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duke, remained faithful to him in his misfortunes, and As a satirist and humorist Quevedo stands in the first rank of bore exile and prison with resignation. On the death of Spanish writers ; his other literary work does not count for much. Philip III. (31st March 1621), he recommended himself learned man to be a Spaniard,” and indeed his erudition was of a to the first minister of the new king by celebrating his solid kind, but he merits attention not as a humanist, philosopher, accession to power and saluting him as the vindicator of and moralist, but as the keen polemic writer, the pitiless mocker, public morality in an elegant epistle, in the style of the profound observer of all that is wicked and absurd in human Juvenal

, on The Present llabits of the Spaniards. Olivares nature, and at the same time as a finished master of style and of recalled him from his exile and gave him a charge in the absolutely pure, and alreauly belongs to the period of decadence.

all the secrets of the Spanish tongue. Ilis style indeed is not palace, and from this time Quevedo resided almost con Quevedo, who ridiculed so well the bad taste of "cultism,” fell himstantly at court, where he acquired a position of great self into another fault and created the style called “conceptism, weight, only comparable to that of Voltaire in the France of which hunts after ambiguous expressions and “double entendres.” last century. Like Voltaire, he became a sort of oracle, and singular force and originality; after Cervantes he is the greatest

But, though involved and overcharged with ideas, his style is of exercised in Spain a kind of political and literary jurisdic- Spanish writer of the 17th century. tion due to his varied relations and knowledge, but especi There is an excellent collected edition of Quevedo's prose works with a good ally to his biting and unbridled wit, which had no respect xxii, anu xlviii.); his poetical works in vol. Ixix of the same collection are badly

life of the author by I). Aureliano Fernandez-Guerrit (Bibl. Ribude ne yra, vols. of persons and laid bare every sore. General politics, social edited by D. Florenzio laner.

(A. M.-F.) economy, war, finance, literary and religious questions, all QUEZAL, or QUESAL, the Spanish-American name for fell under his dissecting knife, and he had a dissertation, one of the most beautiful of birds, abbreviated from the a pamphlet, or a song for everything. One day he is de- Aztec or Maya Quetzal-tototl, the last part of the comfonding St James, the sole patron of Spain, against a pound word meaning fowl, and the first, also written powerful coterie that wished to associate St Teresa with Cuetzal, the long feathers of rich green with which it is him, and meeting these antagonists with the vehemence of adorned.? The Quezal is one of the Trogons (7.2.), and a warm patriot and the learning of a professional theo was originally described by Hernandez (Ilistorii, p. 13), logian ; next day he is writing against the duke of Savoy, whose account was faithfully copied by Willughby. Yet the the hidden enemy of Spain, or against the measures taken bird remained practically unknown to ornithologists until to change the value of the currency; or once more he is figured in 1825, from a specimen belonging to Leadbeater," engaged with the literary school of Gongora, whose affecta- by Temminck (Pl. col., 372) who, however, mistakenly tions and designed obscurity of style seem to him to sin thought it was the same as the Trogon pavoninus, a conagainst the genius of the Castilian tongue. And in the generic but quite distinct species from Brazil

, that had just midst of this incessant controversy on every possible been described by Spix. The scientific determination of subject he finds time to compose a comic romance, Don the Quetzal-bird of Central America seems to have been Pablo of Segoria (1626),—a masterpiece of sparkling verve first made by Bonaparte in 1826, as I'rogon paradisrus, and fun, which admirably continues the series of Lazarillo according to his statement in the Zoological Society's Pro. ile Tormes and Guzman de Alfarache, -to pen a dissertation slings for 1837 (1) 101); but it is not known whether the on The Constancy and Patience of Job (1631), to translate fact was ever published. In 1832 the Registro Trimestre, a St Francis de Sales and Seneca, to compose thousands of literary and scientific journal printed at Mexico, of which verses, and to correspond with Spanish and foreign scholars. few copies can exist in Europe, contained a communication

