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brought home large quantities of gold cannot now be said. also a liturgical writer of eminence. There are extant by him a Coming home as he did, he had to bear the blame of the prose prayer for one going on a sea voyage (Yephe Noph, Venice, attack on the Spanish village, which he had done nothing 1840, 8vo, pp. 39-41) for the Malkhiyyoth' (first part of the additional

1575, 7to), and a piece of religious poetry (Melo Chofnajim, Berlin, to avert in his orders to the party going up the river. He service of New Year); the latter is a mostajāb and betrays a perfect was brought before a commission of the privy council. master both in kabbalah and poetry. For a specimen of Aramaic Notes taken of the proceedings have only partially been poetry see his introductory poem to Milhamoth Adonai. (S. M. S.-S.) preserved, but it appears that there was strong evidence RAMBOUILLET, chief town of an arrondissement in that after his failure he had attempted to induce his the department of Seine-et-Oise, France, 30 miles southcaptains to seize Spanish prizes, or, in other words, to west of Paris on the line to Brest, is a small place of 5186 commit what James held to be an act of piracy, though inhabitants, and derives its whole interest from the associaRaleigh, with his views of the rightfulness of fighting tions connected with the ancient château, which stands Spain in America whatever the Governments in Europe surrounded by a beautiful park of 2965 acres and a wide might do, would doubtless have qualified it by another forest dating from the 14th century. A great machicolated name. At last the commission decided against him, and tower and some apartments with good woodwork still he was sent to execution formally on his old sentence at remain. The gardens, partly in French, partly in English Winchester, in reality for having allowed his men to shed style, are picturesque, and have an avenue of Louisiana Spanish blood after engaging that he would not do so. cypress unique in Europe. The park contains the national He was executed on 29th October 1618. His attitude sleep-farm, where the first flock of merino sheep in France against Spain gave him popularity at a time when the was raised last century. The school of sheep-farming is of attempt of James to draw closer the bonds between Spain recent foundation. Here, too, is the first military school and England was repudiated by the great majority of the erected for soldiers' children. nation.

(S. 1. G.)

Originally a royal domain, the lands of Rambouillet passed in RAMAH. See SAMUEL.

the 14th century to the D'Angennes family, who held them for RAMÁYÁNA. See SANSKRIT LITERATURE.

300 years and built the château. Francis İ. died there in 1547 ; RAMBAN. R. MOSHEH BEN NAĦMAN, or NACHMAN

and Charles IX. and Catherine de' Medici found a refuge in the

château in the wars of religion, as Henry III. did after them. IDES, was born before 1200 at Gerona, where he was rabbi The famous marquise de Rambouillet is separately noticed below. and physician, and died between 1268 and 1270 in Pales- Created a duchy and peerage in favour of the duke of Toulouse, tine, probably at Acre. Although a Sepharadi in the later son of Louis XIV., Rambouillet was subsequently bought and enand larger sense of the word, he was the disciple of the

bellished by Louis XVI., who erected a model farm, sheep establish

ment, and other buildings. The place was a hunting-seat of greatest Provençal rabbis, and became the most celebrated Napoleon I. and Charles X., and it was here that in 1830 the latter Talmudist and cabbalist of his age in his own country. signed his abdication.

1. Of his extant commentaries on the Bible that on the Penta- RAMBOUILLET, CATHERINE DE VIVONNE, MARQUISE teuch is the most valuable. Three editions may be named. (1)

DE (1588-1665), a lady famous in the literary listory of Ed. prin., s. l. ct a., but certainly before 1480. According to oral tradition the compositors set the type in a waggon whilst travel- France, was born in 1588. She was the daughter and ling in Italy from place to place for the purpose of selling printed | heiress of Jean de Vivonne, marquis of Pisani, and her translated at Icast twice into Latin (Schiller-Szinessy, Catal., 1. pp. She was married at twelve years old to Charles d'Angernes


mother Giulia was of the noble Roman family of Savelli. 174-177). The authorship of the commentary on Job, ascribed to Nachmanides, has been questioned, but without good grounds (op.

vidame of Le Mans, and afterwards marquis of Rambouillet. cit., pp. 211-213). The commentaries, however, generally ascribed Her celebrity is due to the salon or literary meeting-place to him on Canticles and Ruth are certainly not his.

