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fessorship, and during the siege wrote vehemently against chemists, Pelletier and Caventou, proved that the cinthe Germans. He was elected deputy by the department chonino of Gomez contained two alkaloids which they of the Seine in 1871, and was one of the most obstinate named quinine and cinchonine. Some years afterwards opponents of the terms of peace between France and quinidine and cinchonidine were discovered, and subseGermany. He continued to write till his death, which quently several other alkaloids, but in smaller quantity, in occurred at Versailles on the 27th March 1875. Le Siège different varieties of the bark. de Paris et la Défense Nationale appeared in 1871, La Chemistry.—The alkaloids appear to exist in cinchona République in 1872, Le Livre de l'Exilé in the year of its bark chiefly in combination with cinchotannic and quinic author's death and after it. This has been followed by acids, since solvents of the alkaloids in the free state do three volumes of letters and some other work. Quinet had not dissolve out any from the powdered bark. The already in 1858 published a semi-biographic book called cinchotannic acid apparently becomes altered by atmoHistoire de mes Idées. The whole of his very numerous spheric oxidation into a red-colouring matter, known as works, the chief of which have been already named, have cinchono-fulvic acid or cinchona red, which is very appeared in a uniform edition of which some thirty volumes abundant in some species, as in C. succirubra. For this are now published. His second wife, in 1870, published reason those barks which, like C. Calisaya, C. officinalis, certain Mémoires d'Exil. There is in English an elaborate and C. Ledgeriana, contain but little colouring matter are Early Life and Writings of Edgar Quinet, by R. Heath preferred by manufacturers, the quinine being more easily (London, 1881), but it does not go beyond the year 1842. extracted from them in a colourless form. The value of

Quinet's character was extremely amiable, and his letters to liis cinchona bark for the manufacture of quinine depends on mother, his accounts of his early life, and so forth are likely always the amount of quinine sulphate that can be prepared from to make him interesting. He was also a man of great moral conscientiousness, and as far as intention went perfectly, disinterested adopted by manufacturers is kept a profound secret.

it in the crystalline form. The exact mode of extraction though it may perhaps be questioned whether the disappointment which he met with for years after the revolution of February had | That hitherto adopted by the Indian Government for the not an insensible influence in determining his republicanism. But preparation of the cinchona febrifuge (see below) has the he never temporized, and, as has been said above, hesitated not to criticize his own party as severely as his opponents. He had, how in the bark is not obtained by it.

merit of simplicity, but the whole of the alkaloid present

This method is to ever, as a writer, a thinker, and a politician, drawbacks which prevented him from taking the first rank, and which will probably make exhaust the powdered bark as far as possible by means of his works, except those which are purely personal, less and less read water acidulated with hydrochloric acid and then to prein the future. As a writer his chief fault is want of concentration, cipitate the mixed alkaloids by caustic soda. Another as a thinker and politician vagueness and want of practical determination. His work is very extensive and abounds in passages of niethod which is said to give better results consists in great beauty. But no single book of his can be called a master- mixing the powdered bark with milk of lime, drying the picce, and none is of such a kind that the reader feels the subject mass slowly with frequent stirring, exhausting the powder to have been thoroughly treated in accordance with a definite and with boiling alcohol, removing the excess of alcohol by consistent principle or series of principles. Of verse he had but distillation, adding sufficient dilute sulphuric acid to dislittle command, and his abundance in a certain kind of effusive prose wants chastisement and criticism. The singular rhapsodies, solve the alkaloid and throw down colouring matter and of which in the three books Ahasvérus, Merlin, and La Criation he traces of lime, &c., filtering, and allowing the neutralized has left great store, are too diffuse, too inorganic, and too devoid of liquid to deposit crystals. The sulphates of the alkaloids like recorded dreams than anything else

. His historical and philo- thus obtained are not equally soluble in water, and the sophical works on the other hand, though showing much reading, sulphate of quinine can consequently be separated by fertile thought, abundant facility of expression, and occasionally, fractional crystallization, since, being less soluble in water where prejudice does not come in, acute judgment, are rather (as than the other sulphates, it crystallizes out first. not a few of them were in fact) reported lectures than formal treatises.

