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Civil list ..


Fix's Territorial-Geschichte des

tion and becomes a Referendarius. He then spends at least four marks, or £167,254,872. This is equivalent to about £i per head years in the practical work of his profession, after which he passes of population, as compared with three anıl a half times as much in a second examination, and, if he has chosen the bench instead of England. The annual charge for interest on the debt is 5s. 8d. per the bar, becomes an Assessor and is eligible for the position of judge. headl in Prussia and 16s. 21. in England. Between the end of A lawyer who has passed the necessary examinations may at any the struggle with Napoleon and 1818 the debt was considerably time quit the bar for the bench, and a judge is also at liberty to reduced ; since 1848 it has steadily increased. It is, however, resign his position and enter upon private practice. In all criminal admirably secured, and a great part of it was incurred in the concases the prosecution is undertaken by Government, which acts struction and acquisition of railways, the clear income from which through Staatsanwälte, or directors of prosecutions, in the pay of covers the annual charges on the entire lebt. The various branches the state.

of the debt are being gradually united in a consolidated fund, Finances Finances. — The finances of the Prussian Government are well bearing interest at the rate of 4 per cent.

managol, and a deficit is now a rare occurrence. The expenditure strmy and Mary.The Irussian army now forms about 75 per Army
has been considerably relieved by the transference of the cost of the cent. of that of the German empire, of which it also furnished the and
army and navy to the imperial treasury, while on the other han model. (See GERMANY.) The first attempt at the foundation of a navy.
the customs-dues and several excise duties have been relinquished to Prussian navy was made by the Great Elector, who established a
the empire and an annual "matricular" contribution paid towards small fleet of eight or ten vessels. This, however, was completely
its expenses. The budget is voted annually by the abgeordneteu neglected by his successors, and the present marine establishment
haus; the following table is an abstract of that for 1881-85 : is of quite recent origin. The present imperial navy is simply the


Prussian navy under a different name. (See GERMANY.)
Direct taxes
. £7,290,286 ! Expenses of collection and

Bibliography. The statistical facts in the foregoing article have been mainly
Indirrct taxes
4,530,510 management

£28,234,532 drawn from the Jahrbuch für ilir (mtliche Statistik des preussischen Starts, the State lottery 201,700

225,000 Stutistisches Jahrbuch fir dus deutsche Reich, and other publications of the Marine institute and mint 128,225 Interest and management

statistical offices of Irussia and Germany. Good general accounts of the natural, Domains and forests 3,805,857 of public debt


social, and political features of the country are given in Eiselen's Der preussische Mines anel salt-works 5,120,752 Houses of parliament.. 68,082

Staat (Berlin, 1862) and in Daniel's Handbuch der Geographic (5th ed., 1881 sq.). State railways 28,798,807 Apanages, annuities, and

The Prussian constitution and administrative system are concisely described in General financial adiuinis



the Handbuch der Irrfassung und Irrualtung in P'rrussen, by Graf IIne de Grais, tration 5,582,368 ' Matricular contribution

and are treated at length in Von Ronne's Statsrecht (lor preussischen Jonarchic Administrative revenues 1,100,253 to the German empire 2,038,460

(4th ed., 1881-84). For English readers the inost interesting introduction to Administrative expenditure 12,632,9:30

Prussian history is perhaps still to be found in the first part of Carlyle's Justice


Frederick the Great, the not invariably unprejudiced views of which may be Eclucation

1,647,670 corrected by Professor Tuttle's History of Prussia to the derssion of Frederich Religion

596,333 the Great (Boston, 1981). _The latter admirable little work is, indeed, almost Ministry of the interior 2,077,510

indispensable to every English student of Prussian constitutional history. Occasional and extra

Professor Seeley's Life of Strin (London, 1870) contains an excellent account of ordinary expenses


l'russia in the Napoleonic perioul, especially with regard to the important in

ternal reforms carried out at the beginning of the present century. Among the Total.... £58,680,818

Total.... £.56,680,818 numerous German histories of Prussia two of the best are Droysen's Geschichte

der preussischen l'olitik and Ranke's Zwölf Bücher preussischer Geschichte; the Perhaps the only item requiring explanation in the above sum former is authoritative from the writer's copious use of the Prussian archives, mary is the general financial administration under the head of but the latter is less diffuse and more interesting Other standard works are rerenue; this includles advances from the surplus in the treasury,

those of Stenzel, l'auli, Riedel, and Lancizolle, while among shorter histories

may be mentioned the manual of F. Voigt. Prussia's proportion of the profits of the imperial customs and

brandenburgisen-prrussischen Stuutos, with ten historical maps, is a convenient cxcixes, repayments, interest, and other iniscellaneous sources of sketch of the territorial growth of Prussia. The periool since the death of revenue. The extraordinary expenses included upwards of £450,000 Frederick the Great is treated in Forster's Veure und nevesta porrussische (irschfor railways and £750,000 for public works. The total expenditure

johti and in Reimann's Vomer'n Girwhichte les prrussischen Stands (1882 sq.) The

history of the present century is perhaps most fully given in Treitschke's is mther niore than £2 per head of population, while in the United Deutsche Geschichte im ne morhinten Jahrhundert (1879 sq.). Until recently the Kinglom it is about £2, 10s. Between 1821 and 1814 the rate in standard work on the history of Prussia proper was that of Johannes Voigt, Prussia was 11s. 6cl. per heal, and even in 1858 it was only 21s. 81.