which she established as early as 1608 in the Hôtel de 2. Of his many works on Rabbinic literature we mention only; Rambouillet, or, to give it its proper name, the Hôtel (1) DIN7, Strictures on MAIMONIDES's (q.v.) Sepher Hammisvoth Constantinople, 1510, 4to ; Venice, 1550, folio, - the latter in Pisani, for M. de Rambouillet had shortly before his Giustiniani's edition of Maimonides's Mishnel Torah. A cheap marriage sold his family mansion. Madame de Ramedition came out at Warsaw in 1883). (2, ,

bouillet not merely endeavoured to refine the manners of Remarks against Rabbenu Zerahyah's Maor (both printed now with her guests and gave special attention to literary conversathe Riph) and Hassaba (both in Temim Deim, SS 225, 226), (3) tion, but also seems to have taken great trouble to arrange IS: 190, vindication of Al-Phasi against RABAD (q.v.—the third) | her house for purposes of reception, and is said to have (Vienna, 1805). (4) ian, 70, cup, Decisions, Novellæ, and been the first to devise suites of rooms through which Collectanca ; these are spread over almost the whole Talmud. The

visitors could move easily. The hôtel was open for more Responsa ascribed to him are by his disciple Rashba. (5) 1997, a sermon on the superiority of the Mosaic Law (best edition by

than fifty years, and almost all the more remarkable personJellinek, Vienna, 1872, Svo). (6) Letters (a) on the Maimonidean ages in French society and French literature frequented it, controversy (cheapest edition, Vilna, 1821, 8vo); (v) to his son, on especially during the second quarter of the century, when conduct (Lisbon ed. of the Pent. com.); (e) Jagereth Haķkodesh, it was at the height of its reputation. The incidents con; on the ethies of matrimony (latest edition, Berlin, 1793,870) nected with the salon of the incomparable Arthénice? (7) A7N7 7718, on Sickness, Death, dc. (Constantinople, 1518, | (an anagram for Catherine which is said to have taken two folio), - partly ascetic and contemplative, partly Rabbinic ordi- poets of renown, Malherbe and Racan, a whole afternooi nances ; its last chapter separately under the title of $1237 yun to devise) are innumerable

, and it would be impossible to (Naples, 1490, 4to, and reprints). (8) His anti-Christian contro- recount them in any space here available. Among th versies are chiefly contained in his 1131, a Disputation with the convert Pablo Christiani, the teacher of Raymundus Martini, held

more noteworthy are the sonnet war between the Uraniste before Jayme I., king of Aragon; it is translated into Latin, and

and the Jobistes, partisans of two famous sonnets b; will be found with a mutilated and otherwise corrupt text, in Wag- Voiture and Benserade—and the composition by all th enseil's Tela ignca Satanæ (Altdorf, 1681, 4to), the best and cheapest famous poets of the day of the Guirlande de Julie, a collec edition of the text and of the explanation of Isa. lii. 13 to liii. 12 being that of Dr Steinschneider (Berlin, 1860, 8vo. 1, (9) Cabbal- d’Angennes, Madame de Rambouillet's eldest daughte

tion of poems on different flowers, addressed to Juli in the Pentateuch I and Job); he has also a commentary on the Sepher. Even more important is the rise of the Précieuses, wh Yeșirah (Mantua, 1562, 4to, and reprints). (10) Nachmanides was owed their existence to Madame de Rambouillet's salo 1 Nachmanides's acuteness and honesty are a suficient guarantee in the memory of posterity by Molière's avowed caricatur

and influence. These ladies—who are usually represente that the Bahir (Midrash, 15; Ency. Bril., xvi. p. 287), so often quoted in his Pentateuch commentary as a bona fide olul book, cannot

and by Mademoiselle de Scudéry, but whose name, it mu be a composition of his own time, as some have of late asserted. be remembered, Madame de Sévigné herself was proud

