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at a loss to see the grounds for his pretentious claim to supersede GIAN BATTISTA (1485-1557), the eldest son of Paolo Aristotle by a new and independent system.
Ramusio and Tomyris Macachio, was born at Treviso in See Waddington - Kastus, De Petri Rami vita, scriptis, philosophia, Paris, 1848 ; Charles Desmaze, Petrus kamus, professeur au Collège de France, sa vie, 1485 (20th June). Having been educated at Venice and ses écrits, sa mort, Paris, 1864.
at Padua, at an early age he entered the public service RAMUSIO. The noble family of Ramusio—the spelling (1505), becoming in 1515 secretary of the senate and in adopted in the publication of the Navigationi, though it is 1533 secretary of the Council of Ten. He also served the also written Ramnusio, Rhamnusio, Rannusio, &c. -- was republic in various missions to foreign states, e.y., to Rome, one of note for literary and official ability during at least to Switzerland, and to France, travelling over much of the four generations. Its original home was in Rimini, and latter country by special desire of the king, Louis XII. the municipality of that city has within the last few years He also on several occasions filled the office of cancellier set up a tablet on the town-hall bearing an inscription grande. In 1524 he married Franceschina, daughter of which may be thus rendered: “The municipality of Rimini Francesco Navagero, a noble,-a papal dispensation being here records the claim of their city to the family of the required on account of her being cousin to his mother Ramusios, adorned during the 15th and 16th centuries by Tomyris. By this lady he had one son, Paolo. In his the illustrious jurist and man of letters Paolo the elder, old age Ramusio resigued the secretaryship, and retired to who rendered the work of Valturius, our fellow-citizen, the Villa Ramusia, a property on the river Masanga, in into the vernacular; by the physician Girolaino, a most the province of Padua, which had been bestowed on his successful student of Oriental tongues, and the first to father in 1504 in recognition of liis services in the acquisipresent Europe with a translation of Avicenna ; and by tion of Rimini the year before. The delights of this retreat Giovanni Battista, cosmographer to the Venetian republic are celebrated in the poems and letters of several of Gian and secretary to the Council of Ten, who bequeathed to the Battista's friends. He also possessed a house at Padua world that famous collection of voyages and travels, re- in the Strada del Patriarcato, a mansion noted for its. garded in his own day as a marvellous work, and still full paintings and for its collection of ancient sculpture and of authority among all civilized nations."
inscriptions. These, too, are commemorated liy various Paolo The Elder (c. 1413-1506), the first of those thus writers. A few days before his death Ramusio removed commemorated, migrated in 1458 from Rimini to Venice, to this house in Paclua, and there died, 10th July 1557, at where he obtained full citizenship, studied law, and became the age of seventy-two. lIe was, by his own desire, buried a member of the magistracy, filling the offices of vicario, at Venice, in the tomb which he had made for his mother, of judicial assessor, and of criminal judge under various in Santa Maria dell' Orto. Ilis wife's death had occurred administrators of the Venetian provinces on the continent. in 1536. In the work called Museum Jazzuchellianum He continued, however, to maintain relations with the Mala- (Venice, 1761, vol. i. pl. lxiv. No. 6) there is represented testa princes of his native city, and in 1503 negotiated with à 16th-century medal of Ramusio, which looks a genuine them the cession of Rimini to the republic. The wife of likeness, and a bronze example of which, without the Paolo, bearing the singular name of Tomyris Macachio, bore reverse, is preserved in St Mark's Library. There was a him three sons and four daughters. Paolo died at Bergamo portrait of him, represented as in conversation with Andrea on 19th August 1506 at the age of sixty-three, and was (traleniyo, in the Sala del Maggior ('onsiglio, but in 1577 buried in S. Agostino at Padua. Paolo was the author of this perished in a fire, as did also a portrait of his father, a variety of legal treatises and the like, and also published l'aolo. A professed portrait of Gian Battista hy Francesco at Verona in 1183 both a corrected edition and an Italian Grisellini, in the Sala dello Scudo, appears to be, like the translation of a once famous book, Valturius, De re militari, companion portrait of Marco Polo, a work of fancy. A declicating both to Pandolfo Malatesta of Rimini.1
public nautical school at Rimini has within the last three GIROLAMO (1450-1486), younger brother of Paolo, had a notable history. After he had studied medicine at Padua Fears received from the Government the title of the Isti