The quinine of commerce is the neutral sulphate, llis rhetorical power was altogether superior to his logical power, and the natural consequence is that his work is full containing 7 molecules of water of crystallization, and of contradictions. These contradictions were, moreover, due not having the formula (C20H.,,N,02)2.H.SO, + 1 H,0. When merely to an incapacity or an unwillingness to argue strictly, but crystallized from alcohol, or when dried over sulphuric acid, also to the presence in his mind of a large number of inconsistent it contains only 2 molecules. tastes and prejudices which he either could not or would not co

Cownley has shown that ordinate into an intelligible creed. Thus he has the strongest the salt containing 2 molecules of water is the most perattraction for the picturesque side of mediævalism and catholicity, manent one, for when the commercial su ate containing the strongest repulsion for the restrictions which mediæval and 7. molecules is dried at 100° C. it becomes anhydrous, Catholic institutions imposed on individual liberty. He refused to and when subsequently exposed freely to the air it rapidly like Strauss pushed unorthodoxy to its extremo limits Quinet absorbs 2 molecules of water; and that the commercial revolted. As a politician he acted with the extreme Radicals, yet salt, if exposed to the air, effloresces until only 2 moleuniversal suffrage, the cardinal doctrine of Radicalism, disgusted him cules of water are retained.1 as unreasonable in its principle and dangerous in its results. llis

Two other sulphates are known. The one contains a pervading characteristic, therefore, is that of an eloquent vagueness, very stimulating and touching at times, but as deficient in coercive single equivalent of acid, and in commerce bears the name force of matter as it is in lasting precision and elegance of form. of acid sulphate or soluble sulphate of quinine; it is He is less inaccurate in fact than Michelet, but he is also much less soluble in 11 parts of water, but with considerable diffione-ideaed, and the result is that he seldom attains to the vivid culty in absolute alcohol. The other sulphate contains 2 representation of which Michelet was a master. (G. SA.)

equivalents of sulphuric acid, is very soluble in cold water, QUININE, the most important of the active principles but quite insoluble in ether; it is not an article of commerce. contained in cinchona bark (see CINCHONA, vol. v. p. 780). Both these sulphates crystallize with 7 molecules of water. Although the value of this bark in the treatment of The neutral sulphate of quinine occurs in commerce in intermittent fevers became widely known in 1638 through the form of slender white acicular crystals, which are very the cure of the countess of Chinchon, it was not until light and bulky. It is soluble in about 740 parts of cold 1810 that any attempt was made to determine definitely water, but in 30 of boiling water, 60 of rectified spirits of the active principles to which its properties were due. In wine (sp. gr. 0·85), and 40 of glycerin. Its solubility in that

year Gomez of Lisbon obtained a mixture of alkaloids water is lessened by the presence of sodium or magnesium by treating an alcoholic extract of the bark with water sulphate, but is increased by nitrate of potassium, and then adding a solution of caustic potash. To this he gave the name of cinchonino. In 1820 two French

Pharm. Jour., [3], vol. vii. p. 189.

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chloride of ammonium, and most acids. It is not | They have also shown that cupreine is soluble in a solusoluble in fixed oils or in ether, although the pure tion of caustic soda (differing in this respect from quinine), alkaloid is soluble in both. It becomes phosphorescent and that therefore it is easy to prepare sulphate of quinine on trituration. When prescribed it is generally rendered perfectly free from either homoquinine or cupreine. So more soluble in water by the addition of dilute sulphuric far as the medicinal properties of cupreine and homoacid or of citric acid, one drop of the former or aths of a quinine are at present known they appear to be of no grain of the latter being used for each grain of the practical importance. sulphate of quinine.

In consequence of the high price of the alkaloid an When a solution of quinine is exposed to sunlight it attempt was made a few years since by the Government assumes a yellowish or brown colour due to the formation of India to manufacture from cinchona bark a cheap of “quiniretin,” a body which is isomeric with quinine but febrifuge which should represent the alkaloids contained has not an alkaline reaction, is not precipitated by tannin, in the bark and forin a substitute for quinine. This and has an aromatic as well as a bitter taste. Quinine is enterprise met with such success that in 1881 as much as precipitated from its solution by alkalies and their 8714 lb) of the febrifuge were prepared; and during the carbonates. It is very soluble in solution of ammonia, previous year 9144 l) were distributed, of which 4880 lb) and also slightly soluble in lime water.