bear—insisted on a ceremonious gallantry from their suitors and of using that harmony as an authority for the enactand friends (though it seems from Tallemant's account ment of whatever laws might be considered necessary for that practical jokes of a mild kind were by no means the guidance either of the contrapuntist or the less ambiexcluded from the Hôtel de Rambouillet), and especially tious general composer. And in this he first explained favoured an elaborate and quintessenced kind of colloquial the distinction between two styles, which, in deference to and literary expression, such as at the end of the 16th the views expressed by a popular critic of the present day, and in the earlier part of the 17th century was fashionable have been called the “horizontal and vertical systems," throughout Europe. The immortal Précieuses Ridicules the “horizontal system” being that by which the older was no doubt directly levelled not at the Hôtel de Ram- contrapuntists regulated the onward motion of their several bouillet itself but at the numerous coteries which in the parts, and the “vertical system” that which constructs an course of years (for the salon had been open for more than entire passage out of a single harmony. From fundamental a generation when Molière's piece, which was patronized by harmonies he passed to inverted chords, to which he was the the real Précieuses themselves, appeared) had sprung up in first to call attention; and the value of this discovery fully imitation of it. But the satire did in truth touch the compensates for his erroneous theory concerning the chords originators as well as the imitators, the former more of the eleventh and the great (Angl. " added ") sixth.? closely perhaps than they perceived. The Hôtel de Ram- Rameau first set forth his new theory in his Traité de bouillet continued open till the death of its mistress, 27th l’Harmonie (Paris, 1722), and followed it up in his Nouveau December 1665, but latterly it lost its peculiar position. Système (1726), Génération Harmonique (1737), Démonstra It had no doubt a very considerable influence in bringing tion (1750), and Nouvelles Réflexions (1752). But it was not about the classicizing of French during the 17th century, only as a theorist that he became famous. Returning to though the literary work with which it is chiefly identified Paris in 1722, he first attracted attention by composing was of an older school than that of the age of Louis XIV. some light dramatic pieces, and then showed his real proper.

powers in his first great opera, Hippolyte et Aricie, founded The chief original authorities respecting Madame de Rambouillet on Racine's Phèdre, and produced at the Académie in and her set are Tallemant des Réaux in his Historiettes and Somaize 1733. Though this work was violently opposed by the in his Dictionnaire des Précicuses. Many recent writers have treated the subject, among whom MM. Cousin, Livet, and De Barthélemy admirers of Lully, whose party spirit eventually stirred up deservo special mention.

the famous “guerre des bouffons," Rameau's genius was too RAMEAU, JEAN PHILIPPE 1 (1683 - 1764), musical brilliant to be trampled under foot by an ephemeral faction, theorist and composer, was born at Dijon, 25th September and his ultimate triumph was assured. He afterwards 1683. His musical education, partly in consequence of produced more than twenty operas, the most successful of his father's desire to prepare him for the magistracy, still which were Dardanus, Castor et Pollux, Les Indes Galmore through his own wayward disposition, was of a very antes, and La Princesse de Navarre. Honours were now desultory character ; but his talent manifested itself at a showered upon him. He was appointed conductor at the very carly age. In 1701 his father sent him to Milan to Opéra Comique, and the directors of the opera granted break off a foolish love-match. But he learned little in bim a pension. King Louis IV. appointed him composer Italy, and soon returned, in company with a wandering to the court in 1745, and in 1764 honoured him with a theatrical manager, for whom he played the second violin. patent of nobility and the order of Saint Michael. But He next settled in Paris, where he published his Premier these last privileges were granted only on the eve of liis Livre de Pièces de Clavecin, in 1706. In 1717 he made death, which took place in Paris on 12th September 1764. an attempt to obtain the appointment of organist at the RAMESES (Gen. xlvii. 11; Exod. xii. 37; Num. xxxiii. church of St Paul. Deeply annoyed at his unexpected 3), or, with a slight change in the vowel points, RAAMSES failure, he retired for a time to Lille, whence, however, (Exod. i. 11), the name of a district and town in Lower ho soon removed to Clermont-Ferrand, where he succeeded Egypt, is notable as affording the mainstay of the current his brother as organist at the cathedral, and here it was theory that King Rameses II. was the pharaoh of the that his true art-life began.

oppression and his successor Menptahi the pharaoh of the Burning with desire to remedy the imperfection of his exodus. The actual facts, however, hardly justify so large carly education, Rameau now diligently studied the writ- an inference. The first three passages cited above are all ings of Zarlino, Descartes, Mersenne, F. Kircher, and certain by the priestly (post-exile) author and go together. Jacob other well-known authors. He not only mastered their is settled by his son Joseph in the land of Rameses and several theories but succeeded in demonstrating their weak from the same Rameses the exodus naturally takes place. points and substituting for them a system of his own, The older narrative speaks not of the land of Rameses but whicli