But Quevedo was not to maintain unscathed the high by Dr Pablo de la Llave, describing this species (with position won by his knowledge, talent, and biting wit. which he first became acquainted prior to 1810, from The government of Olivares, which he had welcomed as examining more than a dozen specimens obtained by the the dawn of a political and social regeneration, made things natural-history expedition to New Spain and kept in the worse instend of better, committed fault upon fault, and palace of the Retiro near Mailrid) under the name by which led the country to ruin. Quevedo saw this and could not it is now commonly known, Phiromuterus morino 3 These hold his peace. An anonymous petition in verse enumerat- facts, however, being almost unknown to the rest of the ing to the king in strong terms the grievances of his sub- world, Gould, in the Zoological Proceedings for 1835 (p. 29), jects was found in the early part of December 1639 under while pointing out Temminck's error, gave the species the the very napkin of Philip IV. It was shown to Olivares, name of Trosjon resplendens, which it bore for some time. who exclaimed, “I am ruined"; but before his fall he Yet little or nothing was generally known about the bird sought vengeance on the libeller. His suspicions fell on

until Delattre sent an account of his meeting with it to the Quevedo, who had enemies glad to confirm them. Quevedo Echo ou Monde Sent for 1N13, which was reprinted in was arrested on December 7, and carried under a strong the Reru Zmlongipe for that year (pp. 163-165). In 1860 escort to the neighbouring convent of Leon, where he was the nidification of the species, about which strange stories kept in rigorous confinement till the fall of the minister had been told to the naturalist last namel, was deter(3January 1643) restored him to light and freedom, mined, and its entiers of a pale Wuish-green, were procured but not to the health which he had lost in his dungeon. He had little more than two years to live, and these were

I Tin Vesican deity Quetzalcoatl 1:1 lu- 11.11.", Derily traus.

1.11.11 Festhenol Shake;" from the .;19/17, feather or bund, and cool, sprent in inactive retreat, first at La Torre de Juan Abad,

shes, as almon'un kul..sof, ! Intly plann, (.!!,, Q.1.raland then at the neighbouring Villanueva de los Infantes, pin, Qurtupsand Quezzina, 12h yuz hapa ni le of the where he died September 8, 1615.

linf Wete nammel (11?rily from the jufalinen il BluftVulon

i kuin vit. 1'...., W... Index. Qoral-1/11 is sail to len 01768rebon was of miilille bright, with black, somewliat crisp hair, the irruil. urry fair complexion, a lorou foreheadl, and very sharp les • This year ul., illi', V: !11111 ril '18", jaunes alwave furnished with spartaclex. The uppmr part of his bunly was to tliet lomino, tu liell "...le Worll mnt.) well built bnt the lower part deformerl: he limpel, and his free listence to tolestie lacrilie 10.1 ibis Mis: lilosimple.. travel in manis. Though of very dissolute manners, he lovil study 11.161,1 W.1', :! le 111.1.;:""" .::';H, :1:11 minel, anil livet surroundled loy luoks. Hehu a table on wherl thing which 1.1 Theod ispuni, spisa:1::.. for ruling in lwyl anil A stand that enabled him to real at table, sirlid, James W.-II 1.2 He convenation, as one might gure from his bowks, was sparkling, Wrolunuzlit with it. .1: :11!

.......... ...'!. F.!.!... full of unexpected turns and slynes, and many bun-mots are Mull. Onthip11.25..... 1 i .- ...1:. 1-1!'. 1-n bred to him. A few days before his death, as he was almost to 1.Sirport in the little .. "T!: Tuiti,... Huriolirtate his last will, the curate who attested it insitel him to a sign fi-'18117-e'tiwal Trus 11" pasqylm: .::. 11.00 a com for music at his funeral. "Music!" said the dying man; "it' De la lis. sery rare anil is."::: flii. TW. ; -iliyo those who hear it pay for that."