were supplied to the Government institutions at a cost of The acid solution of sulphate of quinine is fluorescent, little more than a rupee per ounce. cspecially when dilute; it is levogyrate; and when å This mixture is known as cinchona febrifuge, and is solution of chlorine is first added and then ammonia an prepared chiefly from C. sucrirubra, which succeeds better cmerald green colour, due to the formation of thalleoquin, in India than the other species in cultivation, and grows is developed. This test answers with a solution contain- at a lower elevation, being consequently procurable in ing only 1 part of quinine in 5000, or in a solution large quantities at a comparatively low price. A mixture containing not more than 20,000 part if bromine be used of the cinchona alkaloids, consisting principally of cinchoniinstead of chlorine. The fluorescence is visible in an acid dine sulphate, with smaller quantities of the sulphates of solution containing one part in 200,000 of water.

quinine and cinchoninc, is sold under the name of " quincQuinine forms with sulphuric acid and iodine a com tum” at a cheaper rate than quinine. pound known as herapathite, 4C2,H,,N,0.350,H.,. 6I In 1870 the Indian Government purchased no less than +31,0, which possesses optical properties similar to those 81,600 ounces of sulphate of quinine, besides 8832 ounces of tourmaline; it is soluble in 1000 parts of boiling water; of the sulphates of cinchonine, cinchonidine, and quinidine; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized but at the present date it is able to meet the requirefor estimating quinine quantitatively. The other alkaloids ments of its establishments almost entirely by the cinchona are distinguished from quinine thus:-quinidine resembles febrifuge prepared at the Government pulantations in quinine, but is dextrogyrate, and the iodide is very in- India. solublo in water ; the solution of cinchonidine, which is Although quinine is manufactured in the United States, lerogyrate, does not give the thalleoquin test, nor fluor- a large quantity has been imported from Europe since the escence ; cinchonino resembles cinchonidine in these high duty levied on its manufacture has been removed. respects, but is dextrogyrate.

There is considerable difficulty in obtaining trustworthy Commercial sulphate of quinine frequently contains statistics as to the extent of the manufacture of quinine. from 1 to 10 per cent. of the sulplato of cinchonidine The largest sale that has taken place in America appears owing to the use of barks containing it. The sulphate of to have been in 1883, when 1. tons were put up to auction, cinchonidine is more soluble than that of quinine; and, and in the same year 16,000 ounces were sold in London when 1 part of quinine sulphate suspected to contain it is and a similar quantity at Berlin. nearly dissolved in 24 parts of boiling water, the sulphate Physiological sletion.—Quinine arrests the movements of quinine crystallizes out on cooling, and the cinchonidine of the white corpuscles of the blood, rendering them round is found in the clear mother liquor, from which it can be and darkly granulate, and, by preventing them from making precipitated by a solution of tartrate of potassium and their exit from the blood vessels, diminishes or arrests sodium. Samples of quinino in which cinchonidine is the formation of pus in inflammation and causes contracpresent usually contain, according to Hesse, a smaller per- tion of the spleen when that oryan is enlargel. It acts centage of water than the pure sulphate, the cinchonidine upon the cerebrospinal nervous system, giving rise to salt exercising a reducing intluence on the quinine salt in headache and a sense of tension in the brain ; there this respect. Traces of quinidine are also sometimes, symptoms may be removed loy the addition of hydrobromic thongh rarely, found in commercial quinine, but, since acid or prevented by the use of the hydrobromide of quinidine is even more valuable as a medicine than quinine, ! quinine. . It acts throngh the sympathetic nervous system its presence does not detract in a medicinal point of view, on the leart, and is thus capable of restraining all the from the value of the latter.

animal processes which develop heat, organic changes, os Owing to its voluminous character, as much as 18 per muscular action. It is antagonistic to atropine in its cent. of water may remain present in apparently lry 'physiological action. samples of sulphate of quinine. If it loses more than ! The use of quinine in medicine dates from its discovery 11.0 per cent of water when dried at 100°C. it contains ' in 1820. Ita chief value is as an antijuridic. querially in an epressive amount of moisture. Owing to its variability intermittent fevets, but also in other diseas when they in this respuct the hydrochlomte of quinine has been as-me a periodic character, -neli as neuralgia, a-thuma, rerommended as a more constant salt ; it also possesses hooping cough, li. In lood poisoning, whither arising avantages from a thempeutical point of view.

from natural or traumatic callee's, it has been found of Sulphate of quinine manufaetured from cuprca bark reat utility. Its curative powers in sunstroke have fouen ( Remijin prelunulatı) is liable to contain from 10 to repeatedly proved in the East Indis, and i den of -90 per cent of sulphate of homoquinine, which almost ! quinine will often cilt short an attack of catarrh if taken mineiles in solubility with sulphate of quinine. Homo-, in the early stages. In malarial di-trin- petriss lave quinine has been shown by Paul and Cownley to lie deumped on treatment with caustic soda into qninine


