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at a loss to see the grounds for his pretentious claim to supersede GIAN BATTISTA (1485-1557), the eldest son of Paolo Aristotle by a new and independent system.

Ramusio and Tomyris Macachio, was born at Treviso in See Waddington - Kastus, De Petri Rami vita, scriptis, philosophia, Paris, 1819 ; Charles Desınaze, Petrus Ramus, professeur au Collége de France, sa vie, | 1485 (20th June). Having been educated at Venice and RAMUSIO. The noble family of Ramusio—the spelling (1505), becoming in ‘1515 secretary of the senate and in

at Padua, at an early age he entered the public service adopted in the publication of the Navigationi, though it is 1533 secretary of the Council of Ten. He also served the also written Ramnusio, Rhamnusio, Rannusio, &c. -- was republic in various missions to foreign states, e.g., to Rome, one of note for literary and official ability during at least to Switzerland, and to France, travelling over much of the four generations. Its original home was in Rimini, and latter country by special desire of the king, Louis XII. the municipality of that city has within the last few years He also on several occasions filled the office of cancellier set up a tablet on the town-hall bearing an inscription grande. In 1524 he married Franceschina, daughter of which may be thus rendered: “The municipality of Rimini Francesco Navagero, a noble,-a papal dispensation being here records the claim of their city to the family of the required on account of her being cousin to his mother Ramusios, adorned during the 15th and 16th centuries by Tomyris. By this lady he had one son, Paolo. In his the illustrious jurist and man of letters Paolo the elder, old age Ramusio resigned the secretaryship and retired to who rendered the work of Valturius, our fellow-citizen, the Villa Ramusia, a property on the river Masanga, in into the vernacular; by the physician Girolamo, a most the province of Padua, which had been bestowed on his successful student of Oriental tongues, and the first to father in 1504 in recognition of his services in the acquisipresent Europe with a translation of Avicenna ; and by tion of Rimini the year before. The delights of this retreat Giovanni Battista, cosmographer to the Venetian republic are celebrated in the poems and letters of sereral of Gian and secretary to the Council of Ten, who bequeathed to the Battista's friends. He also possessed a house at Padua world that famous collection of voyages and travels, re- in the Strada del Patriarcato, a mansion noted for its. garded in his own day as a marvellous work, and still full paintings and for its collection of ancient sculpture and of authority among all civilized nations."

inscriptions. These, too, are commemorated by various Paolo The Elder (c. 1443-1506), the first of those thus writers. A few days before his death Ramusio removed commemorated, migrated in 1458 from Rimini to Venice, to this house in Padua, and there died, 10th July 1557, at where he obtained full citizenship, studied law, and became the age of seventy-two. He was, by his own desire, buried a member of the magistracy, filling the offices of vicario, at Venice, in the tomb which he had made for his mother, of judicial assessor, and of criminal judge under various in Santa Maria dell'Orto. His wife's death had occurred administrators of the Venetian provinces on the continent. in 1536. In the work called Museum Mazzuchellianum He continued, however, to maintain relations with the Mala- (Venice, 1761, vol. i. pl. lxiv. No. 6) there is represented testa princes of liis native city, and in 1503 negotiated with à 16th-century medal of Ramusio, which looks a genuine them the cession of Rimini to the republic. The wife of likeness, and a bronze example of which, without the Paolo, bearing the singular name of Tomyris Macachio, bore reverse, is preserved in St Mark's Library. There was a him three sons and four daughters. Paolo died at Bergamo portrait of him, represented as in conversation with Andrea on 19th August 1506 at the age of sixty-three, and was Gradenigo, in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio, but in 1577 buried in S. Agostino at Padua. Paolo was the author of this perished in a fire, as did also a portrait of his father, a variety of legal treatises and the like, and also published Paolo. A professed portrait of Gian Battista by Francesco at Verona in 1183 both a corrected edition and an Italian | Grisellini, in the Sala dello Scudo, appears to be, like the translation of a once famous book, Valturius, De re militari, companion portrait of Marco Polo, a work of fancy. A dedicating both to Pandolfo Malatesta of Rimini.1

public nautical school at Rimini has within the last three GIROLAMO (1450-1486), younger brother of Paolo, had a years received from the Government the title of the Istinotable history. After he had studied medicine at Padua | tuto Ramusio. public suspicion was roused against him in connexion with