M. Salic in the Prison J. de 2 7.r foop 1331 lil'. . 3 .

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by Mr Robert Owen (P. 2. S., 1860, p. 374; Ibis, 1861, | half, with the upper surface, the throat, and chest, are of a p. 66, pl. ii. fig. 1); while further and fuller details of its resplendent golden-green, while the lower parts are of a habits (of which want of space forbids even an abstract vivid scarlet. The middle feathers of the tail, ordinarily here) were made known by Mr Salvin (Ibis, 1861, pp. concealed, as are those of the Peacock, by the uropygials, 138-119) from his own observation of this very local and are black, and the outer white with a black base. In the remarkable species. Its chief home is in the mountains hen the bill is black, the crest more round and not filanear Coban in Vera Paz, but it also inhabits forests in mentous, the uropygials scarcely elongated, and the vent other parts of Guatemala at an elevation of from 6000 to only scarlet. The eyes are of a yellowish-brown. Southern 9000 feet.

examples from Costa Rica and Veragua have the tail-coverts The Quezal is hardly so big as a Turtle-Dove. The much narrower, and have been needlessly considered to

form a distinct species under the name of P. costaricensis. There are, however, some good congeneric species, P. antisianus, P. fulgidus, P. auriceps, and P. pavoninus, from various parts of South America, and, though all are beautiful birds, none possess the wonderful singularity of the Quezal.

(A. N.) QUEZALTENANGO, a city of Guatemala, capital of the province of its own name, lies on the Siguila in a fertile district about 25 or 30 miles to the west of Lake Atitlan, on the high road between the city of Guatemala and the Mexican province of Chiapas. It has a cathedral and other public buildings, carries on the manufacture of cotton and wool, and contains from 20,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, mostly Indians. In the days of the Quiché power Quezaltenango, or, as it was then called, Xelahuh, was one of the largest and most flourishing cities in the country. The Spanish city was founded by Alvarado in 1521.

QUIETISM, a peculiar form of MYSTICISM (9.2.) within the modern Catholic Church, mainly associated with the names of Madame Guyon and MIGUEL DE MOLINOS (29.v.). See also FÉNELON.

QUILIMANE, or KILIMANE (the former being the Portuguese spelling), a Portuguese town on the east coast of Africa, at the head of a district of the province of Mozambique, lies 12 miles inland from the mouth of the river Quilimane or Qua Qua, which, an independent stream during the rest of the year, during the rainy season becomes a deltaic branch of the Zambesi, with which it is connected by Mutu, a cross channel or ditch. The town lies on the north bank of the river at a point where it is still about a mile broad, and as many as fifty coasting vessels may be seen at a time in the harbour. Large steamers are obliged to lie off the river mouth till high tide. Almost all the European merchants live in one long acacia-shaded street or boulevard skirting the river, while the Indian merchants or Banyans occupy another street running at right angles. The natives have their hut-clusters hid among the tropical vegetation which begins at the very end of the street and rapidly passes off into the uninvaded swamp-forest. The whole site is low and unhealthy, and the Portuguese have done next to nothing to improve it. The total population is between 6000 and 7000. Quilimane, at one time the capital of the Arab kingdom of Angoza, was seized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, and became in the 18th and the carly part of the 19th the chief slave mart on the east coast of Africa. In modern times it has been the starting point of several exploring expeditions—notably of Livingstone's up the Zambesi to

Lake Nyassa in 1861.
Quczal, male and female.

cock has a fine yellow bill and a head bearing a rounded

QUILLOTA, a town of Chili, at the head of a district crest of filamentous feathers ; lanceolate scapulars over in the province of Valparaiso, lies 30 miles by rail northhang the wings, and from the rump spring the long flowing cast of Valparaiso, on the south or left bank of the plumes which are so characteristic of the species, and were Aconcagua, about 20 miles from its mouth. It is one of so highly prized by the natives prior to the Spanish con the oldest towns in the country, and since the opening of quest that no one was allowed to kill the bird when taken, the railway in 1863 it has grown so that in population but only to divest it of its feathers, which were to be worn by the chiefs alone. These plumes, the middle and longest beauty in a few years, the original glorious colour becoming a dingy

I Preserved specimens, if exposed to the light, lose much of their of which may measure from three feet to three feet and a greenish-blue.