but this is now being superseded by Lohmeyer's Girschichte 2011 Ost 11. Il

Preussen (1891.7.). The latter forms one of an admirable series of provincial The incidence of direct taxation in Prussin is also less than in

luistories in course of publication by Perthes of Gotha. The development of Great Britain, the respective figures being 5s. 3.1. aml 75 per head. the Prussian bureaucracy is trace in Isaacson's (relihito de presiden 'The principal dirret imposts are the incoine-tax, which brings in Burmtenthus (1870-5). Several points are most satisfactorily landled in the

numerous monographs on scial periods, the lives of kings and statemen, 40 per cent. of thu whole, the lanıl-tax producing 37 per cent., and

(J. F. M) the house-tas prolucing 19 per cent. The proceeds of the income

I'RU'SSI.1, in the original and narrower sense of the tax amount to about is. 211. per heail, as compared with 6s. per hrail in Great Britain (in 1881). The comparative insignificance

word, is a district in the north-eastern corner of the modern of the sum raised by indirect taxation is mainly due to the above- | kingdom of the same name, stretching along the Baltic notel fact that the customs-dues and the most important excise | coast for about 220 miles, and occupying an area of upduties have been made over to the imperial escheuer. In the preliminary estimates for 1885-86 the receipts and expenditure are

wards of 21,000 square miles. The eastern part of this balanced at £82,886,250.

territory formed the duchy of Prussia, which was acquired Loral taxation in Prussin is often very high. The state income by the electors of Brandenburg in 1618, and furnished tax is limited to 3 per cent of the assessed income, but the com them with their real title. The western part, which had munns an towns are allowed to make an arbitrary al lition for local

been severed from the eastern half an assigned to l'oland purpmws sometimes amounting to twice or thrive the sum pil to the state. This is chietly owing to the fact that the state reserved

in 1.466, was not annexel to Prussia until the partition of for itf all taxation on real property, while imposing on the com

Poland in 1772, while the towns of Dantsic and Thorn mbes the principal share in maintaining the expensive sustom remained l’olish down to 179:3. In spite of the contrast of publii wool Tuomes below £ 15 (900 marks) are not now taukind, but this exemption is of very recent origin. A for tats

between the political and social conditions of the two from the statistics of taxation and allic subjects may be of interest

districts, arising from the difference of their listory, they safforling nie slight inles to Prussia's growth in prosperity.

were united in 1521 to form a single province. But, as Ikutworn ist and 1878 the entire capital subjert to income-tas inctoral from 24 to 13 marks per heard of population, while the

might have been esperto, the union lid not work well, proportionate number of those liable to the tas hail increased by

anil it was lissolved in locis, giving place to the modern about 16 per cent. It has also been computer that the average

provinces of East and West Prussia. The early history onurme per head increased between 1872 and 1$.1 by 15 marks,

of the whole district is related under the kingdom of Squivalent to a rise of 5 per cent. ; that of Great Britain inerval I'RUSSIA (above) and TECTONIC ORDER, while the former, in the same periol by s8s, or 15 per cent of all the payers of income-tar in 1972-81 only 0.10 per cent. lind incomes of or above

article also gives (p. 11) some statistics as to the producı £100m, while 13 per cent. had not more than £25 and 52 per cent,

of the two pirovinces! forfween £25 ani 2100. Between 1367 and 1840 the procreals of

Easr l'RISI! 1167: 11.54.. the larges of the two prosil, hathe housr-tax increased by orer 100 percent. It now averag's l..

an arra of 11,20) ur mil 301 in luullistlie Boilere Son, for heal, rarying from fil. in country districts up to his or 5x. 61.

Russian Wint l'usi: It she's in the general charartristiin in Berlin, Frankfort on-the- Main, and Cologne.

In 1975 the

of the stunt north German plain, bout, thongli low, its suuliin lis aamber of depositors in sarings banks was 80 pr 1000 inhabitants

110 mes alsoutery that on the southernult is 1. Veleed lisaini and by 180 the numbe: hal risen to 10%. The sum imposite pilgr or CiTIMANY, which atrains a light it in amounted to 479,643, 400, equivalent to 58 per head of population. fort at point n. 21 two-torn bulary of 1!" jtom. This At the same date Austria alone of Eumpean power hail a biler patean, liere named the Prince, is thickis sprinkl.-.. proportion (678), while in Great Britain the sum was 44s anil in

with small lukis, ons while in the spring... splinte mi. France 97

in rent in the loremat inland Lilin in th. I'll 11,oparku. The public debt of Prussia in 1834 amounted to 3,345,027,435 Compare Louiserslautern 117 :2766 13:1,62..

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The coast is lined with low dunes or sandhills, in front of which The southern and larger balf of Rhenish Prussia, belonglie the large littoral lakes or lagoons named the Frische Haff and ing geologically to the Devonian formations of the lower waters of the Nogat and the Pregel, and the other those of the Rhine, is hilly. On the left bank are the elevated plateaus Memel or Niemen. East Prussia is the coldest part of Germany, of the Hundsrück and the Eifel, separated from each other its mean annual temperature being about 44° Fahr., while the by the deep valley of the Moselle, while on the right bank mcan January temperature of Tilsit is only 25°. The rainfall is 24

are the spurs of the Westerwald and the Sauerland, the inches per annum. About half the province is under cultivation ; 18 per cent. is occupied by forests, and 23 per cent. by meadows

former reaching the river in the picturesque group known and pastures. The most fertile soil is found in the valleys of the

as the Seven Mountains. The highest hill in the province l'regel and the Memel, but the southern slopes of the Baltic plateau is the Walderbeskopf (2670 feet) in the Hochwald, and and the district to the north of the Memel consist in great part of there are several other summits above 2000 feet on the sterile moor, sand, and bog. The chief crops are rye, oats, and potatoes, while flax is cultivated in the district of Ermland, between