, notwithstanding its manifest imperfection, was of the land of Goshen; it seems probable, therefore, that the based upon firm natural principles, and ultimately led to later author interprets an obsolete term by one current in discoreries of the utmost possible value to musical science. his own day, just as the Septuagint in Gen. xlvi. 28 names His keen insight into tho constitution of certain chords, instead of Goshen Heroopolis and the land of Rameses. which in early life he had studied only by car, enabled Heroopolis lay on the canal connecting the Nile and the him to propound a series of hypotheses, many of which Red Sea, and not far from the head of the latter, so that are now accepted as established facts; and, if, in his the land of Rameses must be sought in Wády Túmílát desire to carry out his system to a logical conclusion, he near the line of the modern freshwater canal. In Exod. i. was sometimes tempted into palpable and dangerous error, 11, again, the store-cities or arsenals which the Ilebrews it was only in obedience to the law which invariably built for Pharaoh are specified as Pithom and Raamses, renders the inventor of a new theory blind to the stubborn to which LXX. adds Heliopolis. Pithom (the city of facts which militate against its universal application. the god Tum) is probably the Patumus of Herod. ii. llis theory was based upon an instinctive anticipation of 158, which also lay on the canal, so here again Wady the discoveries of modern science. While the older con- Tumilát is the district to which we are referred. But did trapuntists were perfectly satisfied with the laws which the Israelites maintain a continuous recollection of the muulated the melodious involutions of their rocal and names of the cities on which they were forced to build, or instrumental parts, Rameau demonstrated the possibility were these names rather added by a writer who knew what of building up a natural harmony upon a fundamental bass, fortified places were in his own time to be seen in Wády Not Jean Baptiste, as erroneously stated by Gerber.

? For further information on this subject, see vol. xvii. p. 92.

Trimílát? The latter is far the more likely case, when we brushwood, with a low ruined parapet, and is the resi. consider that the old form of the story of the Hebrews in dence of the nawab, who represents the Rohilla chieftains Egypt is throughout deficient in precise geographical data, of Rohilkhand. A lofty mosque stands in the marketas might be expected in a history not committed to writing place; the streets are densely crowded together and princitill the Israelites had resided for centuries in another and pally built of mud.

pally built of mud. The population of the town in 1881 distant land. The post-exile or priestly author indeed numbered 74,250 (males 36,355, females 37,895); it is gives a detailed route for the exodus (which is lacking in famous for fine shawls and damask, which are exported to the older story), but be, we know, was a student of geo- all parts of India. graphy and might supplement tradition by what he could RAMPUR BEULEAH. See RÁJSHÁHÍ, supra, p. 261. gather from traders as to the caravan routes. And at all RAMSAY, ALLAN (1686-1758), author of the Gentle events to argue that, because the Hebrews worked at a city Shepherd, a pastoral drama in the Lowland Scotch dialect, named after Rameses, they did so in the reign of the was born in Lanarkshire in 1686. An Edinburgh barber founder, is false reasoning, for the Hebrew expression set agoing the literary movement in Scotland that culmight equally be used of repairs or new works of any kind. minated in the poetry of Burns. This peasant-poetry is

It appears, however, from remains and inscriptions that Rameses often spoken of as if it were a spontaneous indigenous
II. did build in Wády Túmílát, especially at Tell Maskhúta, which product, but the harvest that ripened towards the close of
Lepsius therefore identified with the Raamses of Exodus. This
identification is commemorated in the name of the adjacent rail-

the 18th century had its seed-time earlier, and the seeds station. But recent excavations on the spot have brought to way

were imported from England. Allan Ramsay was a light further inscriptions, on the ground of which Naville makes peasant by birth (although he claimed kinship with the the ruins those of Pithom and further identifies Pithom with the noble family of Dalhousie)—the son of a manager of leadlater Heroopolis. The identity of Pithom and Heroopolis is also

mines in Lanarkshire; but the country-bred lad was transfavoured by comparison of the LXX. and the Coptic of Gen. xlvi. 28. See E. Naville, The Store-city of Pithom and the Route of the planted to a town, being apprenticed at the age of fifteen Exodus, London, 1835.

to a barber in Edinburgh. In this calling he somehow RAMESWARAM, a small island situated between made the acquaintance of a band of Jacobite young gentleCeylon and India, at the entrance of Palk Strait in the

men of literary tastes, was admitted to the convivialities Gulf of Manaar, in 9° 18' N. lat. and 79° 22' E. long. It of their “Easy Club," and formally adjudged "a gentleis about 14 miles long by 5 wide, is low and sandy, and for man.” The basis of the club seems to have been literary, the most part uncultivated. The estimated population of the members taking fancy names of celebrities, --Buchanan, the island is about 14,000. It contains one of the most Boece, Bickerstaff, and so forth. Ramsay's name was venerated Hindu shrines, founded, according to tradition, Bickerstaff, and the fact is of some importance as showing by Rama himself, which for centuries has been the resort how he was brought into contact with the discussion of the of thousands of pilgrims from all parts of India. To the theory of pastoral poetry among the London wits of the south of this great temple there is a freshwater lake time. Ramsay's connexion with the Easy Club lay between about 3 miles in circumference. At the western extremity 1712 and 1715, and in the course of that period occurred of the island is the small but busy port of Pambam, which the dispute about pastoral poetry occasioned by the great gives its name to the channel between India and Ceylon. publication of Pope's Windsor Forest (see POPE). The Rameswaram island is the first link in the chain of islets and