(11,369 in 1875) it is exceeded only by the capital and ological collections and about 1300 paintings and drawsix other towns. It is famous for the quality of its chiri- ings. In 1868 a bronze statue of Laennec the inventor of moyas (Anona Cherimolia) and lucumas; and in the neigh- the stethoscope (born at Quimper in 1781) was erected in bourhood there are rich copper mines. In 1822 and 1851 Place St Corentin. it suffered from earthquakes.

Quimper, or at least its suburb Locmaria (which lies below the QUILON, a seaport town in Quilon district, Travancore town on the left bank of the Odet), was occupied in the time

of the Romans, and numerous traces of the ancient foundations state, Madras presidency, India, between the towns of

still exist. At a later period Quimper became the capital of Trevandrum and Aleppi, in 8° 54' N. lat, and 76° 37' E. Cornouailles and the residence of its kings or hereditary counts. It long. It is a healthy town, and contained in 1881 a popu- is said to have been Grallon Meur (i.c., the Great) who brought lation of 13,588. It enjoys great facilities of water com

the name of Cornouailles from Great Britain and founded the munication, and has an active export trade in timber, bishoprie

, which was first held by St Corentin about 495. Ho cl,

count of Cornouailles, marrying the sister and heiress of Duko cocoa-nuts, ginger, pepper, &c. The outer point of the Conan in 1066, united the countship with the duchy of Brittany. town (Tangacheri) is slightly elevated above the adjoining Quimper was surrounded by walls in the courso of the 13th ground, and contains high cocoa-nut trees. Besides being century. It suffered greatly in the local wars of succession. In a very projecting point, Quilon is rendered still more

1311 it was savagely sacked by Charles of Blois. Monfort did

not succeed in his attempt to take the town by storm on August unsafe to approach by the bank of hard ground called the 11, 1345, but it opened its gates to his son John IV. in 1364 Tangacheri reef which extends some distance to the south- after the victory at Auray. At a later period it sided with the west and west of the point and along the coast to the League, Besides Laennec, alreally mentionel, it has given birth to northward. There is, however, good anchorage in a bight quary, and Count. Louis de Carne. Doubtless on account of its dis

Kerguélen the navigator, Fréron the critic, Hardouin the antiabout 3 miles from the fort. Quilon is one of the oldest tance from the capital, Quimper, like Carpentras and Landerneau, towns on the Malabar coast, and continued to be a place of haz undeservedly been made a frequent butt of French popular wit. considerable importance down to the beginning of the 16th QUINAULT, PHILIPPE (1635–1688), a dramatist of century. It was garrisoned by a strong British force from merit, and the only European writer who has made the 1803 to 1830; but the subsidiary force has since been opera libretto a work of literature (so much so that the reduced to one native regiment, whose cantonments lie to popularity of opera may be said to be not a little due the cast of the town. The town is 385 miles south-west of to him), was born at Paris on June 3, 1635.

He was Madras.