Ramusio was evidently a general favourite, as he was free the death of a lady with whom he had had some love from pushing ambition, modest, and ingenuous, and, if it passages, and this ran so high that he was fain, by help of be safe to judge from some of the dissertations in his his brother Paolo, to whom he transferred his property, to Navigationi, must have been a delightful companion; both make his escape (about 1481-83) to Syria and to take up his friend Giunti and the historian Giustiniani 4 speak of his abode at Damascus. In 1486 he removed to Beyrout, | him with the strongest affection.

He had also a great and died the same year, killed, as the family chronicler re- reputation for learning. Before he was thirty Aldus lates, by a surfeit of certain fruit that we call armellini and Manutius the elder dedicated to him his edition of Quinalbicocche, but which in that country are known as mazza- tilian (1514); a few years later (1519) Francesco Ardano franchi," a title which English sailors in southern regions inscribed to him an edition of Livy, and in 1528 Bernardino still give to apricots in the vernacular paraphrase of kill- Donati did the like with his edition of Macrobius and johns. During his stay in Syria Girolamo studied Arabic Censorinus. To Greek and Latin and the modern lanand made a new translation of Avicenna, or ratlier, we may guages of southern Europe he is said to have added a assume, of some part of that author's medical works (the knowledge of “Oriental tongues,” but there is no evidence Canon?). It was, however, by no means the first such trans- how far this went, unless we accept as such a statement lation, as is erroneously alleged in the Rimini inscription, that he was selected in 1530 on account of this accomfor the Canon had been translated by Gerard of Cremona plishment to investigate the case of one David, a Hebrew, (11.1187), and this version was frequently issued from the who, claiming to be of the royal house of Judah, wished early press. Girolamo's translation was never printed, but to establishi himself at Venice outside of the Ghetto. But was used by editors of versions published at Venice in 1579 and 1606. Other works of this questionable member of the

3 The reverse is an amorphous map. The book is in the British house of Ramusio consisted of medical and philosophical

Museum,

Rerum l'enctarun . II istoria, bk. xir. tracts and Latin poems, some of which last were included

3 Ramusio's report on this Hebrew is preserved in the diaries of in a collection published at laris in 1791.2

Marcus Sanudo, and is printed by Cigom. It is curious. Dari

represented himself as a prince of the Bedouin Jews who haunt the Both trorks are in the British Museum.

cararan-rond between Damascus and Merlina ; he claimed to be not * "Ramusii Ariminensis Carmina," in Quinque Ilustrium l'oclarum only a great warrior covered with wounds but great also in the law L 16.508 int l'encrema, Girolamo's are grossly erotic,

and in the cabala, and to have been inspired by God to conduct the

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Ramusio had witnessed from his boyhood the unrolling of | MS. still in St Mark's Library. He died at Padua in
that great series of discoveries by Portugal and Spain in 1611, and his posterity did nothing to continue the reputa-
East and West, and the love of geography thus kindled in tion of the family, official or literary.
him made that branch of knowledge through life his chief We revert to the Navigationi e Viaggi. Two volumes only were
study and delight. He is said, with the assistance of published during the life of Gian Battista, vol