Guardian for 7th April 1713 (No. 23) contained a descriprocks forming Adam's Bridge. Geological evidence shows that this gap was once bridged by a continuous isthmus, which, accord


of a true pastoral poem, which was afterwards realized ing to the temple records, was breached by a violent storm in 1480. by Ramsay in the Gentle Shepherd with such scrupulous Operations for removing the obstacles in the channel, and for fidelity in every detail that the criticism might fairly be deepening and widening it, were begun in 1838. The main channel described as the recipe from which the poem was made. has a minimum depth of 14 feet ; its length is 4232 feet and its There is not a clearer case in literary history of the influbreadth 80 feet. A second channel to the south, called the Kilkarai Passage , is 2100 feet long, 150 feet wide, and is dredged to a depth and it well deserves the epithet-was the main outcome

ence of criticism on creation ; Ramsay's great pastoral of 12 feet. RAMMOHUN ROY. See Roy.

of the prolonged discussion of that kind of poetry by the RÁMPUR, a native state of India, in the Rohilkhand | Queen Anne wits. “Paint the manners of actual rustic life," division of the North-Western Provinces, lying between said the Guardian critic to the poet, “not the manners of 28° 26' and 29° 10' N. lat, and between 78° 54' and 79° 33' artificial shepherds and shepherdesses in a fictitious golden E. long. It is bounded on the N. and W. by the British age; use actual rustic dialect; instead of satyrs and fauns district of Murádábád, and on the N.E. and S.E. by the and nymphs introduce the supernatural creatures of modern district of Bareli. The country is level and generally superstition.” These precepts Ramsay diligently observed, fertile ; it is well watered in the north by the rivers Kosila and the result was that his Gentle Shepherd not only and Nahul and in the south by the Rámgangá. It attracted attention among the learned students of poetry as adjoins the Tarai on the north, at the foot of the Hima- a literary curiosity, the first genuine pastoral after Theo layas, and is exceedingly unhealthy. The total area of critus, but at once became a favourite and a living force the state is 945 square miles, with a population (1881) among the peasantry in whose dialect it was written and of 541,914 (males 282,359, females 259,555), of whom for whose characters it furnished ideal models. There was 302,989 were Hindus and 238,925 Mohammedans. hardly a farmhouse in Scotland in which a copy of the

The revenue of Rámpur in 1883-84 was £167,031 and the poem was not to be found, and the moral force of the ideal ordinary annual expenditure £160, 134. Rice, sugar, hides, and a exhibited in the hero Patie may be traced in the character kind of damask are the principal exports, and the

imports comprise of Burns and many another Scottish peasant-bard in whom elephants, English cloth, and groceries and salt. During the mutiny of 1857 the nawab of Rámpur rendered important services

ostentatious libertinism is not redeemed by the same genius. to the British, for which he received a grant of land assessed at From a moral point of view a better exemplar than Ram£12,852 in perpetuity, besides other honours.

say's ideal hero might well have been desired. The poetRÁMPUR, capital of the above state, stands on the laureate of the Easy Club took his moral tone from the left bank of the Kosila in 28° 48' N. lat. and 79° 4' E. poets of the Restoration, with whom his Jacobite boon comlong. ; it is surrounded by a belt of bamboo trees and panions were in full sympathy; and thus through the genial

, 1 From the position of the words it is even not unlikely that convivial, quick-witted, and slily humorous barber the spirit "Pithom and Raamses" may be the addition of a redactor, and that of the Restoration passed into the homes of the Scotch the first author of Exod. i. 11 only spoke generally of store-cities. peasantry to do battle with the austere spirit of the kirk. The Gentle Shepherd is the only production of Ramsay's | behind him a series of fifty royal portraits to be completed that has much clairn to remembrance. His lyrics for the by his assistant Reinagle. For several years he lingered most part are poor artificial imitations, adorned here and in the south, his constitution finally broken. He died there with pretty fancies, but devoid of sincerity of feeling. at Dover on the 10th of August 1784. He is happier in his humorous descriptions of character In his art Ramsay paid the penalty of popularity: the quality and occasional personal poems ; “ renowned Allan, canty assiduity as a court-painter and from his unsparing employment