educated by the liberality of Tristan, the author of QUIMPER, or QUIMPER-CORENTIN, a town of France, Marianne. His first play was produced at the Hôtel de formerly the capital of the county of Cornouailles, and Bourgogne in 1653 when Quinault was only cighteen. now the chief town of the department of Finistère, is situ- It is said that it was the occasion of an important innovaated 158 miles north-west of Nantes and 68 miles south- tion in dramatic history. Tristan had offered it and it east of Brest on the railway between those towns. The had been accepted as his own at the price of a hundred delightful valley in which it lies is surrounded by high crowns, which, though little enough, was twice the regular hills and traversed by the Steir and the Odet, which, price of a few years before. When Tristan told the actors meeting above the town, form a navigable channel for that it was the work of a novice they wished to throw up vessels of 150 tons during the rest of their journey to their bargain and only held to it on the terms of a ninth the sea (11 miles). With its communal population of part of the receipts. The piece succeeded and Quinault 15,284, Quimper ranks in Finistère next to Brest and followed it up, but he also read for the bar; and in 1660, Morlaix. The only articles in which it has any consider- when he married a widow with money, be bought himself able trade are fish and marine manures; and in 1882 the a place in the Cour des Comptes. Then he tried tragedies total movement of the port was 31 vessels (2976 tons) | (clyrippa, &c.) with more success than desert. He reentering and 36 vessels (3352 tons) clearing. The real ceived one of the literary pensions then recently established, interest of the town lies in its old churches and its historic and was elected to the Academy in 1670. associations. Of the old town-walls a few portions are still l'p to this time he had written some sixteen or sevenpreserved in the terrace of the episcopal palace and in the teen comedies, tragedies, and tragi-comedies, of which the neighbourhood of the college. Quimper is the seat of a tragedies were mostly of very small value and the tragibishop belonging to the province of Rennes. The cathedral, comedies not of much more. But his comedies-- especially delicated to the patron saint St ('orentin and erected his first piece Les Ririles, L’lmant Indiseret (1651) between 1:39 and 1515, has a fine façade, the pediment | (which has some likeness to Molière'- Etourili, and was of which is crowned by an equestrian statue of King with it used to make up Newcastle's and Dryden's Sir (irallon, and adorned (like several other external parts of Jourtin Jar-all), Li Fantómi i mourrur (1659), and Lu the building) with heraldic devices cut in granite. Two Hire Compuutto (1665), perhaps the best-are much better. later towers with modern spires (1854-56) and turrets None of these styles, however, maile Quinault worthy of reach a height of 2 17 feet. The total length of the build a place here. In 1671 he contributed to the singular ing is 303 feet and its width 52, the length of the transept miscellany of Isyche, in which ('orneille and Molière also Ils feet and the height 66. The nave and the transept had a hand, and which was set to the music of Lulli. are in the style of the 15th century, and the central boss. Here he showed a remarkable faculty for lyrical drama, Imars the arins of Inne of Brittany (1176–1511). The ' and from this time till just before his deathi le confined terminal chapel of the apose dates from the 13th century. himself to composing libretti for Lullis work. This was In the side chapels are the tombs of several early bishops. not only very profitable (for he is suid to have received The high altar, tabernacle, and ciborium are costly works four thousand livres for carlı, which was much more than of contemporary art. The pulpit janels represent episodes was usually paid even for tragedy, lut it tallilul in the life of St (orentin. Of the other churches may lie Quinault: riportation as the master of a new style, -30 mentioned st Matthieu, rebuilt at the beginning of the mucho that even Boilean, who had previou-ly attacked I oth century, with a tine belfry; the church of Lumaria, and satirind his dramatir work, we converted, len to the dating from the 11th century; and the college chapel, in opera, which he did not like than to Quinart's rumarklily the "Jesuit" style. The old seminary is now 11-ed as a in nulls and 11: ist lihe wirk in it. His lilitrutti are phphone, and there is also a lunatic asylum in the town. am on the very few whilares poster wiibolit the 2011-25, The public library in the town-hall possesses 25,000 and which are set out inils adapted to it. Thievoertainly volumes. The museum built in 1869-70 contains archæ- . do not contain very cualteil Joery or very luerfect drama.

But they are quite free from the ludicrous doggerel which fruits than the other two (4 inches in length, 3–31 in (not merely in English) has made the name libretto a by- width), of a rich yellow colour when ripe and with less word, and at the same time they have quite enough dra- astringency, hence it is better suited for culinary and conmatic merit to carry the reader, much more the spectator, fectionary purposes than the other two, but is said to be along with them. It is not an exaggeration to say that somewhat more tender. The common quince and its Quinault, coming at the exact time when opera became varieties are very largely used as “ dwarfing

stocks on fashionable out of Italy, had very much to do with estab- which choice pears are engrafted. The effect is to restrain lishing it as a permanent European genre. His first the growth of the pear, increase and hasten its fruitfulpiece after Psyche was a kind of classical masque, The Feast ness, and enable it to withstand the effects of cold (see of Love and Bacchus (1672). Then came Cadmus (1674), HORTICULTURE, vol. xii. p. 213). The common Japan then in the same year and the three following Alceste, quince, Pyrus or Cydonia japonica, is grown in gardens Thésél, Atys (one of his best-liked pieces), and Isis. All for the sake of its flowers, which vary in colour from these, it may be observed, were classical in subject, and so creamy white to rich red, and are produced during the was Proserpine (1680), which was superior to any of them. . winter and early spring months. Ĉ. Maulei, a recently The Triumph of Love (1681) is a mere ballet, but in Persée introduced shrub from Japan, bears a profusion of equally and Phaeton Quinault returned to the classical opera. beautiful orange-red flowers, which are followed by fruit of Then he finally deserted it for romantic subjects, in which a yellow colour and agreeable fragrance, so that, when he was even