tuto Ramusio. public suspicion was roused against him in connexion with Ramusio was evidently a general favourite, as he was free the death of a lady with whom he had had some love from pushing ambition, modest, and ingenuous, and, if it pxxages, and this ran so high that he was fain, by help of be safe to judge from some of the dissertations in his his brother Paolo, to whom he transferred his property, to variqtioni, must have been a delightful companion; both make his escape (about 1481-83) to Syria and to take up his friend Giunti anıl the historian (instiniani' speak of his alwile at Damascus. In 1186 he removed to Beyrout, him with the strongest affection. He had also a great and died the same year, killed, as the family chronicler re- reputation for learning. Before he was thirty Aldus lates, brasurfeit of certain fruit that we call armellini and Manutius the eller dedicated to liim his edition of Quinalbimchi, but which in that country are known as mut:31- tilian (1.51.4); a few years later (1,5199) Francesco rilano frmchi," a title which English sailors in southern regions inscribed to him an cilition of Livy, and in 1.525 Bernardino still give to apricots in the vernacular paraphrase of kill- Donati vlid the like with his cilition of Macrobius and jishus. During his stay in Syria Girolamo studieıl Arabic Censorinus. To (reck and Latin and the modern lanand made a new translation of Avicenna, or rather, we may suges of southern Europe he is said to have ideed a assum, of some part of that author's medical works (the knowledge of " Oriental ton.11."bit there is no evidence Cot'). It was, however, by no means the first such trans- how far this went, ils ne arrepot as such a statement lation, as is erroneously alleged in the Rimini inscription, that he was selectoed in 13:30 on account of this acromfor the mi had been translated by Gerarul of Cremona plishment to investigate the case of one Davidl, a Hebrew; (it. 11:57), and this version was frequently issued from the I who, claiming to live of the sotal 1411-2* of Judah, wished early press Girolamo's translation was never printed, but, to establish him-eli' at linii vizio of the libera But Walalled by editors of versions published at Venice in 1579 and 1600. Other works of this questionable member of the 3 The tinirap is in 2!! Tihr?". T... Kiinil British house of Ramusio consisted of medical and philosophical film.
II ....',, ! ir. fruits and Latin poems, some of which last were included
S 1:1:1.1-1.1 po poti.nu. 11.11.11:31 in: , na of in a collection published at laris in 1791.2
| Mar.11S1:1), 1:1 :1...1'n.
reprewo.1 Hii!...;-;!" ".1!. lll iling works are in the British Musum.
11.10-1:1:1:00:11 Viniciui...!:... 1 : "f:small Arminensis (:rmin., " in Quronopur Minitrian P.,, only a t'i rrr: ris, w;""; Ti XT Lorem in Peneren. Girolamo's are To Is erotic.
annel in the rain, !!
... a k.;....(nii.
writer, whilst the title bears 1606, the colophon bears “Appresso in 1804 moved the impeachment of Judge Chase. The part i Giunti, 1583." Vol. iii. editions are of 1556, 1565, and 1606. he took in this matter tended to widen his breach with There is no practical difference between the first two, but that of Jefferson, from whom he finally separated in 1806. Posthe Travels of Cesare Fedrici or Federici in India, one of the most sessing considerable wit, great readiness, and a showy if valuable narratives of the 16th century, and Three Voyages of the somewhat bombastic eloquence, he would undoubtedly Hollanders and Zealanders to Nova Zembla and Groenland. Vol. iii. also contains (omitting maps and figures inserted in the text, eccentricity and his bitter and ungovernable temper.
have risen to high influence but for his strong vein of or with type on the reverse) a two-page topographical view of Cuzco, a folding map of Terra Nova and Labrador, a two-page map The championship of State rights was carried by him to of Brazil, a two-page map of Guinea, &c., a two- page map of an extreme utterly quixotic, inasmuch as he not only Sumatra, a two-page pictorial plan of the town of Hochelaga in asserted the constitutional right of Virginia to interpose New France, and a general map of the New World in a hemisphere
. her protest against the usurpation of power at Washington Brunet's statement mentions issues of vol. ii. in 1564, and of vol. iii. in 1613; but these seem to have no existence. It would thus
but claimed that the protest should be supported by force. appear that a set of Ramusio, to be as complete as possible, should On account of his opposition to the war with England in embrace-for vol. i., 1563 or any subsequent edition ; for vol. ii., | 1812 he was not returned to Congress in 1813, but he 1583 or 1606; for vol. iii., 1606. Besides the circumstances to be gathered from the Navigationi regarding the
was re-elected in 1815. In 1825 he was elected to the Ramusio family see the Iscrizioni Venete of Emanuele Cigogna. There is also United States Senate, where he continued to sit till 1827. in the British Museum Monografia letta il 14 Marzo 1883 ... by Guglielmo Carradori, Rimini, 1883 ; but hardly anything has been found in this except
In 1830 he was for a short time minister to Russia. He the inscription quoted at the beginning of this article.