of the work which bears his name suffered from his unremitting callan,” as his admirers loved to call him, had a quick of assistants. Among his most satisfactory productions are some sense of the ridiculous and a firm touch in the exhibition

of his earlier ones, such as the full-length of the duke of Argyll, of what amused him. Once he had established a character and the numerous bust-portraits of Scottish gentlemen and their as a poet he abandoned the trade of wig-making, set up as

ladies which he executed before settling in London. They are a bookseller , and was the first to start a circulating library draughtsmanship; and the flesh - painting is firm and sound in

full of both grace and individuality ; the features show excellent in Scotland. From his shop in High Street opposite Niddry method, though frequently tending a little to hardness and opacity. Street he issued his incidental poems in broadsheets, and His full-length of Lady Mary Coke is an especially elegant female made a volume of them in 1721, and another in 1728. portrait, remarkable for the skill and delicacy with which the white The nucleus of the Gentle Shepherd was laid in separately wife, the eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick, in

satin drapery is managed ; while in the portrait of his brown-eyed issued pastoral dialogues; round these the complete drama the Scottish National Gallery, we have a sweetness and tenderness was built and published as a whole in 1725. As a col- / which shows the painter at his highest. This last-named work lector, editor, imitator, and publisher of old Scottish poetry shows the influence of French art

, an influence which helped

greatly to form the practice of Ramsay, and which is even more Ramsay gave an impetus to vernacular literature at least as

clearly visible in the large collection of his sketches in the posgreat as that given by his principal original poem. His session of the Royal Scottish Academy and the Board of Trustees, Tea-Table Miscellany, published in 1724, for which English Edinburgh. as well as Scottish poets and moderns as well as ancients RAMSAY, ANDREW MICHAEL (1686-1743), commonly were laid under contribution, was extremely popular; and called the “Chevalier Ramsay,” who was born at Ayr, his Evergreen (1724), a collection of poems written prior Scotland, on 9th January 1686, is noteworthy as having to 1600, was the precursor of Bishop Percy's Reliques in a been among the few writers not of French birth who are similar field. A collection of Fables, published complete in admitted by French criticism to have written in French 1730, part original, part translated from La Motte and La with purity and scholarship. Ramsay visited France comFontaine, was Ramsay's last literary work, but he lived to paratively early and came under the influence of Fénelon, an advanced age, dying in 1758, the year before the birth which made him a convert to Roman Catholicism. He of Burns. One of the speculations of the enlightened and held several important tutorships in his adopted country, enterprising man of business was a theatre, which was the chief of which was the charge of Prince Charles opened in 1736, but soon shut up by the magistrates. Edward and the future cardinal of York. His biographers

A completo edition of Ramsay's poems was issued by A. Gardner mention with surprise the conferring of an honorary degree in 1877.

upon him by the university of Oxford. The was RAMSAY, Allan (1713-1784), portrait-painter, the nominally his discipleship to Fénelon, but in reality beyond cldest son of the author of The Gentle Shepherd, was doubt his connexion with the Jacobite party. He died at born at Edinburgh about 1713.1 Ramsay manifested an

St Germain-en-Laye (Seine-et-Oise) on 6th May 1743. aptitude for art from an early period, and at the age Ramsay's principal work was the Travels of Cyrus (London and of twenty we find him in London studying under the Paris, 1727), a book composed in avowed imitation of Télémaque. Swedish painter Hans Huyssing, and at the St Martin's He also edited Télémaque itself with an introduction, and wrote Lane Academy; and in 1736 he left for Rome, where he

an Essai de Politique on the principles of his master and a Histoire

de la Vie et des Ouvrages de Fénelon, besides a partial biography of worked for three years under Solimena and Imperiali Turenne, some poems in English, and other miscellaneous works. (Fernandi). On his return lie settled in Edinburgh; and, RAMSAY, DAVID (1749-1815), American physician and having attracted attention by his head of Forbes of historian, was the son of an Irish emigrant, and was born Culloden and his full-length of the duke of Argyll, he in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, on 20 April 1749. removed to London, where he was patronized by the duke | After graduating M.D. at Princeton College in 1765 he of Bridgewater. His pleasant manners and varied culture, settled as a physician at Charleston, where he obtained an not less than his artistic skill, contributed to render him extensive practice. During the revolutionary war he popular. In 1767 the Scotsman was appointed to succeed served as a field-surgeon, and in 1776 he became a memShakelton as principal painter to His Majesty; and so ber of the South Carolina legislature. Having acted as fully employed was he on the royal portraits which the one of the “council of safety” at Charleston, he was on king was in the habit of presenting to ambassadors and the capture of that city on 27th August 1780 seized by the colonial governors that he was forced to take advantage British as a hostage, and for nearly a year was kept in of the services of a host of assistants-of whom David