. i. in 1550, vol. iii. friends touched by the same flame, to have opened a

in 1556 ; vol. ii. did not appear till 1559, two years after his

death, delayed, as his friend and printer T. Giunti explains, not school for geography in his house at Venice. And it only by that event but by a fire in the printing-office (November appears from a letter addressed to him by his friend 1557), which destroyed a part of the material which had been Andrea Navagero, that as early as 1523 the preparation prepared. It had been Rāmusio's intention to publish a fourth of material for his great work had already begun. The volume, containing, as he mentions himself, documents relating to task had been suggested and encouraged, as Ramusio him- others relating to explorations towards the Antarctic. Ramusio's self states in a dedicatory epistle to the famous Girolamo collection was by no means the first of the kind, though it was, Fracastoro, by that scholar, his lifelong friend ; an address and we may say on the whole continues to be, the best

. Even

before the invention of the press such collections were known, of to the same personage indeed introduced each of the three

which that made by a certain Long John of Yprès, abbot of St volumes, and in the first the writer speaks of his desire to Bertin, in the latter half of the 14th century was most meritorious, bequeath to posterity, along with his labours, “a testimony and afforded in its transcription a splendid field for embellishment to the long and holy friendship that had existed between by the miniaturists, which was not disregarded. The best of the the two." They were contemporaries in the strictest sense

printed collections before Ramusio's was the Novus Orbis, edited

at Basel by Simon Grynæus in 1532, and reissued in 1537 and (Ramusio 1485-1557, Fracastorius 1483-1553). His corre

1555. This, however, can boast of no disquisitions nor of much spondence, which was often devoted to the collection of editorial judgment. Ramusio's collection is in these respects far new material for his work, was immense, and embraced superior, as well as in the variety and fulness of its matter. He many distinguished men. Among those whose names

spared no pains in ransacking Italy and the Spanish peninsula for have still an odour of celebrity were Fracastoro, just men

contributions, and in translating them when needful into the racy

Italian of his day. Several of the pieces are very rare in any other tioned, Cardinal Bembo, Damiano de Goez, and Sebastian shape than that exhibited in Ramusio's collection ; several besides Cabot; among lesser lights, Vettor Fausto, Daniel Barbaro, of importance-e.g., the invaluable travels of Barbosa and Pigafetta's Paolo Manuzio, Andrea Navagero, the cardinals Gasparo complete form till the present century. Of two important articles

account of Magellan's voyage—were not publicly known in any Contarini and Gregorio Cortese, and the printer Tommaso

at least the originals have never been otherwise printed or disGiunti, editor after Ramusio's death of the Navigationi. covered ; one of these is the Summary of all the Kingdoms, Cities, Before speaking more particularly of this work we may and Nations from the Red Sea to China, a work translated from the conclude the history of the family.

Portuguese, and dating apparently from about 1535; the other, PAOLO (GIROLAMO GASPARE) 1 (1532-1600) was the only Prefatione, Espositione, and Dichiarazione, which precede this ver:

the remarkable Ramusian redaction of MARCO POLO (9.v.). The child of Gian Battista, and was born on 4th July 1532. sion of Marco Polo's book, are the best and amplest examples of Like his father, he maintained a large correspondence with Ramusio's own style as an editor. They are full of good sense and many persons of learning and note. In 1541 Francesco

of interesting remarks derived from his large reading and experiContarini, procurator of St Mark's, brought from Brussels than that in which he sketches the return of the Polo family to

ence, and few pictures in words were ever touched more delightfully a MS. of Villehardouin's History of the Conquest of Con- their native city, as he had received it in the tradition of the stantinople, which he presented to the Council of Ten. In

In Venetian elders. 1556 they publicly ordered its translation into Latin, and

There were several editions of the Navigationi e Viaggi, and as

additions continued to be made to the several volumes a good deal gave the commission to Paolo Rannusio. His father also

of bibliographical interest attaches to these various modifications. * seems to have taken much interest in the work, for a MS.