left bank, while on the right there are few which attain the Passarge and the upper Alle. East Prussia is the headquarters

a height of 1600 feet. Most of the hills are covered with of the horse-breeding of the country and contains the principal trees, but the Eifel is a barren and bleak plateau, with Government stud of Trakehnen ; numerous cattle are also fattened

numerous traces of volcanic agency, and is continued toon the rich pastures of the river-valleys. The extensive woods in wards the north-west by the moorlands of the Hohe Venn. the south part of the province harbour a few wolves and lynxes, and the elk is still preserved in the forest of Ibenhorst, near the To the north of a line drawn from Aix-la-Chapelle to Kurische Haff. The fisheries in the lakes and haffs are of some Bonn the province is flat, and marshy districts occur near importance ; but the only mineral product of note is amber, which the Dutch frontier. The climate varies considerably with is found in the peninsula of Samland in greater abundance than in the configuration of the surface. That of the northern the principal towns, though linen-wearing is practised as a domestic lowlands and of the sheltered valleys is the mildest and industry. Commerce is facilitated by canals connecting the Memel most equable in Prussia, with a mean annual temperature and Pregel and also the principal lakes

, but is somewhat hampered of 50° Fahr., while on the hills of the Eifel the mean by the heavy dues exacted at the Russian frontier. A brisk foreign does not exceed 41'. The annual rainfall varies in the traile is carried on through the seaports of Königsberg (140,909), different districts from 18 to 32 inches. the capital of the province, and Memel (19,660), the exports con

Almost the sisting mainly of timber and grain. In 1880"the population of whole province belongs to the basin of the Rhine, but a Last Prussia was 1,933,936, including 1,654,510 Protestants, 250,462 small district in the north-west is drained by affluents of Roman Catholics, and 18,218 Jews. The Roman Catholics are the Meuse. Of the numerous tribu mainly confined to the district of Ermland, in which the ordinary Rhine within the province, the most important are the

ries which join the proportions of the confessions are completely reversed. The bulk of the inhabitants are of German blood, but there are 400,000 Nahe, the Moselle, and the Ahr on the left bank, and the Protestant Poles (Masurians or Masovians in the south part of the Sieg, the Wupper, the Ruhr, and the Lippe on the right. province, and 150,000 Lithuanians in the north. As in other The only lake of any size is the Laacher See, the largest provinces where the Polish element is strong, East Prussia is below the general average of the kingdom in education ; in 1883 fully 57 of the “ maare” or extinct crater lakes of the Eifel. per cent. of its recruits were unable to read or write. There is a Of the total area of the Rhenish province about 46-5 university at Königsberg.

per cent. is occupied by arable land, 17 per cent. by meaWEST PRUSSIA (İVestpreusscn), with an area of 9850 square miles,dows and pastures, and 31 per cent. by forests.

Little is bounded by the Baltic, East Prussia, Poland, Posen, Brandenburg, and Pomerania. It resembles East Prussia in its physical character except oats and potatoes can be raised on the high-lying istics, but its fertility is somewhat greater and its climate not quite plateaus in the south of the province, but the river-valleys so harsh., The Baltic plateau traverses the province from east to and the northern lowlands are extremely fertile. The west, reaching its culminating point in the Thurmberg (1090 feet), great bulk of the soil is in the hands of small proprietors, ncar Dantsic. Near the middle of the province the range is interrupted by the valley of the Vistula, beyond which it trends to

and this is alleged to have had the effect of somewhat the north and approaches the coast. The lakes of West Prussia retarding the progress of scientific agriculture. The usual are nearly as numerous but not so large as those of the sister pro- cereal crops are, however, all grown with success, and vince. The natural products are similar, and the manufactures tobacco, hops, flax, rape, hemp, and beetroot (for sugar) are also almost confined to the large towns. The cultivation of the common beet, for the production of sugar, has been introduced,

are cultivated for commercial purposes. Large quantities and several sugar refineries have been erected. The valley of the of fruit are also produced. The vine-culture occupies a Vistula, particularly the rich lowlands (IVerder) of the delta, are space of 30,000 acres, about half of which are in the valley very fertile, producing good crops of wheat and pasturing large of the Moselle

, a third in that of the Rhine itself, and the herds of horses, cattle, and sheep. The population in 1880 was 1,405,898, consisting in almost equal proportions of Roman

rest mainly on the Nahe and the Ahr. The choicest Catholics and Protestants ; there were 26,547 Jews and 490,000 varieties of Rhine wine, however, such as Johannisberger Poles. The percentage of illiterate recruits in 1882 was still higher and Steinberger, are produced higher up the river, beyond than in East Prussia (7-97), but not so high as in Posen (9:75). the limits of the Rhenish province. In the hilly districts The capital and principal town is Dantsic (108,551), while Elbing (35,842) and Thorn (20,617) also carry on a considerable trade.