confinement at St Augustine. From 1782 to 1786 he was Martin and Philip Reinagle are the best known-upon a member of Congress. His interest in the revolutionary the minor portions of his works, and sometimes on the struggle led him to devote his leisure to the preparation faces themselves. His life in London was varied by of several historical works on the subject, and in 1785 he frequent visits to Italy, where he occupied himself more published in two volumes Ilistory of the Revolution in in literary and antiquarian research than with art. But South Carolina, in 1789 in two volumes llistory of the at length this prosperous career came to an end. The American Revolution, in 1801 a Life of Washington, and painter's health was shattered by an accident, a dislocation in 1809 in two volumes a History of South Carolina. of the right arm.

With an unflinching pertinacity, which He was also the author of several minor works. He died we can understand when we see the firm-set resolute at Charleston on Sth May 1815 from a wound inflicted by mouth of his own portrait, he struggled till he had com- a lunatic. His History of the United States in 3 vols, was pleted a likeness of the king upon which he was engaged published posthumously in 1816, and forms the first three at the time, and then started for his beloved Italy, leaving volumes of his Universal Iistory Americanized, published

? There seems to be some dubiety as to the exact date : the brothers in 12 vols. in 1819. Pielgrave, in their Century of Painters, give the date as 1709, while RAMSDEN, JESSE (1735-1800), astronomical instruSamuel Redgrave, in his Dictionary of Painters of the English School states it as 1713, a year–probably the correct one-assumed by ment maker, was born at Salterhebble near Halifax, YorkCunningham in his Lilys.

shire, in 1735. He went to London in 1755, and was

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shortly afterwards bound apprentice to a mathematical (1536) by victoriously defending the daring thesis–Everyinstrument maker. He afterwards started business on his thing that Aristotle taught is false. This tour de force own account and acquired great celebrity as an artist. was followed up by the publication in 1543 of Aristotelicæ He died on 5th November 1800.

Animadversiones and Dialectica Partitiones, the former a Ramsden's speciality was divided circles, which began to super- criticism on the old logic and the latter a new text-book of sede the quadrants in observatories towards the end of the 18th the science. What are substantially fresh editions of the century. His most celebrated work was a 5-feet vertical circle, Partitiones appeared in 1547 as Institutiones Dialecticæ, which was finished in 1789 and was used by Piazzi at Palermo in constructing his well-known catalogue of stars. He was the first

and in 1548 as Scholæ Dialecticæ; his Dialectique, a French to carry out in practice a method of reading off angles (first suggested version of his system, is the earliest work on the subject in 1768 by the duke of Chaulnes) by measuring the distance of the in the French language. Meanwhile Ramus, as graduate index from the nearest division line by means of a micrometer screw which moves one or two fine threads placed in the focus of a micro

of the university, had opened courses of lectures; but his scope. Ramsden's transit instruments were the first which were

audacities drew upon him the determined hostility of the illuminated through the hollow axis ; the idea was suggested to conservative party in philosophy and theology. He was him by Professor Ussher in Dublin.