more successful. Amadis (1681), Roland cooked with sugar, it forms an agreeable conserve, as in (1685), and Armide (1686) are his masterpieces, the last the case of the ordinary quince. The fruit of the ordinary being the most famous and the best of all. It should Japan quince is quite uneatable. perhaps be observed that the very artificiality of the QUINCY, a city of the United States, the county seat French lyric of the later 17th century and its resemblance of Adams county, Illinois, occupies a limestone bluff 125 to alexandrines cut into lengths were aids to Quinault in feet above low-water mark on the east bank of the Missisarranging lyrical dialogue. Lulli died in 1687, and sippi at the extreme western point of the State. The river Quinault, his occupation gone (for the two had now is crossed here by the great bridge of the Hannibal and worked together for more than fifteen years, and it would St Joseph Railroad. Quincy Bay, an arm of the river, is probably have been difficult to find another composer the finest natural harbour for steamboats on the upper equally well suited to his librettist), became devout, began Mississippi. By water Quincy is 160 miles above St Louis, a poem called the “Destruction of Heresy,” and died on and by rail 263 miles south-west of Chicago via Galesburg. November 26, 1688. The best edition of his works is Commanding an extensive view, being well built, having that of 1739 (Paris, 5 vols.).

excellent waterworks, and forming an important centre in QUINCE.. Among botanists there is a difference of the railway system of the region, Quincy is both an attracopinion whether or not the quince is entitled to take rank tive and a prosperous place, with very miscellaneous inas a distinct genus or as a section of the genus l'yrus. It dustries. Among the public buildings are the court-houses, is not a matter of much importance whether we call the St John's cathedral (1877), a medical college (1873), a city quince Pyrus Cydoniu or Cydonia vulgaris. For practical library, and several hospitals and asylums. The population purposes it is perhaps better to consider it as distinct in 1860 was 13,718; in 1870, 24,052 (1073 coloured); from Pyrus, differing from that genus in the twisted and in 1880, 27,268 (1508 coloured). Laid out in 1825 manner in which the petals are arranged in the bud, and or about three years after the arrival of the first white in the many-celled ovary, in which the numerous ovules settler, Quincy was made a town in 1834, and a city in are disposed horizontally, not vertically as in the pears. 1839. The quinces are much-brauched shrubs or small trees with QUINCY, a township and seaport of the United States, entire leaves, small stipules, large solitary white or pink in Norfolk county, Massachusetts, on a small bay of its flowers like those of a pear or apple, but with leafy calyx- own name in the south of Massachusetts Bay and 7 miles lobes, and a many-celled ovary, in each cell of which are south-south-east of Boston by rail. It is best known for numerous horizontal ovules. The common quince is a its great granite quarries, in connexion with which was native of Persia and Anatolia, and perhaps also of Greece constructed in 1827 the first (horse) railway in the United and the Crimea, but in these latter localities it is doubtful States, and as the birthplace of Governor John Hancock whether or not the plant is not a relic of former cultivation. and Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams. By Franchet and Savatier P. Cydonia is given as a native Among the principal buildings—chiefly situated in the of Japan with the native name of " maroumerou.” It is village, which lies on an elevated plain near the centre of certain that the Greeks knew a common variety upon which the township—are the granite town-house, the so-called they engrafted scions of a better variety which they called Adams Temple (a church erected in 1828), beneath the kudóvlov, from Cydon in Crete, whence it was obtained, portico of which are the tombs of the two Presidents Adams, and from which the names Cydonia, Codogno (Italian), the Adams Academy, a home for infirm sailors, a public Coudougner and Coing (French), Quitte (German), and library, and the mansions of the Quincy and Adams families, Quince have been derived. Pliny (11. N., xv. 11.) men whose estates occupied the greater portion of the township. tions that the fruit of the quince, Malum cotoneum, warded Quincy, which till 1792 formed part of Braintree, had 5017 off the influence of the evil eye; and other legends connect inhabitants in 1850, 6779 in 1860, 7112 in 1870 and it with ancient Greek mythology, as exemplified by statues 10,570 in 1880. in which the fruit is represented, as well as by represent QUINCY, JOSIAN, JR. (1744-1775), born in Boston, ations on the walls of Pompeii. The fragrance and Mass., 1744, is the most eminent of a well-known family astringency of the fruit of the quince are well known, and whose founder emigrated to New England in 1633. At the seeds are used medicinally for the sake of the mucilage the time of his death, at the age of thirty-one, he had won they yield when soaked in water, a peculiarity which is distinction as a lawyer, and his place was secured in history not met with in pears. This mucilage is analogous to, as among the most cloquent, the most clear-sighted, and and has the same properties as, that which is formed from the most devoted of the men who led the American colothe seeds of linseed. In English gardens three varieties nists in the measures preliminary to the revolution In are cultivated—the apple-shaped quince, the pear-shaped 1767 he entered upon the public discussion of political quince, and the Portugal quince; the last-named has larger questions, maintaining with great ability and courage the