...!!!vir 197,61.5. 19 and a new alkaloid, cupreine, in the proportion of to 3.729.


been exposed to miasmatic influence without danger after | in strong growing trees affording but little quinine. Grafting, howtaking a dose or two of five grains of quinine once or twice ever, has not been found to answer the purpose, since the stock and a day. In the smallest medicinal doses it is purely tonic, natural proportion just as if growing separately. Hybridization

the graft have been found to retain their respective alkaloids in the in larger ones stimulant; but it differs from other medicines also is very uncertain, and is very difficult to carry out effectually ; of the same class in the stimulant action being longer sus hence the method of propagating the best varieties by cuttings has tained. In large doses it acts as a sedative, and in exces

been adopted except in the case of those which do not strike sive doses it is poisonous. In some individuals it pro-readily, as in c. Ledgeriana, in which the plants are grown from

the duces an erythematous eruption, and it is also known to

A few years ago it was discovered that a bark imported from act as an oxytocic. Large doses also sometimes produce the United States of Colombia under the name of cuprea bark, and deafness, and act injuriously in all inflammatory states of derived from Kemijia pedunculata, Triana, and other species, conthe mucous membrane.

tained quinine to the extent of 1 to 2} per cent., and in 1881 this The other alkaloids of cinchona bark—quinidine, cincho-ing in amount the united importations of all the other cinchona

bark was exported in enormous quantities from Santander, exceednidine, and cinchonine—also possess similar properties, barks; and by reason of its cheapness this has since that date been quinidine being even more effectual than quinine ; but largely used for the manufacture of quinine. cinchonine appears to produce nausea and gastric disturb

The imports of cinchona bark into London in 1884, including ance. This is also the case with the cinchona febrifuge 9271 bales, and into New York 8150 bales.

cuprea bark, are stated to have been 59,287 bales, into France prepared from C. succirubra.

Cinchona bark as imported is never uniform in quality. The Until the year 1867 English manufacturers of quinine were

South-American kinds contain a variable admixture of inferior entirely dependent upon South America for their supplies of barks, and the cultivated Indian barks comprise, under the respeccinchona bark, which were obtained exclusively from uncultivated

tive names of yellow, pale, and red barks, a number of varieties of trees, growing chiefly in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, the prin- unequal value. For this reason a sample from every bale is cipal species which were used for the purpose being Cinchona analysed before the importations are offered for sale. Calisaya, Wedd. ; C. officinalis, Hook. ; C. macrocalyx, var. Palton,

The alkaloids are contained, according to Howard, chiefly in the How. ; C. Pitayensis, Weild. ; C. micrantha, R. and P. ; and c.

cellular tissue next to the liber. No definite knowledge has as yet lancifolia, Mutis. Since the cultivation of cinchona trees was com

been attained of the exact steps by which quinine is formed in menced in Java, India, Ceylon, and Jamaica, several other species,

nature in the tissues of the bark, nor have the numerous endeavours as well as varieties and hybrids cultivated in those countries, have that have been made to build up quinine artificially or to obtain been used.? Recently C. lancifolia, var. Calisaya, Wedd., known

some ilea of its constitution by splitting it up into its component as the calisaya of Santa Fé, has been strongly recommended for parts been more successful. Nearly all that is known at present cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing these it appears that quinine is present only in small quantities in

has resulted from analyses of the leaves, bark, and root. From a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensis has also been lately introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the

the leaves, in larger quantity in the stem bark, and increasing in valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine, but the last two proportion as it approaches the root, where quinine appears to species have not as yet been grown in sufficient quantities to afford decrease and cinchonine to increase in amount, although the root marketable bark.

bark is generally richer in alkaloids than that of the stem. The The first importation from India took place in 1867, since which altitude at which the trees are grown seems to affect the production time the cultivated bark has arrived in Europe in constantly of quinine, since it has been proved that the yield of quinine in increasing quantities, London being the chief market for the

C. officinulis is less when the trees are grown below 6000 feet than Indian barks and Amsterdam for those of Java. The principal above that elevation, and that cinchonidine, quinidine, and resin sales take place in May. In 1876, when Indian calisaya bark first

are at the same time increased in amount. It has also been shown came into the European market