accused of undermining the foundations of philosophy and RAMSGATE, a seaport and watering-place of England, religion, and the matter was brought before the parlement in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, and a “vill ” of the old Cinque of Paris, and finally before the king. By him it was rePort of Sandwich, is finely situated between chalk cliffs at ferred to a commission of five, who found Ramus guilty the northern extremity of Pegwell Bay, on the London, of having "acted rashly, arrogantly, and impudently," Chatham, and Dover Railway, 79 miles east-south-east of and interdicted his lectures (1544). He withdrew from London. It possesses a fine stretch of sand, and is much ) Paris, but soon afterwards returned, the decree against frequented as a watering-place. It first rose into import- him being cancelled through the influence of the cardinal ance in the beginning of the 18th century through its trade of Lorraine. In 1551 Henry II. appointed him professor with Russia. In 1749 it was selected as a harbour of refuge of philosophy and eloquence at the Collége de France, for the Downs, and the erection of a pier under the direc- where for a considerable time he enjoyed free scope for tion of Smeaton was begun in 1787. The harbour has his energies. His incessant literary activity is proved by been improved at various periods, and now (1885) covers the fifty works which he published in his lifetime, to which an area of 51 acres, enclosed by two piers, one about 1200 must be added nine that appeared after his death. In and the other about 1500 feet in length, accommodation 1561, however, the slumbering enmity against Ramus was being afforded for as many as 400 sail. The limits of the suddenly fanned into flame by his adoption of Protestantport were extended in 1882. A considerable shipping ism. He had to flee from Paris for his life; and, though trade in coal and provisions is carried on, and there is he found an asylum in the palace of Fontainebleau, bis also a fleet of 150 vessels engaged in the North Sea fishery. house was pillaged and his library burned in his absence. A fine promenade pier was erected in 1881. The town | He resumed his chair after this for a time, but in 1568 possesses a town-hall (1839), assembly rooms, and exten- the position of affairs was again so threatening that he sive bathing establishments. The church of St George found it advisable to ask permission to travel. He travelled was built in 1826. There is a small Roman Catholic mainly in Switzerland and Germany, residing some time cathedral, built by Welby Pugin. The neighbouring Peg- in Basel, Heidelberg, Geneva, and Lausanne, and meeting well Bay, famed for its shrimps, is supposed to have been everywhere with the most flattering reception. Returning the scene of the landing of Hengist and Horsa, and at to France, Ramus at last fell victim to the inveterate Cliff's End (Ebbs Fleet) a monolithic cross marks the hate of his opponents: he perished by the hands of hired landing-place of St Augustine in 596. On the summit of assassins in the massacre of St Bartholomew (1572). Osengal Hill, about a mile to the west of the town, a graveyard of the early Saxon settlers was discovered during there existed a school of Ramists boasting numerous adherents

The logic of Ramus enjoyed a great celebrity for a time, and the cutting of the railway. Ramsgate was incorporated | in France, Germany, and Holland. As late as 1626 Burgersdyck as a borough in 1884. The population of the urban divides the logicians of his day into the Aristotelians, the Ramists, sanitary district (area 2278 acres) in 1871 was 19,640, and the Semi-Ramists, who endeavoured, like Goclenius of Marand in 1881 22,683, or, including 638 fishermen at sea,

burg, to mediate between the contending parties. Ramus's works 23,321.

appear among the logical text-books of the Scottish universities,

and he was not without his followers in England in the 17th cenRAMUS, PETER, or PIERRE DE LA RAMÉL (1515-1572), tury. There is even a little treatise from the hand of Milton, logician, was born at the village of Cuth in Picardy in published two years before his death, called Artis Logica Plenior the year 1515. He was descended from a noble family, Institutio ad Petri Rami Methodum concinnata. It cannot be said, which had fallen, however, into such poverty that his bowever, that Ramus's innovations mark any epoch in the history

of logic; and, though some of his additions have maintained their father earned his livelihood as a field-labourer. The carly ground, he has made no contribution of fundamental importance death of his father increased Ramus's difficulties in obtain- to the science. His rhetorical leaning is seen in the definition of ing the education for which he thirsted. But at last his logic as the “ars disserendi”; he maintains that the rules of logic

may be better learned from observation of the way in which Cicero perseverance was rewarded by admission, in a menial

persuaded his hearers than from a study of the Organon. The discapacity, to the college of Navarre. He worked with his

tinction between natural and artificial logic, i.e., between the imhands by day and carried on his studies at night. The plicit logic of daily speech and the same logic made explicit in a reaction against scholasticism was still in full tide; it was system, passed over into the logical handbooks. Logic falls

, accordthe transition time between the old and the new, when ing to Ramus, into two parts-invention (treating of the notion

and definition) and judgment (comprising the judgment proper, the eager

and forward-looking spirits had first of all to do syllogism, and method). This division gave rise to the jocular battle with scholastic Aristotelianism. In the domain of designation of judgment or mother-wit as the “secunda Petri.”. He logic men like Laurentius Valla, Rudolphus Agricola, and is, perhaps, most suggestive in his emendations of the syllogism. Ludovicus Vives, imbued with the spirit of the Renais

He admits only the first three figures, as in the original Aristotelian

scheme, and in his later works lie also attacks the validity of the sance, had already invoked Cicero against the barbarous

third figure, following in this the precedent of Laurentius Valla. Latinity of the scholastic compends; and, following the Ramus also set the modern fashion of deducing the figures from same prototype, they had proposed various innovations the position of the middle term in the premises, instead of basing which tended to assimilate logic to rhetoric. Ramus out

them, as Aristotle does, upon the different relation of the middle did his predecessors in the impetuosity of his revolt. He thongh Ramus may be allowed to have advanced logical study by

to the so-called major and minor term. On the whole, however, signalized himself on the occasion of taking his degree the wholesome fermentation of thought which ho caused, we are

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