more than half the surface is sometimes occupied by forests,

and large plantations of oak are formed for the use of the PRUSSIA, RHENISH (German, Rheinpreussen, Rhein- bark in tanning. Considerable herds of cattle are reared provinz, Rheinland), the most westerly province of the on the rich pastures of the lower Rhine, but the number kingdom of Prussia, is bounded on the N. by Holland, on of sheep in the province is comparatively small, and is, the E. by Westphalia, Hesse-Nassau, and Hesse-Darmstadt, indeed, not greatly in excess of that of the goats. The on the S.E. by the Rhenish Palatinate, on the S. and S.W. wooded hills are well stocked with deer, and a stray wolf by Lorraine, and on the W. by Luxemburg, Belgium, and occasionally finds its way from the forests of the Ardennes Holland. The small district of Wetzlar in the midst of into those of the Hundsrück. The salmon fishery of the the province of Hesse also belongs to Rhenish Prussia, Rhine is very productive and trout abound in the mounwhich, on the other hand, surrounds the Oldenburg tain streams. (Compare the agricultural tables under principality of Birkenfeld. The extent of the province is PRUSSIA, p. 14 supra.) 10,420 square miles, or nearly twice that of the kingdom The great mineral wealth of the Rhenish province of Saxony; its extreme length, from north to south, is probably furnishes its most substantial claim to the title nearly 200 miles and its greatest breadth is just under of the “richest jewel in the crown of Prussia.” Besides 90. It includes about 200 miles of the course of the parts of the Carboniferous measures of the Saar and the Rhine, which forms the eastern frontier of the province Ruhr, it also contains important deposits of coal near from Bingen to Coblentz and then flows through it in a Aix-la-Chapelle. Iron occurs abundantly near Coblentz, north-westerly direction.

the Bleiberg in the Eifel possesses an apparently inex

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haustible supply of lead, and zinc is found near Cologne of Coblentz, Düsseldorf, Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, and and Aix-la-Chapelle. The mineral products of the district Treves; Coblentz is the official capital, though Cologne is also include lignite, copper, manganese, vitriol, lime, gyl- the largest and most important town. In the greater part sum, volcanic stones (used for mill-stones), and slates of the province the code Napoléon, introduced under the In 1882 the total value of the minerals raised in the pro- French régime, is still in force. Being a frontier province vince was £5,160,000, or nearly one-third of the produce the Rhineland is strongly garrisoned, and the Rhine is of Prussia; by far the most important item is coal, the guarded by the four strony fortresses of Cologne with output of which was upwards of 15,000,000 tons, valued Deutz, Coblentz with Ehrenbreitstein, Wesel, and Saarat £4,400,000. Of the numerous mineral springs the louis. In the Prussian parliament the province of the best known are those of Aix-la-Chapelle and Kreuznach. Rhine is represented by twenty-seven members in the

The mineral resources of Rhenish Prussia, coupled with upper house and eighty-two in the lower. its favourable situation and the facilities of transit afforded History. The present province of Rhenish Prussia was formel by its great waterway, have made it the most important in 1815 out of the duchies of Cleves, Berg, Ippor (uelders, and manufacturing district in Germany. The industry is mainly Jülich, the ecclesiastical principalities of Treves and Cologue, the concentrated round two chief centres, Aix-la-Chapelle and

small independent lorılships, knightships, and abbeys. It is there, Düsseldorf (with the valley of the Wupper), while there are fore manifestly impracticable to give more than a broad general naturally few manufactures in the hilly districts of the sketch of the historical development of a region of which the com

At the south or the marshy flats of the north. In the forefront ponent parts have laul so little of their past in common. stand the metallic industries, the total produce of which

earliest historical period we find the territories between the Ardennes

and the Rhine occupied by the 'Treviri, Eburones, and other Celtic was valued in 1882 at £5,200,000. The foundries pro- tribes, who, however, were all more or less modified and influencel cluced upwards of a million tons of iron, besides zinc, Icad, by their Teutonic neighbours. On the right bank of the Rhine, copper, and other metals. The largest iron and steel

between the Main and the Lalın, were the settlements of the works are at Essen (including Krup's cannon-foundry), Mattiaci, a branch of the Germanic (hatti, while farther to the

north were the Csipetes and Tencteri. Julius C'esar conquerell Oberhausen, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, and Cologne, while the tribes on the lett bank and Augustus established numerous cutlery and other small metallic wares are extensively fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in malo at Solingen, Remscheid, and Aix-la-Chapelle. The gaining a firm footing on the right hank. Under the Romans the cloth of Aix-la-Chapelle and the silk of Crefeld form im- of Belgica Prima, Ciermania Superior, and Germania Inferior, (-11

ilistricts to the west of the Rhine, forming parts of the provinces portant articles of export. The chief industries of Elber- joyed great prosperity and reachel a high degree of civilization. feld-Barinen and the valley of the Wupper are cotton- Several Roman emperors resided and issued their edicts at Treves, weaving, calico-printing, and the manufacture of turkey the capital of Belgica Prima, and the important Roman remains in red and other dyes. Linen is largely made at (iladbaclı


this city as well as in other parts of the province give an idea of leather at Malmedy, glass in the Saar district, and beet

the material benefits the territory derived from their dominion,

As the power of the Roman empire cleclined the Franks pushed mot sugar near Cologne. Though the Rhineland is por forward along butli banks of the Rhine, and by the end of the 5th cellence the country of the vine, no less than 52,000,000 century had regained all the lands that had formerly boon under gallons of beer were brewed in the province in 1882-8.3, trists were singularly little affected by the culture of the provincial

Teutonic influence. The German conquerors of the Rhenish disequivalent to an annual consumption of fifty-one quarts they subulued, and all traces of Roman civilization were submerge! per head of population ; distilleries are also numerous, in à ne flooil of pilganism. By the sth century the Frankislı and large quantities of sparkling Moselle are madlo at

dominion was firmly established in contral Germany and northeim l'oblentz , chietly for exportation to England. ('ommerce especially lix-la-Chapelle, plays a role of considerable prominence


Gaul; and under the Carlovingian monarılıs the Rhineland, and is greatly aided by the navigable rivers, a very extensive on the division of the Carlovingian realm the part of the Rhenish network of railways, and the excellent roads constructe province to the cast of the river tell to the share of Germany, while during the Frenchi régime. of raw material for working up in the factories of the dis Lotharingia. By the time of Otho 1. 95-97puth banks of the trict, while the principal esports are coal, fruit

, wine, dyes, between the duches of lpper and lower Lorraine, the one on the cloth, silk, and other manufactured articles of various Moselle and the other on the House. Subsequently, as the central dexeriptions.