The two volumes (i. and iii.) published in Ramusio's lifetime do not vernacular translation by him exists in the Marciana. bear his name on the title-page, nor does it appear in the addresses Paolo's book was not completed till 1573, many years also the second and posthumous volume). The editions of volio 1,

to his friend Fracastorius with which these volumes begin (as does after the father's death, and was in fact a paraphrase are as follows-1550, 1554, 1563, 1588, 1606, 1613.5 The edition enlarged from other sources, thus, according to Cigogna's of 1554 contains the following articles which are not in that of questionable judgment, "converting the dry story of Ville- | 1550,- (1) copious index; (2) "Narr. di un Compagno di Barbosa"; hardouin into an elegant (fiorita) historical work.” It (3) “Informationi del Giapan”; (4) “ Alli Lettori di Giov. de was not published till 1609, nine years after Paolo's

Barros”; (5) “Capitoli estratti da di Barros.” The edition of

1563 adds to these a preliminary leaf concerning Ramusio, "Tomdeath ; nor was it ever really reprinted, though it became maso Giunti alli Lettori. After 1563 there is no change in the the subject of a singular and unintelligible forgery. For contents of this volume, only in the title-page. It should be added Jacopo Gaffarelli, who was sent to Venice to buy books that in the edition of 1554 there are three double-page woodcut for Richelieu, having apparently procured the “remainder"

maps (Africa, India, and India extra Gangem), which do not exist

in the edition of 1550, and which are replaced by copper-plate copies, removed the title and preliminary pages and sub- maps in subsequent editions. These maps are often missing. The stituted a fresh title with the date 1634, and a dedication editions of vol. ii. are as follows-1559, 1574, 1583, 1606. There to his master the cardinal.2

are important additions in the 1574 copy, and still further addi: GIROLAMO GIUSEPPE (1555-1611), the son of Paolo, was

tions in that of 1583. The additions made in 1574 were-- (1)

Herberstein, Della Moscovia e della Russia”; (2) "Viaggio in born at Venice in 1555. He entered the public service in

Persia di Caterino Zeno”; (3) "Scoprimento dell

' Isola Frislanda, 1577, and was employed in connexion with various foreign &c., per due fratelli Zeni”; (4) “Viaggi in Tartaria

per

alcuni frati missions. In 1601 he published at Lyons the French Minori"

Minori”; (5) "Viaggio del Beato Odorico” (two versions). Further

additions made in 1583 weretext of Villehardouin; and, besides an Italian translation

-(1) "Navigatione di Seb. Cabota ";

(2) at the end 90 ff. with fresh pagination, containing ten articles of this old historian (who seems thus to have furnished

on “Sarmatia, Polonia, Lithuania, Prussia, Livonia, Moscovia

, and occupation for three generations of Ramusios), he left the Tartars by Aless. Guagnino and Matteo di Micheovo.” The behind him a Storia o Cronaca di Casa Ramusia, a folio two latest "editions” of vol. ii. are identical, .e., from the same

type, with a change of title-page only, and a reprint of the last leaf dispersed tribes to the Holy Land and to rebuild the temple. of the preface and of the last leaf of the book But the last cirthis view he had visited Prester John and the Jews in his kingdom, cumstance does not apply to all copies. In one now before tho and then various European countries. David was dark in complexion, " like an Abyssinian,” lean, dry, and Arab-like, well dressed and well 3 See in vol. iii. the end of Ramusio's Discorso on the conquest attended, full of pretensions to supernatural cabalistic knowledge, and Peru, and Giunti's “ Alli Lettori” in the 3d edition of the first volume. with enthusiastic ideas about his mission, whilst the Jews regarded him 4 Brunet's statements on the subject are borrowed, and not quite as a veritable Messiah.

accurate. The detail in Cigogna seems to be accurate, but it is vague i This person and his son affected the spelling Rannusio.

as to the deficiencies of the earlier editions. 2 In the British Museum.