(H. Y.) was elected to Congress in 1832, but died of consumption RANCE, ARMAND JEAN LE BOUTHILLIER DE. See at Philadelphia before he took his seat, 24th May 1833. TRAPPISTS.
His last will was disputed in the law courts, and the jury RANDERS, a town of Denmark, at the head of an returned a verdict that in the later years of his life he amt in the province of North Jutland (Nörrejylland), on
was not of sane mind. the Gudenaa, about 8 miles above its junction with Randers
Among several biographies of Randolph mention may be made Fjord, an inlet of the Cattegat. It is situated on the of that by Hugh A. Garland, New York, 1850 (11th ed., 1857), and railway that runs south by Aarhuus to Fredericia, and has that by Henry Adams, forming vol. i. of the series of American a branch line (1875) to Grenaa on the coast. Though a
Statesmen, edited by J. T. Morse, junior, Boston, 1883. place of considerable antiquity-being mentioned in 1086
RANDOLPH, THOMAS (1605-1634), an English poet, as the meeting-place of insurgents against Knud, the saint
was born in Northamptonshire in 1605. He was educated -Randers has few remains of old buildings and bears the
at Westminster and Cambridge, and soon gave promise as stamp of a compact modern manufacturing town that owes
a writer of comedy. Ben Jonson, not an easily satisfied its importance to its distilleries, dye-works, carriage-fac- critic, adopted him as one of his “sons.” The case and tories, salt-works, weaving-factories, tan-works, &c. St melody of his verse and the quickness of his wit and Morten's church dates from the 14th century, but has fancy justify the favour with which the youth was received been frequently altered and enlarged down to 1869-70. by the magnates of literature. Unhappily he died under Other buildings are the town-house (1778, restored 1858), thirty in 1634, before his powers had reached their maturthe court-house (1860-62), the infirmary (1870), the alms
ity. His principal works are—The Muses Looking-Glass, house (1868), the Jewish synagogue (1858), and the high acted before the king and queen ; Aristippus, or the Jovial
a Comedy; Amyntas, or the Impossible Dowry, a pastoral school (1858'; the institution founded by Christian III.). Philosopher ; The Conceited Pedlar ; The Jealous Lovers
, a The population was 11,354 in 1870 and 13,457 in 1880.
Randers is best known in history as the scene of the assassina. Comedy; Iley for Honesty, doren with K’navery, a Comedy; tion of Count Geerts by Niels Ebbesün in 1340. In the Middle and several other poems. His works have recently been Ages it had six churches and four monastic establishments—the edited by W. Carew Hazlitt. oldest a Benedictine nunnery (1170). The Grey Friars' building was turned into a castle (Dronningborg) after the Reformation ; of the province of British Burmah, situated in 16° 47'
RANGOON TOWN, a district in the Pegu division its church was burned down in 1698.