, the imports into London were the by Broughton that C. peruviana, which yields cinchonine but no following :-C'inchona succirubru, 43,000 lb ; C'. officinalis, 20,000 quinine at a height of 6000 feet, when grown at 7800 feet gives ib) ; C. Calisaya, 1000 IH. During the last few year's Cinchón Cali- nearly as much crystallized sulphate of quinine, and almost as suya has also been cultivated extensively in Bolivia and in Tolima, readily, as C. officinalis. Karsten also ascertained by experiments United States of Colombia, and this bark, which had almost dis made at Bogota on C. lancifolia that the barks of one district were appeared from commerce, is likely in a few years to again become sometimes devoid of quinine, while those of the same species from an available source of quinine.

a neighbouring locality yielded 3 to 4 per cent of the sulphate ; In order to obtain the cultivated bark as economically as possible, moreover, Dr De Vrij found that the bark of C. oficinalis cultivated experiments were made some years ago by U'Ivor and others

at Utakamand varied in the yield of quinine from 1 to 9 per cent. which resulted in the discovery that, if the bark were removed from

In these cases the variation may have been due to altitude. Free the trunks in alternate strips so as not to injure the cambium, or

access of air to the tissues also seems to increase the yield of quinine, actively growing zone, a new layer of bark was formed in one year

for the renewed bark is found to contain more quinine than the which was richer in quinine than the original bark and equal in original bark. thickness to that of two or three years' ordinary growth. This is

See Pharmacographia, 2d ed., pp. 339-370; Howard, Quinology of the East

Inulian Plantations; Ilesse in Pharm. Jour, and Trans., ser. 3, vol. iv. pp. 619known in commerce as renewed bark. The process has been found

750), 795; Bartholow, Jatcria Jedica and Therapeutics; King, Manual of Cinto be most conveniently practised when the trees are eight years

(E. M. H.) olil, at which age the bark separates most easily. The yield of QUINSY. See TONSILITIS. quinine has been ascertained to increase annually until the eleventh year, at which it seems to reach its maximum. The portion of the

QUINTANA, MANUEL JOSÉ (1772-1857), Spanish poet trunk from which the bark has been removed is sometimes pro- and man of letters, was born at Madrid on April 11, tected by moss, and the new bark which forms is then distin- 1772, and after completing his studies at Salamanca was guished by the name of inossed bark. The species which yield the called to the bar. In 1801 he produced an unsuccessful and experiments have consequently been made in cross-fertilization tragedy El Duque de l'iseo; his Pelayo (1805), appealand grafting with the view of giving vigour of growth to delicate ing as it did to the spirit of resistance to foreign oppression, trees yielding a large amount of alkaloid or of increasing the yield was much more successful. The first volume of his some

what rhetorical and superficial Vidas de Españoles Célebres, 1 In Java, C. Calisaya, vars, anglica, javunica, Ilasskarliana, and in 1807, containing lives of Spaniards who had successLedgeriana ; C. officinalis, var. angustifolia ; C. lancifolia ; C. caloptera, Miq.; C. micrantha and C. succirubra, How. In India, 1 fully opposed the enemies of their country, was similar in C. succirubra, C. officinalis, vars, angustifolia, crispa, Tritusinga, motive, and at the outbreak of the revolution of 1808 and Bonplandiana, and to a lesser extent ¢, Calisaya, vars

. Boliviana Quintana, as journalist (Variedades, and Semanario and microcarpa ; C. micrantha, C. Peruviana, Ilow., and C. nitida, patriótico), as secretary to the cortes and the regency, and Mr J. E. IIoward, thic eminent quinologist, pointed out that C. Paku- also as “the Spanish Tyrtæus” (Odas á España libre, diana, Ilow., and C. Calisaya, vars. jaranica, Ilasskarliana, and 1808), rendered important services to the patriotic cause. anglicu, were likely to lead to disappointment as quinine-yielding On the return of Ferdinand VII. in 1814 he shared the species, these have been replaced in the plantations as rapidly as possible by the more valuable species, of which C. Ledgeriana, yield

fate of other “liberals" or "constitutionalists,” and had to ing from 5 to 10 per cent. or even more of quinine, C. etficinalis, and endure six years' imprisonment in Pamplona, obtaining his a hybrid between C. officinalis and C. succirubra which has been release only in 1820, when he was named president of the named C. robusta, Trinen, are the most important.

department of public instruction under the new Govern

chona Cultiration.