The population of Rhenish Prussia in 1880 was 4,074,000, followed thu gweral toudemy and split up into numerous small including 2,944,186 Roman ('atholics, 1,077,17.3 Protest Speal chronicles. Throld Lotharingian livisions passed wholly ants and 13,694 Jews. The Roman Catholies muster out of use, and the name of Lorraine became ristricted to tlieclis strongest on the left bank, while on the right bank about trict that still bars it. In spite of its dismembered condition, half the population is l'rotextant. The distribution of the and the sultiring» it underwent at the hands of its Fremli neigh motifessions is, however, somewhat sporadie

, owing to the greatly and stond in the foremost rank of German culture and proTaried histories of the constituent parts of the province. e Aix-la-Chapelle was fixool upon as the place of coronation The great bulk of the population is of Teutonie stock; of the cerman rmprors, and the obviastical pinilities of tu and about a quarter of a million are of Flemish blool.

Rhine bulk largely in German history. l'russia first sit fout on the On the north-west frontier reside about 12,000 Walloons, cintury later ippr Gilles and wors also loca l'usian. At

Rhine in 1609, when it acquired the duchy of ('levis; and almost a who speak French or Walloon as their native tongue lor peace of 2 in 1795 the whole of tliv left bank of the Rhino The Rhine province is the most thickly populated part of single for the RhinPer congres? Piruna a Presia, the general average being 390 persons per square mile, while in the government district of Niissellorf the

the whole of the lower Rhenishuvli trints to l'1, which hathir

tart to leave them in undi-turlund possion of the li!...sil instituie proportion rises to 154. The province contains a greater tions they had become a 1-tomed to under thur. pullivan muis of number of larye towns than any other province in Prussia

, the French. Compare Run

J. F. 1.) and 62:53 of the population is returned as urban. Ipwards PRUSSIAN BLUE. See Presstr. 1 (1.21 ingrr). of ball the population are supported by industrial and I'RUSSI('(II), the familiar name for a dangerously commercial pursuits, and barely a quarter by agriculture. poisonous, though chemically feeble, acid

, known scienti There is a university of good standing at Bonn, and the, fically as " hyrirvanie acid," or “cyanide of lydmyan," is sures of the elementary education is borne witness to lay here taken as a convenient headliny tinder which to irrati the fact that in 1883 only 0.19 per cent of the Rhenishi vaniles generally. This funerie term (from wuros, lo Rrruits were unable to read and write. For purposes of is not meant to lint at any weneric property: it is die alministration the prorince is divided into the tive districts : simply to the fact that all cyanides, in an historie ----,

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are derivatives of a blue pigment which was discovered | cipitate of the composition (NC).Fe. Ag+, which contains all the accidentally by Diesbach, a Berlin colourmaker, about the iron; only nitrate of potassium passes into solution. Other heavy beginning of the 18th century.

metallic salts behave similarly. On the strength of these con

siderations chemists, following the lead of Liebig, view prussiate The foundations of our present knowledge of cyanides as a binary compound of potassium, K, with a complex radical, were laid by Scheele (1783), whose discoveries were subse- NoCoFe, " ferrocyanogen. quently (from 1811) confirmed and supplemented, chiefly Hydrocyanic Acid, NC.H. - This acid is prepared most conin the sense of quantitative determinations, by Gay-Lussac. following method. Ten parts of powdered prussiate are placed in a

veniently from prussiate of potash. Wöhler recommends the Although we have no space for further historical notes, we

retort, the neck of which is turned upwards, and a (cooled down) must not omit to state that Gay-Lussac, as one result of his mixture of seven parts of oil of vitriol and fourteen parts of water is work, conceived and introduced into chemistry the notion then added. If the aqueous acid is wanted, the exit-end of the retort of the “compound radical,” having shown that prussic is joined on direct to a Liebig's condenser, which must be kept very acid and its salts are related to the group NC in precisely to wide-necked bottles (or two large U-tubes) charged with fused

If the anhydrous acid is desired, the same way as chlorides are to chlorine, or sulphides to chloride of calcium and kept at 30° C. by immersion in a water sulphur. This idea, in his own eyes and in those of his bath of this temperature, must be inserted between the retort and contemporaries, was greatly fortified by his success in even condenser. In this case more particularly it is indispensable to

provide for a most efficient condensation of the vapours; the exitisolating his “cyanogène” as a substance.

end of the condenser should be provided with an adapter going In preparing cyanogen or cyanides in the laboratory the down to near the bottom of the receiver, which must be surrounded operator now always starts from prussiate of potash, with by a freezing mixture. The temperature of the latter, of course, which, accordingly, we begin.

must not be allowed to fall to the freezing-point of the distillate.