RANDOLPH, JOHN (1773-1833), of Roanoke, American N. lat. and 96° 13' E. long., on the left bank of the statesman, was descended from an influential and wealthy Hlaing or Rangoon river at its junction with the Pegu Virginian family, and was the third and youngest son of and Pu-zwon-doung streams, 21 miles from the sea. În John Randolph of Cawsons, Chesterfield county, where he 1880 the town was detached from the surrounding area was born on 20 June 1773. His father having died in of the old district of Rangoon and constituted a separate his infancy, his early years were passed under the care of district, the remainder of the country being formed into his stepfather. He attended schools at Williamsburg and a distinct jurisdiction under the title of Hanthawady. Princeton and for a short time studied at Columbia College, The soil of Rangoon in the mountains and elevated tracis New York, but, although well read in modern works bear is grey sandy clay, and in the plains it is mostly alluvial ing on politics and philosophy, his own statement, “I am mixed with earth of reddish colour, well suited for the an ignorant man, sir,” was in other respects not inaccurate. growth of rice, vegetables, and fruit trees. The Rangoon Both his religious and his political views were radical river flows from the junction of the Panlaing and Hlaing and extreme. At an early period he imbibed deistical rivers to the sea ; from the sea to Rangoon it is navigable opinions, which he promulgated with extreme eagerness. during the monsoons by vessels of the largest draught, He was also so strongly opposed to the new constitution and in the dry season by vessels of 1000 tons. Pu-zwonof the l’nited States that he could not bear to hear Wash-doung creek empties itself into the Rangoon river at Battery ington take the oath to support it. In order to assist in Point. It is navigable during the spring tides of the southasserting the right of resistance to national laws, and to west monsoon for cargo boats of 100 tons; near its junction withstand the "encroachments of the administration upon with the Rangoon river is a small rock, dangerous to large the indisputable rights" of Virginia, he was in 1799 vessels. The only lake of any importance is the kandaugvi elected as a democrať to Congress, where he sat, with the or Royal Lake within the Dalhousie Park. The chief exception of two terms, till 1825. After the clection of products of the district are grains and pulses (principally Jefferson as president in 1801 Randolph was elected chair- rice), cotton, timber, and cutch (catechu) and gambier
. man of the committee of ways and means. He took an Rangoon comprises an area of 2.2 square miles, with a active part in agitating for the reform of the judiciary, and population in 1881 of 134,176 (males 91,504, females
42,672): Hindus numbered 35,871, Mohammedans 21,169, All of these are in the British Museun.
Christians 9741, and Buddhists 67,131.
most temperate countries in the northern and southern RAPANUI, or EASTER ISLAND (Panscheylanill, Osterhemispheres, and, while they extend into arctic and ant- insel, Île de Pâques, &c.), the Walnu or TEAPI of Cook, arctic regions, they show little or no tendency to inhabit an island in the eastern part of the South Pacific, lying in tropical countries except on the higher mountains. Several 27° 8' S. lat. and 109° 25' W. long., 1000 miles east of are natives of Great Britain, occurring in pastures, while Pitcairn. It is rudely triangular in shape, with its hypothe water-buttercups, denizens of pools and streams, vary tenuse 12 miles long running north-east and south-west, greatly in the character of the foliage according as it is and its three angles marked by three volcanic peaks. The submersed, floating, or aerial, and when submersed varying coasts have no natural harbours of any importance, and in accordance with the depth and strength of the current. landing is difficult. There is no lack of fertile soil, and the The ranunculus of the florist is a cultivated form of R. climate is moist enough to make up for the absence of asiaticus, remarkable for the range of colour of the flowers running water. At one time the island would appear to (yellow to purplish black) and for the regularity with have been wooded, but it now presents only a few bushes which the stamens and pistils are replaced by petals. The (Edwardsia, Broussonetia, &c.), ferns, grasses, sedges, &c. common or lesser celandine is the R. Ficaria of the The natives keep a few goats and a large stock of domestic botanist, remarkable for its tuberous root-fibres. The fowls, and the French house which now owns a large part species are all more or less acrid.
