, to produces only discord among the great and the oppression consult no physician but Quesnay. A celebrated practic of the weak. IIe had contributed to the Encyclopédie in

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1756 the articles “Fermiers” and “Grains,” which con les divers états, et les progrès de la chirurgic en France (said to have tained the earliest announcement of his principles through been the joint work of Quesnay and Louis), 1744, and, with slightly the press; and he published a number of minor pieces in

altered title, 1749; 4. Traité de la suppuration, 1749 ; 5. Traité de the Journal de l'Agriculture, du Commerce, et des l'inances

, vations sur la conservation de la vie (said to have been printed at

la gangrènc, 1749; 6. Traité des fièvres continues, 1753 ; 7. Obscrand in the Éphémérides du Citoyen. His Droit Naturel, Versailles along with the Tableau Économique), 1758. His other which was included in the Physiocratie of Dupont dé writings were the article" * Évidence " in the Encyclopédie, and Nemours, is especially noteworthy as showing the philo- Recherches sur l'évidence des rerités géométriques, with a Projet de sophic foundation of his economic system in the theory of nounced in the Academy of Sciences lvy Grandjean de Fouchy (see

nourcaux éléments de géométrie, 1773. Quesnay's Éloge was prothe jus natura.

the Recueil of that Academy, 1774, p. 134). There is a good porInteresting notices of Quesnay's character and habits trait of him, engraved by J. Ch. François, which is reproduced in have been preserved to us in the Mémoires of Marmontel

the Dictionnaire d'Économie Politique of Coquelin and Guillau

(J. K. I.) and those of Mme. du Hausset, femme de chambre to Mme. de Pompadour. His probity and disinterested zeal for

QUESNEL, PASQUIER (1634–1719), Roman Catholic the public good did not suffer from the atmosphere of the theologian, was born in Paris on July 11

, 1631, and, after court; he never abused his credit with the sovereign or

graduating in the Sorbonne with distinction in 1653, the favourite for any selfish end. To raise the national joined the Congregation of the Fathers of the Oratory in agriculture from the decay into which it had fallen and 1657, receiving pricst's orders in 1659. In 1675 he pub

lished an edition of the works of Leo the Great, in the to improve the condition of the working population were

notes to which the Gallican liberties were defended. The the great aims he kept steadily in view. His conversation was piquant, humorous, and suggestive, often taking the ing year, and Quesnel's relations with his ecclesiastical

work was consequently put upon the Inter in the followform of moral and political apologues. weighty sayings are quoted by contemporary writers. superiors became so strained that in 1681 he had to retire

to Orleans. Here is one of them. Having met in Madame de

Four years later, finding himself unable to Pompadour's salon an official person who, in recommend sign a document imposed on all members of the Oratory in vexatious disputes between the clergy and the parliament, encouraged by him, he published in 1691–95 a complete ing violent measures for the purpose of terminating the condemnation of Jansenism, he fled to Brussels, where

he was intimately associated with Arnauld, and where, used the words, “C'est la hallebarde qui mène un royaume," Quesnay replied, “ Et qu'est ce qui mène la ment, a work of edification on which he had first begun to

edition of the Réflexions Jlorales sur le Vouveau l'estuhallebardo ?” adding, after a pause, “C'est l'opinion ; c'est donc sur l'opinion qu'il faut travailler.” Diderot. engage himself shortly after joining the Oratory, and a D'Alembert, Duclos, Helvetius, Buffon, Turgot, Marmontel

, part of which had appeared as early as about 1671. The used to meet in his rooms in the palace, and also several

nature of its contents, and still more the known sympaof the physiocrats above named ; and Madame de Pom; Jesuit hostility ; Quesnel was imprisoned for a short time

thies of its author, made the book an object of unwearying padour, who affected the patronage of philosophy and in the palace of the archbishop of Mechlin in 1703, but science, sometimes came to join them and converse with happily succeeded in escaping into Holland ; his papers

, them. Amongst then, when they were alone, subjects however (compromising, it is said, to many persons), fell were sometimes discussed in a tone which would not have pleased the royal car. Thus, one day, Mirabeau having Chaise his “pot au noir ” (as he called it) by means of

into the hands of the enemy, and long were to the Père La said, " The nation is in a deplorable state,” Larivière which he was able to darken the prospects of his adverreplied in prophetic worçls, “ It can only bo regenerated saries as he chose. The bull Unigenitus, in which no by'a conquest like that of China, or by some great internal fewer than 101 sentences from the Rotlesions Morales were convulsion ; but woe to those who live to see that! The condemned as heretical, was obtained from ('lement IX. French people do not do things by halves!” Adam Smith; in September 8, 1713 (sce vol. xiii. p. 567). Quesnel died during his stay on the Continent with the young duke of Buccleuch in 1764–66, spent some time in Paris, where at Imsterdam on December 2, 1719. A complete list of he made the acquaintance of Quesnay and some of his his works is given by Moreri. followers; he paid a high tribute to their scientific services astronomer, meteorologist, and statistician, was born at