The retort is heated by means of a sand bath and a brisk distillaPrussiate of Potash, (NC), Fe, K:+3H,0 (syn. ferrocyanide of tion maintained until the resilue begins to dry up. The result of potassium; Germ. Blutlaugensalz). — This salt is being produceıl the reaction is in accordance with the assumption that the dilute industrially from animal refuse (hide and horn clippings, olol shoes, vitriol, in the first instance, converts the prussiate, one-half into blood solidls, &c.), carbonate of potash, and iron filings or borings (NC).Fe.II,, the other into (NC),Fe.K, 11.,, and that through the as raw materials. The carbonate of potash is fused at a red heat effect of the heat these two bodies decompose each other into in an iron pear-shaped vessel suspended within a furnace, or on the {NC)Fe} K.,Fe, which remains in the resilue as a precipitate, cupel-shaped sole of a reverberatory furnace, and the animal matter, which should be as dry as possible, is then introduced in instal

and (NC),H6=6NCH, which distils over. Real NCH is a colourments along with the iron. The fusion is continued as long as

less liquid of 0:6967 specific gravity at 18° C., which freezes at inflammable gases are going off; then the still fluid mass is lalled

- 15° C. (Gay-Lussac) into a white fibrous solid. According to out and allowed to cool, when it hardens into a black stone-like

Schulz the acid, if really pure, remains liquid at - 37° C. It boils body known to the manufacturer as “metal.” When the broken

at 26°.5 C. ; at 4°:5 its vapour-tension already amounts to half an up metal is digested with water in an iron vessel prussiate of potash atmosphere. The vapour is inflammable and burns into carbonic

The acid mixes with water in all passes into solution, while a black residue of charcoal, metallic acid, water, and nitrogen. iron, sulphide of iron, &c., remains. The clarified solution, after proportions, with contraction and yet absorption of heat. The sufficient concentration in the heat, deposits on cooling part of

solution behaves on distillation like a mere mechanical mixture of its prussiate in lemon - yellow quadratic crystals (generally trum

its two components. Prussic acil has a very peculiar powerful catel octahedra), which are purified by recrystallization. The last

smell ; more characteristic still is a kind of choking action which mother-liquors furnish an impure green salt, which is added to a

even the highly attenuatel vapour exerts on the larynx. Prussie fresh fuse and so utilized.

acid is fearfully poisonous ; à few drops of even the ordinary In former tines it was believed that the prussiate was produced pharmaceutical preparation (of 2 per cent.) are sufficient to kill a (luring the fusion process, and in the subsequent process of lixivia

large dog. It acts with characteristic promptitude, especially when

inhaled as a vapour. tion simply passed into solution, until Liebig showed that this view

Even a relatively large close, if it has once was untenable. The fuse cannot contain ready-formed prussiate, said to do relatively little harm there.?

found its way into the stomach without prolucing a fatal effect, is because this salt at a real heat breaks up with formation of a residue of carbide of iron and cyanide of potassium. The metal in fact

Prussic acid is characteristically prone to suffer “spontaneous when treated with diluto alcohol gives up to it plain cyanide of decomposition.” Whether the pure anhydrous acid really is, in potassium, and the fully exhausted resilue yields no prussiate on

the strictest sense of the word, still requires to be found out; the treatment with water. The prussiate accordingly must be produced and turbil from "ażulmic” acid, a substance of complex constitu

ordinary preparation, when kept in a close bottle, soon turns brown during the process of lixiviation by the action of the cyanide of potassium on some ferrous compound in the metal. Liebig thought acid is liable to similar changes ; in its case formiate of ammonia

tion. Other things are formed at the same time. The pure aqueous that it was partly the metallic iron, partly the sulphidle of iron present in the metal, which effected the conversion. According to

always forms the predominant product. This change is easily

understood more recent researches a double sulphile, K„S+ Fe,S3, which is always producel during the fusion (from the reagents proper and

NC. H+2H,0=N11:+H. COOH. the sulphur of the organic matter and that of the sulphate of potash present in the carbonate as an impurity), plays this important part.

A strong aqueous prussic acid, when mixed with fuming hydro. The double sulphide by the action of water breaks up into alka

chloric acid, is soon converted into a magma of crystals of sal

ammoniac, with formation of formic acid, which remains dissolved. line sulphide, sulphide of iron (FeS), and sulphur. This sulphide of iron is of a peculiar kind ; it does what ordinary FeS does not

And yet, most singularly, the addition to the preparation of a small effect, readily at least: it converts the cyanide into prussiate, thus, proportion of hydrochloric or sulphuric acid is the best means for 6NC. K + Fes=K_S + (NC),Fe. Ky, while the eliminated sulphur preventing, or at least greatly retarding, its spontancous change potassium into sulphocyanate, S+NCK=SNC. K, which latter feebly (if at all) on blue litmus; it combines with aqueous caustie salt is thus unavoidably produced as a (rather inconvenient) bye

alkalis but does not decompose their carbonates ; nor does it act prodluct. Pure prussiate of potash has the specific gravity 1.83; it

upon the generality of insoluble basic metallic oxides or hydrates ;

mercuric oxide and oxide of silver form noteworthy exceptions to is permanent in the air. It loses its water, part at 60° C., the rest

this rule. at 100° C., but very slowly. The anl ous salt is a white powder. The crystals dissolve in four parts of cold and in two parts of

Cyanogen, (NC)2. — When dry mercurie cyanide is heated it

breaks up, below redness, into mercury and cyanogen gas; part of boiling water. It is insoluble in, and not dehydrated by, alcohol. Prussiate of potash has the composition of a double salt,

the latter, however, always suffers polymerization into a solid called Fe(NC), + AKNC but the idea that it contains these two binary Cyanogen gas is colourless; it has the specific gravity demanded by