of the island feeds about 10,000 sheep. RAOUL ROCHETTE, DÉSIRÉ (1783-1854), French It is loubtful whether Rapanui (i.c., Great Rapa) was discovered archæologist, was born in 1783 at St Amand in the depart- by Davis in 16$t, though it is sometimes marked Davis Island on ment of Cher, and received his education at Bourges. In
our maps. Adiniral Roggeveen reached it on 6th April 1722; in 1813 he was called to the chair of history in the Collége by La Perouse (1776), Kotzebue (1816), Beasby (1826), &r. At the
1741 Captain Cook discovereel it anew, and it has since been visited de Louis-le-Grand at Paris. About four years afterwards time of Roggeveen's discovery the island probably contained from he was translated to the similar chair in the Sorbonne. 1500 to 2000 inhabitants of Polynesian race, who, accorcling to The first result of his labours, published in 1815 under
their own tradition, came from Rapa Iti (Little Rapa) or Oparo,
one of the Tibuai or Austral groul. the title of Ilistoire Critique de l'Établissement des Colonies
The remarkable colossal statues which give a unique archivoGrecques, in 4 vols. 8vo, was favourably received by the logical interest to Rapanui have been described under POLYNESIA, public. In 1819 he was appointed superintendent of vol. xix. p. 428 ; figures of them will be found in l'inart's valuablo antiquities in the Bibliothèque at Paris, an office which paper in the Tour ilu Vonde (1878, No. 9:27). ho held till 1818. To this was added in 1826 the pro RAPE OIL. This important fatty oil, known also as fessorship of archaeology at the Bibliothèque, a result of “sweet oil,” is obtained from seeds of cultivated varieties which may be seen in his excellent Cours l'Archéologie of the cruciferous genus Brassica, the parent form of the (1828). In the following year (1829) appeared his Jonu- whole apparently being the wild navew, B. campestris ments Inédits, and if this great work is now less frequently (Lin.), the B. præcox of De Candolle. From the same stock, referred to than in former years it is because the path it is generally assumed, have sprung the Swedish turnip which it indicated has been steadily followed out by others, and the common turnip; but the oil-yielding plants have and with more complete results than was possible in his developed in a special direction and are exclusively cultiday. A still valuable and interesting work is his Peintures vated for the oil they yield. Under the general name Iniilitex (1836). So also his Peintures de Pompéi (1811) "rape oil" is include the produce of several plants having reinains a splendid monument of the enterprise with which distinct and fairly constant characters, and one of these oils he sought to render attractive the study of archæology.
study of archæology. --Colza (7.'.)-is a very well-known commercial variety. He was a frequent contributor to the annuli of the Roman In Germany, where the production of rape oil centres, Institute, the Journal des Sarunts, and the stratémie des three principal oil-seeds colza (Kohlsit), rape, and rübsen Insriptions, and often engaged in disputes with his con ---are well recognized. Colza is the produce of the parent temporaries in matters on which time has for the most stock B. rempestris and is the form principally cultivated part proved him to have been right. At his death in 1854 in France and Germany. Rapeseed, the variety produced Raoul Rochette was perpetual secretary of the Academy by B. empestris, var. nis, and rübsen seeil, yielded of Fine Arts and a corresponding member of most of the by B.mptrix, var. rupi, are extensively cultivated in learned societies in Europe.
the valley of the Danube and eastwards through Persia ROU'X, JEUX, French painter, was born at Montpellier into India. These plants are principally distinguished in 1677 and died at l'aris in 173t. After the usual course
from each other by the colour of their radicle leaves and of training he became a member of the Academy in 1717 the form of intlorescence, but also by the size and appear as an historical painter. His reputation has been previ- ance of the small ovoidl secols. The seed of the colza is ously established by the credit of decorations executed ruddy brown, rape is blue back, and ribsen is almost Wack Juring his three years in Italy on the palace of Giustiniani in colour. It has en found that 1000 seeds of colza Solini at Venice, and by some casel paintings, the Four weigh 2):3 grains, the same number of richsen weighing Ages of Man (National Gallery), commissioned by the 315 grains and of rape 71:73 grains. Each of these grand prior of Vendôme. To this latter class of subject plants has summer and winter, or annual and biennial, Raous devoted himself, nor did he even paint portraits varieties; and as there are numerous intermediate forms strept in character. The list of his works is a long series in cultivation the varieties metime into each other. of sets of the Seasons, of the Hours, of the Elements The oil yieleled liv these wedlo is, in physical and chemior of those scenes of amusement and gallantry in the cal properties, practically the same, the rain of fluctuarepresentation of which he was immeasurably surpassed tions not being greater than would be found in the vil of by his younger rival Wattean. After his stay in England any pcitie sered under similar varying conditions of poro117:20) he lived much in the Temple, where he decorated luction. (ula scelis in neral, the richet in oil, and several moms. His best pupils were Chevalier au Mont-! the winter varieties of all the secolo ar me te poroductive dilier. His works of which there is a poor specimen in than the summer variudiin. In mm. s rape and rulown the Louvre, were much engraved by loilly; Moyreau, the proportion of wil averas from 360 to 30 jos lent., this Dupuis dc.
winter seeil have from 35 to 10, and winies colza contains Sex Mariette, thereurin dreh de l'aire Français : Dissieus, Ls, from 10 to 15 l" r cent. Viwly porn wwel raw oil ha Are Fronquis ir pyninger : Soulie, Musei de Personlies; D)dark sherry colour wish, at first, war.ely ary pusorptible Chennevières, Printres prouinciant.
amell: lutter retine a bort time the oil dem-iis an