duty of his countrymen to resist any encroachments upon by the reputation of speculative republicanism which he their right to self-government. In 1770 he wrote An had acquired. But he joined the staff of the Revue des Address of the Merchants, Traders, and Freeholders of Boston Deux Mondes, and for some years contributed to it numerin favour of a non-importation Act, asserting, about the ous essays, the most remarkable of which was that on same time, in a newspaper article that Americans would “Les Epopées Françaises du XIIème Siécle,” an early “know, resume, assert, and defend their rights” by the though not by any means the earliest appreciation of the “ arts of war” if "the arts of policy” should fail. In ! long-neglected chansons de geste. Ahasvérus, his first oriDecember 1773 he took an active and leading part in the ginal work of consequence, appeared in 1833. This is a town-meeting which virtually ordered the destruction of singular prose poem in language sometimes rather bomthe cargoes of the tea-ships in Boston harbour. The appeal bastic but often beautiful. Shortly afterwards he married to the other towns for help to sustain Boston against the 'Minna Moré, a German girl with whom he had fallen in enforcement of the consequent Acts of Parliament was ' love some years before. Then he visited Italy, and, besides written by him; and soon after there appeared under his writing many essays, produced two poems, Napoléon and own name Observations on the Boston Port Bill, with Thoughts Promethée (1833), which being written in verse (of which on Civil Society and Standing Armies, his longest and most he was not a master) are inferior to Ahasvérus. In 1838 important political paper, which made him a marked man he published a vigorous reply to Strauss's Life of Jesus, both in England and America. He sailed a few months and in that year he received the Legion of lionour. afterwards for England with the approval of the leading In 1839 he was appointed professor of foreign literature revolutionists, to present, though unofficially, to the ministry at Lyons, where he began the brilliant course of lectures and other public men the grievances and the determination afterwards enibodied in the Ginie (les Religions. Two of the colonists. After six months failing health—he had | years later he was transferred to the College de France long been threatened with consumption—compelled him and the Génie des Religions itself appeared (1812). to return home, and he died on shipboard as the vessel Quinet's Parisian professorship was more notorious than was entering the harbour of Gloucester, Massachusetts, fortunate, owing, it must be said, to his own fault. IIis April 26, 1775.