ment. The counter-revolution of 1823 again drove him mously, and the education of the time found its end and from office, to which he was once more restored after the climax in rhetoric. Mental culture was for the most part death of the king in 1833. In 1835 he was made a acquired, not for its own sake, but as a discipline to senator and peer; and in 1855, at a meeting of the cortes, develop skill in speaking, the paramount qualification for a laurel crown was placed on his head by Queen Isabella a public career. Rome, Italy, and the provinces alike II., whose “ governor” he had been during her minority. resounded with rhetorical exercitations, which were proHe died at Madrid on March 11, 1857.

moted on all sides by professorships, first of Greek, later The works of Quintana form the 19th volume in Ribadaneyra's also of Latin rhetoric, endowed from municipal funds. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles (1852). The third and last volume

The mock contests of the future orators roused a vast of the Vidas appeared in 1833. The biographies of Nuñez de Bilboa, Pizarro, The Cid, Guzman el Bueno, Gonsalvo de Cordova,

amount of popular interest. In Gaul, Spain, and Africa and one or two others have been translated into English.

these pursuits were carried on with even greater energy QUINTILIAN (M. FABIUS QUINTILIANUS) was born in than at Rome. The seeds of the existing culture, such as the obscure Spanish town of Calagurris (Calahorra), on the it was, bore richer fruit on the fresh soil of the Western Ebro, in the country of the Vascones, not later than 35 A.D. provinces than in the exhausted lands of Italy and the Concerning his family and his life but few facts remain. East. While Quintilian lived, men born in Spain dominHis father taught rhetoric, with no great success, at Rome, ated the Latin schools and the Latin literature, and he and Quintilian must have come there at an early age to died just too soon to see the first provincial, also of reside, and must have there grown up to manhood. The Spanish origin, ascend the imperial throne. years from 61 to 68 he spent in Spain, probably attached As an orator, a teacher, and an author, Quintilian set in some capacity to the retinue of the future emperor himself to stem the current of popular taste which found Galba, with whom he returned to the capital. Quintilian its expression in what we are wont to call silver Latin. must have brought back with him a considerable reputation In his youth the influence of the younger Seneca was as a rhetorician. For at least twenty years after the acces dominant. But the teacher of Quintilian was a man of sion of Galba he was at the head of the foremost another type, one whom he ventures to class with the old school of oratory in Rome, and may fairly be called the orators of Rome. This was Domitius Afer, a rhetorician Isocrates of his time. He also gained some but not a of Nîmes, who rose to the consulship. Quintilian, however, great repute as a pleader in the courts. His greatest owed more to the dead than to the living. His great model speech appears to have been a defence of the queen was Cicero, of whom he speaks at all times with unbounded Berenice, on what charge is not known. For a member eulogy, and whose faults he could scarce bring himself to of a learned profession his circumstances were easy; but mention; nor could he well tolerate to hear them mentioned the question of Juvenal, “How is it that Quintilian owns by others. The reaction against the Ciceronian oratory so many estates?" ougbt perhaps not to be accepted as which had begun in Cicero's own lifetime had acquired evidence of great wealth. Vespasian created for him a overwhelming strength after his death. Quintilian failed professorial chair of rhetoric, liberally endowed with public to check it, as another teacher of rhetoric, equally an money, and from this time he was unquestionably, as admirer of Cicero, had failed—the historian Livy. Seneca Martial calls him, “the supreme controller of the restless the elder, a clear-sighted man who could see in Cicero youth.” About the year 88 Quintilian retired from teach much to praise, and was not blind to the faults of his own ing and from pleading, to compose his great work on age, condemned the old style as lacking in power, while the training of the orator (Institutio Oratoria). After two Tacitus, in his Dialogue on Orators, includes Cicero among years' retirement he was entrusted by Domitian with the the men of rude and "unkempt " antiquity. The great education of two grand-nephews, whom he destined as suc- movement for the poetization of Latin prose which was cessors to his throne. Quintilian gained the titular rank begun by Sallust ran its course till it culminated in the of consul, and probably died not long before the accession monstrous style of Fronto. In the courts judges, juries, of Serva (96 A.D.). A good many years earlier his wife and audiences alike demanded what was startling, quaint, had died at the age of nineteen, leaving him two sons, one or epigrammatic, and the speakers practised a thousand of whom died when seven years old, the other in his tricks to satisfy the demand. Oratory became above all eleventh year, while the father was engaged upon his great things an art whose last thought was to conceal itself. work.