QUETELET, LAMBERT ADOLPHE JACQUES (1796–1871), in his Wealth of Vutions, and would have dedicated that work to Quesnay, had the latter been alive at the time of Ghent, February 23, 17.6, and educated at the lyceum of

that town. In 1819 he was appointed professor of matheits publication.

matics at the athena'um of Brussels; in 1828 he became At the age of seventy Quesnay went back to the study lecturer at the newly created museum of science and of mathematics. He thought, we are told, that he had literature, and he continued to hold that prost until the discovered the quadrature of the circle, and was not prevented by the remonstrances of his friends from printing 1898 he was appointed director of the new royal observa

museum was absorbed in the free university in 1834. In his supposed solution of the problem. He died in 1774, office as minister of finance. Quesnay had married in : instruments were ready for work in 1535, from which date having lived long enough to see his great pupil, Turgut, in tory which it had been decided to found, chietly at his

instigation. The building was finished in 1932. and the 1718, and had a son and a daughter ; his grandson by the the observations were published in 1to volumes (Inuales former was a member of the first Legislative Assembly.

idi l'Observatoire Royalite Brucellx), but Quetelet chiefly The monomic writings of Quesnay are collected in the 21 vol. devoted himself to meteorology and statistics. From of the Irincipour formomistrs, published by Guillaumin, with poface and notes by Eugene Daire. His writings on medicine and

1831 he was perpetual secretary of the Brussels Academy, surg'ry hare now only an historic interest. They were as follows: and published a rast number of artirde: in itBullitin, as 1 Westions sur les pirts de la szignic, 1730 and 1750: 2. Esmi also in his journal Corresponden. 17.111 m.tique et l'hysphysique sur Permomie animale arri lart de guerir per la sorimo, (11 vols., 152.3-39). He died on Filmry 17, 1574.2 1:36 and 1747; 3. Brherches critiques et historiques sur l'origine,

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14. 11. 12:11 al anil Nhanys dr Ilustrire die Littérature, 1800, and again in 1917; they llis son EUNINI QUTTUIT 19.2.3-,-,... 1970 aita, hel bare sinne heen publishel in the collection des Jimoires motifs a la 1.) the planetary tl 1. i Ltrat rom!!!! ... Wissf stars Rönindin Francis, 1824, anul also in the Bibliotheque des Jinrires wii! j'tiyor Milo", fru!.11 a large

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meteorological observations, and in 1839 he started regular observa where in a few years he covered a vast field of study, tions of the periodical phenomena of vegetation, especially the acquiring a knowledge of classical and modern tongues—of published by the Brussels Academy and in his works Sur le Climat Italian and French, Hebrew and Arabic, of philosophy (or ile la Belgique and Sur la Physique du Globe (the latter forms vol. what passed by that name), theology, civil law, and xiii. of the Annales, 1861). He is, however, chiefly known by the economics. His masters were astounded at his erudition, statistical investigations which occupied him from 1823 onward. In

In and his fame reached beyond Spain ; at twenty-one he 1835 he published his principal work, Sur l'Homme et le Développement de ses Facultés, ou Essai de Physique Sociale (2d ed. 1869),

was in correspondence with Justus Lipsius on questions of containing a résumé of his statistical researches on the develop Greek and Latin literature, and the great scholar loaded ment of the physical and intellectual qualities of man, and on the him with praises and treated him as an equal. These “average man,” both physically and intellectually considered. In

years of study left a great and permanent influence on 1846 he brought out his Lettres à S. A. R. le Duc régnant de Sanea Quevedo's style; to them are due the pedantic traits and Coburg et Gotha sur la théorie des probabilités appliquée aur sciences morules et politiques (of which Sir J. Herschel wrote a full account mania for quotations which strike and offend us in most in the Ellinburgh Review), and in 1848 Du Systéme Social ct des Lois of his works. qui lc régissent (dedicated to the prince consort). In these works The licentiate of Alcala next betook himself to the court he shows how the numbers representing the individlual qualities of and mingled with the corrupt society that surrounded man are grouped round the numbers referring to the “ man” in a manner exactly corresponding to that in which single ' Philip III., or rather the duke of Lerma, then the real results of observation are grouped round the mean result, so that ruler of Spain. The cynical greed of the ministers, the the principles of the theory of probabilities may be applied to meanness of their flatterers, the corruption of all the royal statistical researches on the subjects. These ideas are further developed in various papers in the Bulletin and in his L'Anthropos officers, the financial scandals