chair was one of Southern Literature, but, neglecting his A menoir written by his only son, JOSLAu Quincy (1772-1864), proper subject, he chose, in conjunction with Michelet, to containing his life, correspondence, and the Obserrations on the engage in a violent polemic with the Jesuits and with Boston Port Bill, was published in 1825 (21 cu. 1874). This only Ultramontanism. Two books bearing exactly these titles son of Josiah Quincy, jun., born in Boston in February 1772, livet i to be three times the age of his father, and filled public stations appeared in 1843 and 1814, and contained, as was usual for more years than his father lived ; he was a member of Congress, with Quinet, the substance of his lectures. These excited during the eventful period from 1805 to 1813; as the second mayor so much disturbance and the author so obstinately refused of Bostou his sngacity and energy insured the future prosperity of to confine himself to literature proper that in 1846 the that city ; in Congress he maintained at the head of the Federal party the strugglo with the disastrous foreign policy of the alminis : Government put an end to them-a course which was not trations of Jefferson and Madison, and the dangerous growth of the disapproved by the majority of his colleagues. By this slave-power, which he never ceased to oppose : as president of Har- | time Quinet was a pronounced republican and something vard College for sixteen years (1829-15) Tie increased the usefulness of a revolutionist. The appeared in arms durirg the disand wilded to the influence of that seat of learning. He wrote a history of the college for two hundred years, which was also largely turbances which overthrew Louis Philippe, and was elected a history of Massachusetts. He died in June 1804 in the ninetys į by the department of the in to the constituent and then thinl year of his age. A life of him, by his youngest son Edmund' to the Legislative Assembly, where he figured among the Quincy, an accomplishcıl scholar and well-known author, was pub. : extreme Radical party. Ile had published in 1818 Les lished in 1807.

Revolutions illic, one of his principal though not one QUINET, EDGAR (1803-1875), was born at Bourg en- of his best works. He wrote numerous pamphlets durBresse, in the department of the Ain, France, on February ' ing the short-lived second republic, attacked the Roman 17, 1803. His father, Jeromo Quinet, had been a com- expedition with all his strength, and was from the first an missary in the army, but being a strong republican and uncompromising opponent of Prince Louis Napoleon. He disgusted with Napoleon's usurpation, he gave up his post was banished from France after the, and estaband resided cither at Bourg or at a country house which he lished himself at Brussels. His wife had died some time prossessed in the neighbourhood, devoting himself to scien- previously, and he now married Mademoiselle Araki, the titie and mathematical study. Edgar, who was an only daughter of a Roumanian poet. It Brussels he lived for child, was much alone, but his mother (whose name was some seven years, during which he published Les Esclures Euginie Rozat Lagis, and who was a person of education (1853), a dramatic poem, Jarnir ili St. Hiligunde (1854), and strong though somewhat unorthodox religious views) a study of that Reformer in which he very greatly exaggerererrived great intluence over him. He was sent to school ates Sainte Veconde's literary merit, and some other tirt at Bourg and then at Lyons, where he took no part books. He then moved to Pertaux on the shore of the in a celebrated barring out which led to the expulsion of Lake of lieneva, where he continued to reside till the fall his schoolfellow Jules Janin. On leaving school his father of the empire. Here his pen was busier than ever. In wished him to go into the army and then suggested busi- 1800 appeared a singular lock some what after the fashion ness. But Quinet was determined upon literature, and of thosvirus entitled Trin 1 Enhentur, in 1862 a iuft:'s a time got his way. His first publication, the 7',l- llistoire de la limpidano il 187.5, in 1963 an elaborate lo!lex diu Juii Errimt, appeared in 1823. Being struck book on the French Revolution, in which the author, with Herdler's Philosophie der Geschichte, he undertook to republican as he Wits, blamed the arts of the revolutionists translate it, learnt German for the purpose, published his unsjringly, and his that malls dres3 duan on himself Work in 18:37, and obtained by it considerable credit. It much wrath from more thoroughoin: furtiaus. Many this time he was introduced to cousin and made the pimpollets date ir.'m this friend, its des li cirstine #quintance of Michelet. Ile had visited Germany and il 70), a third look of the class of thesvirus an! Herkur, England before the appearance of his book. (ousin pro- but i've'n :11:1, dealinnut with hii-try; Lennor eared him a juist on a Giovernment mission to the More philosophy, but with physical science for the ment part. in 18!), and on his return ho published in 1830 a book Quinct had refled to return to trader t., join the on litlirne Jnderne. Some hopes of employment which Liberal opposition ainst Napoleon III., lulit immediately he had after the revolution of February were frustrated, after sedan he returned. He was the to his pori

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