It is not surprising that Quintilian's forensic efforts won Such is the scanty record that remains of Quintilian's for him no great reputation. uneventful life. But it is possible to determine with some The Institutio Oristoria is one long protest against the accuracy his relation to the literature and culture of his tastes of the age. Starting with the maxim of ('nto the time, which he powerfully influenced. His career brings (Sensor that the orator is "the good man who is skilled in home to us the vast change which in a few generations had speaking, " Quintilian takes his future orator at birth and 141x*ed over Roman taste, feeling, and society. In the shows how this goodness of character and skill in speaking days of Cicero rhetorical teaching had been entirely in may lhe best produced. So detail of training in infancy, the hands of the Greeks. Even Cicero, when he wrote his boyhood, or youth is too pretty for his attention. The parts rhetorical works, was driven to plead that it could not of the work which relate to general education are of loer disgraceful to teach what it was not disgraceful to great interest and importance. Quintilian postulates the learn. "The Greek language, too, was in the main the widest culture : there is no form of knowledge from which vehicle of instruction in rhetoric. The first attempt to something may not be extracted for his purpose ; and he open a Latin rhetorical school, in 91 B.C., was crushed by is fully alive to the importance of methoud in education. authority, and not until the time of Augustus was there any He ridicules the fashion of the day which hurried over professor of the art who had been born to the full privileges preliminary cultivation, and allowed men to Tow Tuy of a Romian citizen. The appointment of Quintilian as while declaiming in the school, where nature and reality professor by the chief of the state marks the last stage in were for motten. Yet he developes all the tochnicalities the emancipation of rhetorical teaching from the old of rhetorie with a fulness to which we find no parallel in Roman prejudices

ancient literature. Even in this question of the work the During the hundred years or more which elapsed illustrations are appusite and the style so dignified and between the death of Cicero and the birth of Quintilian yet sweet that the modern reader, whose initial interest education all over the Roman empire had spread enor-i in rhetorie is of necessity faint, is carried along with much

He can

less fatigue than is necessary to master most parts of the Martial. To refuse the charge of Domitian's expected rhetorical writings of Aristotle and Cicero. At all times successors would have been perilous, and equally perilous the student feels that he is in the company of a high-toned would it have been to omit from the Institutio Oratoria all gentleman who, so far as he could do so without ceasing to mention of the emperor. And there was at the time only be a Roman, has taken up into his nature the best results one dialect in which a man of letters could speak who set of ancient culture in all its forms. His literary sympathies any value on his personal safety. There was a choice are extraordinarily wide. When obliged to condemn, as between extinction and the writing of a few sentences in in the case of Seneca, he bestows generous and even the loathsome court language, which might serve as an extravagant praise on such merit as he can find.

official test of loyalty. So Quintilian, man of honour cordially admire even Sallust, the true fountain-head of though he was, swallowed the test as best he might, even the style which he combats, while he will not suffer as two generations ago in England unbelievers took the Lucilius to lie under the aspersions of lIorace. The sacrament to avoid exclusion from municipal affairs. passages in which Quintilian reviews the literature of

The Latin of Quintilian is not always free from the faults of Greece and Rome are justly celebrated. The judgments style which he condemns in others. It also exhibits many of the which he passes may be in many instances traditional, usages and constructions which are characteristic of the silver

Latin. but, looking to all the circumstances of the time, it seems

But no writer of the decadence departs less widely from remarkable that there should then have lived at Rome a

the best models of the late republican period. The language is on

the whole clear and simple, and varied without resort to rhetorical single man who could make them his own and give them devices and poetical conceits. Besides the Institutio Oratoria, expression. The form in which these judgments are there have come down to us under Quintilian's name 19 longer rendered is admirable. The gentle justness of the senti- and 115 shorter Declamationes, or school exercitations on themes ments is accompanied by a curious felicity of phrase. certainly not Quintilian's

. The shorter were probably published,

like those in the Controversiæ of Seneca. The longer pieces are Who can forget “the immortal swiftness of Sallust,” or if not by himself, at least from notes taken at his lessons. It is “the milky richness of Livy,” or how “Horace soars now strange that they could ever have been supposed to belong to a and then, and is full of sweetness and grace, and in his later century; the style proclaims them to be of Quintilian's school varied forms and phrases is most fortunately bold” ? and time. The works of Quintilian have often been edited. Of

the editions of the whole works the chief is that by Burmann Ancient literary criticism perhaps touched its highest (17:20); of the Institutio Oratoria that by Spalding, completed by point in the hands of Quintilian.