"paracyanogen," and presumed to consist of molecules (NC). cyanides is entirely at variance with its reactions. Cyanide of potassiumn is readily decomposed by even the feeblest acids, and

its formula. It possesses a peculiar odour and has a characteristic to some extent even by water, with elimination of hydrocyanic acid, and on this account perhaps is intensely poisonous. A solu 1 The British Pharmacopeia prescribes for the medicinal acid a tion of the prussiate remains absolutely unchanged on evaporation, strength of 2 per cent. of real NCH. The two medicinal preparaand the action on it even of strong acids in the cold results in the tions known as aqua amygdalarum amararum and as aqua laurocerasi formation of the hyilrogen salt, (NC),FcH,, which is decomposed, it respectively contain prussic acid in combination with hydride of benis true, but only when the mixture is heated, with evolution of zoyl, CoH5.COH. In neither case does the prussic acid pre-exist in hyclrocyanic acid. It is not poisonous. Its solution when mixed the vegetable materials, but is produced during the mashing process with nitrate of silver does not give a precipitate of cyanide of silver, which precedes the distillation, by a fermentative decomposition of the NC. Ag, and a solution of the two nitrates, but yields a unitary pre. I amygdalin which they contain. (See FERMENTATION, vol. ix. p. 96.)

Ammonia. Formic acid.


irritating effect on the eyes and mucous membranes of the nose. unites not only with other cyanides but also with a multitude of It is poisonous. By strong pressure it is condensible into a liquid other salts into crystallizable double salts. Mercurous cyanide, which freezes at -34°:4 C., and has the following vapour-tensions Hg(NC)., seems to have no existence. When it is attempted to P at the temperatures t stated

produce it by double decompositions, the mixture IIg + N().Hg t = - 20°:7 -10° 0°

+ 20° C. comes forth instead of the compound HG (NC").2. () Heavy metallic P= 1 1.85 2-7 3.8 5 atmos. cyanides are mostly insoluble in water, and the general method At ordinary temperatures water dissolves about 4.5 times, alcohol for their preparation is to decompose a solution of the respective about 23 times its volume of the gas. The solutions are liable to sulphate, chloride, &c., with one of cyanide of potassium. The (very complex) spontaneous decomposition. The list of products most important general property of these bodies is that they includes oxalate of ammonia and urea. Cyanogen burns with a readily dissolve in solution of cyanidle of potassium with formation characteristically bcautiful peach-blossom coloured flame into car of double cyanides, which in their capacity as double salts all bonic acid and nitrogen. This gas cyanogen, as already stated, is exhibit, in a higher or lower degree, those anomalies which were to cyanides what chlorine gas Cl., is to chlorides, but it is well to fully explained above (sce“prussiate of potash ”). These “metallo. remember that the analogy, though perfect in regard to the corre-cyanides," as we will call them, being all, unlike plain cyanide sponding formulæ, does not, as a rule, extend to the conditions of of potassium, very stable in opposition to water and aqneous alkalis, formation of the bodies represented. Thus cyanogen does not unite are readily produced from almost any compound of the respective with hydrogen into prussic acid, nor does it combine with ordinary metallic radlical—some from the metal itself, by treatment withi inetals in the chlorine fashion. When passed over heated potas solution of cyanide of potassium. In all we have said “potassium” sium, it is true, it combines with it into cyanidle; and caustic may be taken as including sodium and in a limited sense ampotash - ley absorbs it with formation of cyanide and cyanate moniu, but the potassium compounds are best known, and we INCO.K), just as chlorine yields chloride and hypochlorite Kcio; accordingly in the following section confine ourselves to these. but this is about the sum-total of the analogies in action. Yet Jctallo-cyanidles.—(1) Silver:-Cyanide of silver, Ag. NC, is prometallic cyanides of all kinds can be produced indirectly.

(luceel as a precipitate by adılition of hyılrocyanic acid or cyanide of Cyanide of Potassium, NC.K.—An aqueous mixture of the quan- potassium to solution of nitrate of silver. The precipitate is similar tities NCH and KHO no doubt contains this salt, but it smells of in appearance to chloride of silver and, like it, insoluble in cold dilute the acid, and on evaporation behaves more like a mixture of the

mineral acids, but soluble in ammonia. At a red heat it is clecomtwo congeners than in any other way. An exhaustive union can posed with formation of a residue of carboniferous metallic silver. be brought about by passing NCH vapour into an alcoholic solution Precipitated cyanide of silver, though insoluble in hylrocyanic acid, of KHO; the salt ŃC. K then connes down as a crystalline precipi- dissolves readily in cyanide of potassium with formation of argentotate, which must be washed with alcohol and triell, colil, over cyanide, AgK. (NC), which is casily obtained in crystals, permavitriol. A moro convenient method is to dehydrate yellow prussi- nent in the air and soluble in cight parts of cold water. Chloriile ato and then decompose it by heating it to redness in an iron

of silver dissolves in cyanide of potassium solution as readily as crucible. The Fe(NC), part of the salt breaks

into cyanogen

the cyanide does and with formation of the same double saltand nitrogen, which go off, and a carboniferous finely-divided iron, 1gCl + 2 KNC=KCI+ Ay K(VO).. This salt is used very largely in which remains, with eyanide of potassium, which at that temperature of Ncaal is precipitated by addition of hydrocyanic acid or cyanide

clectro-plating: (2) Leal.- From a solution of the acetate cyanile rient proinptitude to enable one to decant off

' the bulk even of the of potassium. The precipitate, Pb, VC),, has the exceptional profuseel cyanide. According to private information received by the perty of being insoluble in aniile of potassium. (3) Zinc, writor a French manufacturer uses a certain kind of very porous Cyanidle of zine, 21(NC,, is obtaineel liy addition of hydrocyanie firevlny as an efficient filtering medium.