, the shamelessness of the métrie, ou Mesure des différentes Facultés de l'Ilomme (1871), in which women, brutalized by the low place given to them in he lays great stress on the universal applicability of the binomial family life and by the practices of a purely formalist law, -according to which the number of cases in which, for instance, religion, formed a spectacle which soon awoke in Quevedo a certain height occurs among a large number of individuals is repre: his talent as a painter of manners. At Madrid or at sented by an ordinate of a curve (the binomial), symmetrically situated with regard to the ordinate representing the mean result Valladolid, where the court resided from 1601 to 1605, he (average height).

mingled freely with these intrigues and disorders, and soon A detailed Essai sur la Vie et les Traraur de L. A.J. Quetelet, by his pupil anıl lost the purity of his morals, but not his independence, assistant E. Mailly, was published at Brussels in 1875.

his uprightness and integrity. From this period date his QUETTA, a valley in Baluchistan, and the most first Dreums (Sueños), satirical fantasies in which the spirit northern district in the province. It embraces an area of and manner of Lucian and Dante are combined. “ Dream about 90 square miles, and is situated near the Afghan . of Skulls," “The Possessed Alguazil,” The Stables of frontier between 30° 2' and 30° 14' N. lat. and between Pluto,”

," "The Madhouse of Love,” such are the titles of 66° 55' and 67° E. long. The general aspect of the these earliest writings composed in 1607–8, which in some country is hilly, rocky, and sterilo, particularly towards degree recall the “Dances of Death” of the later Middle the north ; but in many parts the soil is rich and good, Ages; the author is transported in sleep to hell, where he yielding wheat, rice, madder, tobacco, and lucerne, besides assists at the long and lamentable procession of men of all numerous grasses. The district has abundant orchards, conditions, professions, and trades who move toward their furnishing grapes, apples, pears, pomegranates, figs, &c.; punishment, clad in their most characteristic vices and melons and all kinds of English vegetables are also largely i absurdities. The series was continued from 1612 to 1622 cultivated. The valley is watered by the Lora stream. : by “The World as it is ” and the “Review of Witticisms.” Wild sheep, goats, and hogs abound in the hills of the With the Dreams may be associated certain works of similar district. The climate appears to be healthy and the tem- scope and tone, e.g., To every one according to his works, and perature moderate, ranging from 30° Fahr. in the winter | Fortune made Reasonable, where Jupiter in concert with to about 80° in the summer. Since 1876 Quetta has Fortune, whom he has caused to stop her wheel, orders all been the seat of a British political officer. Its occupation kinds of men instantly to resume their true nature and the secures the Pishin valley, holds in check border tribes, and i condition they deserve: thus the physician becomes a keeps open the roads of the Kojak and Gwaja passes over hangman, the accused a judge, the painted lady a duenna the Khwaja Amran range leading to Kandahar. During and witch, and so forth. the Afghan compaigns of 1878–80 Quetta formed the base In 1609 Quevedo entered into relations with the famous of operations of the southern column. In 1879 a railway D. Pedro Tellez Giron, duke of Osuna, with whom his was commenced to Quetta, with a view to its being pushed fortunes were linked for more than ten years. The duke, on to Kandahar. The line starts from the Sind railway celebrated for his bold enterprises of war against the system at Sukkur and runs via Jacobabad to Sibi, and is Queen of the Adriatic, for his share in the conspiracy of now in course of construction to Quetta ; it is to be termed Venice in 1618, for the luxurious splendour of his viceregal the Sind-Pishin railway. Quetta (or Shal, meaning “the rule in Sicily and Naples, and finally for his terrible disfort” or “ kot”), the capital, is situated at the northern grace, recognized Quevedo's unusual merits and made him extremity of the valley, near the head of the Bolan Pass his secretary. Thus between 1611 and 1620 he learned and close to the Pishin valley, at an elevation of 5900 feet politics,—the one science which he had perhaps till then above the level of the sea. The town is surrounded by a neglected, -initiated himself into the questions that mud wall; in its centre, on an artificial mound, is a fort divided Europe, and penetrated the designs and ambitions which commands a very fine and extensive view of the of the neighbours of Spain as well as the secret history of neighbouring valley.


the guilty intriguers protected by the favour of Philip III. QUEVEDO VILLEGAS, FRANCISCO (1580-1645), the The result was that he wrote several political works, greatest satiric writer of Spain, was born in 1580 at Madrid, particularly a lengthy treatise, The Policy of God and where his father, who came from the mountains of Burgos, the Government of Christ, in which he lays down the was secretary to Anne of Austria, fourth wife of Philip II. duties of kings by displaying to them how Christ has Early left an orphan and without other protection than governed His church. The disgrace of the duke of Osuna that of his guardian, D. Agustin de Villanueva, protonotary (1620) reached Quevedo, who was arrested and exiled to of Aragon, the young man educated himself and chose La Torre de Juan Abad in New Castile, where he possessed his own career. Full of zeal to conquer all knowledge, he lands and of which he afterwards became seignior. betook himself to Alcala, the nearest university to Madrid, Quevedo, though involved in the process against the


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