Zumpt and Bonnell (1798-1834, the last volume containing a To comprehensive sympathy and clear intellectual lexicon), and that by Tlalm (1868). The tenth book of the Instivision Quintilian added refined tenderness and freedom Bonnell, Mayor (unfinished), and others. There is a critical edition

tutio Oratoria has often been separately edited, as by Krueger, from self-assertion. Taking him all in all, we may say of the 145 Declamationes by C. Ritter (1885). (J. S. R.) that his personality must have been the most attractive of his time—more winning and at the same time more lofty sometimes called Quintus Calaber because his poem was

QUINTUS SMYRNÆUS, a late epic poet of Greece, than that of the younger Pliny, his pupil, into whom no

discovered at Otranto in Calabria. Next to nothing is small portion of the master's spirit, and even some tincture

known of him. He appears to have lived in the latter of the master's literary taste, was instilled. It does

part of the 4th century, shortly before Nonnus. He not surprise us to hear that Quintilian attributed any speaks of himself as having tended sheep in his youth at success he won as a pleader to his command of pathos, Smyrna (bk. xii. 308 sq.). His epic in fourteen books, a quality in which his great guide Cicero excelled. In known as tà nell"Oumpov or the Posthomerica, takes up spite of some extravagances of phrase, Quintilian's lament the tale of Troy at the point where Homer's Iliad breaks (in his sixth book) for his girl-wife and his boy of great off

, ;.c., after the death of Hector, and carries it down to promise is the most pathetic of all the lamentations for the capture of the city by the Greeks. It describes the bereavement in which Latin literature is so rich. In his doughty deeds and deaths of Penthesilea the Amazon precepts about early education Quintilian continually (vk. i.), Memnon, son of the Morning (bk. ii.), and Achilles

his educational method of “Orbilius

, abounding in blows,” iv.); the contest for the arms of Achilles and the death of

(bk. iii.); the funeral games in honour of Achilles (bk. has never been more carnestly rebuked.

Ajax (bk. v.); the exploits of Neoptolemus and Deiphobus, Quintilian for the most part avoids passing opinions on the deaths of Paris and (Enone, the capture of Troy by the problems of philosophy, religion, and politics. The

means of the wooden horse, the sacrifice of Polyxena at the professed philosopher he disliked almost as much as did Isocrates. IIe deemed that ethics formed the only valuable grave of Achilles, the departure of the Greeks, and their part of philosophy and that ethical teaching ought to be dispersal by the storm (bks

. vi. xiv.). The poet has no in the lands of the rhetoricians. In the divine govern-modelled on Homer. His materials are borrowed from

originality ; in conception and style his work is closely ment of the universe he seems to have had a more than the cyclic poems from which Virgil also drew, in particular ornamental faith, though he doubted the immortality of the Ethiopis of Arctinus and the Little Iliad of Lesches. the soul. As to politics Quintilian, like others of his The style is clear, but the poem is flat and tedious, in time, felt free to eulogize the great anti-Casarean leaders spite of the abundance of similes with which the poet of the dying republic, but only because the assumption seeks to relieve its dulness. was universal that the system they had championed was

The first edition of Quintus Smyrnæus was published by Aldus gone for ever.

But Quintilian did not trouble himself, Manutius in 1504 or 1505 ; in this century there have been editions as Statius did, to fling stones at the emperors Caligula by Tychsen, 1807, Lehrs in the Didot edition of Ilesiod, &c., 1841, and Nero, who had missed their deification. He makes and two editions by Köchley in 1850 (Weidmann) and 1853 no remark, laudatory or otherwise, on the government of (Teubner). Sainte-Beuve has an essay on him. any emperor before Domitian. No character figured more QUITO, the capital of the republic of Ecuador, South largely in the rhetorical controversies of the schools than America, an archbishoprie, and the chief town of a departthe ideal despot, but no word ever betrayed a conscious-ment, lies 14' of latitude south of the equator, and in ness that the actual occupant of the Palatine might 79° 45' W. long., at a height of 9520 feet above the exemplify the themes. Quintilian has often been re In ancient times it was connected with Cuzco by a proached with his slattery of Domitian. No doubt it was paved highway, portions of which still exist; but under fulsome. But it is confined to two or three passages, not Spanish rule it was allowed to relapse almost into the thrust continually upon the reader, as by Statius and natural isolation of its position. Since 1870, however,


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