acil to a solution of the acetate, as a white precipitate readily The orlinary "yanide of potassium" of trade is not strictly soluble in cyanide of potassium with formation of à vouble salt. that at all, but at best a mixture of the real salt with cyanate. It 21K, (NC), which forins well-defined crystals. (1) Vickel. – The is proluced by fusing a mixture of eight parts of anhydrous prussiate cyanide, Ni( NC.,, is an apple-green precipitate, which is obtained by and three parts of anhydrous carbonate of potash, allowing the

methois similar to those given under “zinc.' It readily dissolves reaction

cyanide of potassium with formation of a crystallizable salt, (NC),Fc. K. + K,C0,=CO,+ Fo +5NCK+K. NCO NiK(NC), + IIO), the solution of which is stable in air and not


convertible into one of a nickelie i Si"compound by chlorine (comto complete itself and the iron to settle, and decanting of the clear pare “cobalt” introri. The potasio. yanides of silver, zinc, and fuse. The product goes by the name of " Liebig's cynnide," but niekel as solutions are not changed visibly by caustie alkalis, but the process was really invented by Rolgers.

their heavy metals can be precipitated by sulphurettral hyelrogen Fused cyanide of potassium assumes on cooling the form of a or sulphide of ammonium, as from solutions ót, for instance, the milky whito stone-like solidl. It fuses readily at a rol heat, and chloriiles. Juneous mineral acids in the heat at least) decompose at a white heat volatilizes without decomposition, provided that them exhaustively with elimination of all the SC as NCH.`(5) it is under the influence of heat alone; in the presence of air loppir.- When cyanidle of potassium solution is added to one of it gradually passes into cyanate : when heated in steam it is sulphate of copper, a yellow precipitate of cuprio cranile, Cu(NC), converted into carbonate of potash with evolution of ammonia, comes down; but on boiling this precipitato loses cyanogen anii carbonic oxide, and hy«lrogen. When heated to redness with any is converted into a white precipitate of the coupons salt ('n! NC). of the more easily redirible metallic osides it reduces them to the This whitr precipitate dissolves in cyanide of potassium with formetallic nate, while it prasmes itself into cyanate. It also reluces mation chiefly of two crystalline double salts, vir., CUNC +6NCK, the corresponding salphiles with formation of sulpho vanatı; for easily soluble in water, and ('ul('+ YOK. The latter is decomrrample, l'us oro + SCK = Pb+ 200 or Sk. Hence its fre posil by water with elimination of C11. VO The solution of the urnt application in blowpipe analysis. When located with chlor OXC. K salt is not precipitated ly sulphurrttoo hydrogen. Solutre or nitrates it reduces them with violent explosion. The aqueous tions of potassio- vandles of cuprosum are 11-o in ode: 110-plating. solution of the salt has a strongly alkaline reaction ; it smells of 6 Golu. Jutallic golellissolves in cyanide of potassium solution hydroxyanic aciel and is readily decomposed by even such feeble in the preselier of air, thus vide as acetic or carbonic. It readily dissolves precipitated chlor

Au + 2KXC+0= !K 0 luk.NO". tele, bromiile, and icliile of silver ; this is the basis of its application This auro-ryanide of potassium is used largely for rest10-gilding, in photography. Large quantities of the salt are used in clertio. for which purpose it is conveniently papaved in follows six paris plating.

of golul are dissolved in nua legia and the solution is presipitatred thir Binary Cyanides. - Or these only a few can be noticed here by ammonia. The precipitate an explosive compound known as 1 lynule omium is very similar to the potassium salt. The "fulminating golul" i disolver in a solution of six parts of ryanilo une rimark, in a more limitel se'nse, holds for the cyanides of potasium, when the double salt in forned with 'volution of of larium, strontium, and calcium. (2) Cile of ammonium ammonia. The valt er ystalline, in rhoilije ostalaciil, celulele in .SC.SH. forms crystals rolatile at 36'C. and smelling of ammonia Srson parts of colil wter. and hşilmryanie aiud. The solution in watir decompusis 2011 In the following potasio, panides the heary 11 tals cannot l.. taneously, pretty much like that of the free arit. But the anhy- luter tool by means of their ordinary periplants; these salts ali rous rapuar bis itself stands a high temperature, as is proved by ! whave likithe potassium salts of complex radials composed of the the fact that it is produced largely when ammonia is passed over ; lvary metal and all the momen). i lumell. - (buniilor of pota mi-hot charcoal,C+2NH, = 11, + VCH.NH. () Verurie cummidi : -imben video to a solution of a cobaltons -a! (ul, A. NASC, forms very realily when merkurie oxide is dissolved in i prezipitate voluble in escess of rant. The solution just nurmially spoonus prussie acid. The solution on evaporation and cooling contains ... cobalto saniile', co N. Sluit ons!" to air

ponts crystals soluble in eight parts of cold water. This salt is wel alalisvirn with formation of cobaltie vaniels, thusnot at all leromposed, even when heatel, by water, nor apprecia

(osi" - intr. 10- KO. (H 10,3KXO. shly by lilate sniphuric or nitric acid; heiling hvidrohloric aciil' Chlorine Clinzi zol of ! O amor prompts with a similar fit. eliminates the NC as hydrorganic acid; sulphuretted hvidrogen If the alkalin' soul is njilitieillid line, the relati kts similarly in the cold. It gives no precipitate with nitrit nila in pol.. wiil crointion of livro – of silver, nor is it changed visilly by caustio alkalis. It rmily Co., IXC + HICI =

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