6 All of these are in the British Museum.

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writer, whilst the title bears 1606, the colophon bears “Appresso | in 1804 moved the impeachment of Judge Chase. The part i Giunti

, 1583." Vol. iii. editions are of 1556, 1565, and 1606. he took in this matter tended to widen his breach with There is no practical difference between the first two, but that of Jefferson, from whom he finally separated in 1806. Pos1606 has forty-five pages of important new matter, which embraces the Travels of Cesare Fedrici or Federici in India, one of the most sessing considerable wit, great readiness, and a showy if valuablo narratives of the 16th century, and Three Voyages of the somewhat bombastic eloquence, he would undoubtedly Hollanders and Zealanders to Nova Zembla and Groenland. Vol.

have risen to high influence but for his strong vein of iii

. also contains (omitting maps and figures inserted in the text eccentricity and his bitter and ungovernable temper.
or with type on the reverse) a two- page topographical view of
Cuzco, a folding map of Terra Nova and Labrador, a two-page map

The championship of State rights was carried by him to
of Brazil, a two-page map of Guinea, &c., a two-page map of an extreme utterly quixotic, inasmuch as he not only
Sumatra, a two-page pictorial plan of the town of Hochelaga in asserted the constitutional right of Virginia to interpose
New France, and a general map of the New World in a hemisphero. her protest against the usurpation of power at Washington
Brunet's statement mentions issues of vol. ii. in 1564, and of vol.
iii. in 1613; but these seem to have no existence. It would thus

but claimed that the protest should be supported by force. appear that a set of Ramusio, to be as complete as possible, should | On account of his opposition to the war with England in embrace—for vol. i., 1563 or any subsequent edition ; for vol. ii., 1812 he was not returned to Congress in 1813, but he 1583 or 1606 ; for vol. iii., 1606.

was re-elected in 1815. In 1825 he was elected to the Besides the circumstances to be gathered from the Navigationi regarding the Ramusio family see the Iscrizioni Venele of Emanuele Cigogna. There is also United States Senate, where he continued to sit till 1827. in the British Museum Monografia letta il 14 Marzo 1883 by Guglielmo

In 1830 he was for a short time minister to Russia. He Carradori, Rimini, 1883 ; but hardly anything has been found in this except the inscription quoted at the beginning of this article.

(H. Y.) was elected to Congress in 1832, but died of consumption RANCE, ARMAND JEAN LE BOUTHILLIER DE. See

at Philadelphia before he took his seat, 24th May 1833. TRAPPISTS.

His last will was disputed in the law courts, and the jury RANDERS, a town of Denmark, at the head of an

returned a verdict that in the later years of his life he amt in the province of North Jutland (Nörrejylland), on

was not of sane mind. the Gudenaa, about 8 miles above its junction with Randers

Among several biographies of Randolph mention may be made Fjord, an inlet of the Cattegat. It is situated on the of that by Hugh A. Garland, New York, 1850 (11th ed., 1857), and railway that runs south by Aarhuus to Fredericia, and has that by Henry Adams, forming vol. i. of the series of American a branch line (1875) to Grenaa on the coast. Though a

Statesmen, edited by J. T. Morse, junior, Boston, 1883,

RANDOLPH, THOMAS (1605-1634), an English poet, place of considerable antiquity-being mentioned in 1086 as the meeting place of insurgents against Knud, the saint was born in Northamptonshire in 1605. He was educated

at Westminster and Cambridge, and soon gave promise as -Randers has few remains of old buildings and bears the stamp of a compact modern manufacturing town that owes

a writer of comedy. Ben Jonson, not an easily satisfied its importance to its distilleries, dye-works, carriage-fac- critic, adopted him as one of his “sons.” The case and tories, salt-works, weaving-factories, tan-works, &c. St melody of his verse and the quickness of his wit and Morten's church dates from the 14th century, but has fancy justify the favour with which the youth was received been frequently altered and enlarged down to 1869-70. by the magnates of literature. Unhappily he died under Other buildings are the town-house (1778, restored 1858), thirty in 1634, before his powers had reached their maturthe court-house (1860-62), the infirmary (1870), the alms ity. His principal works are-The Muses' Looking-Glass, house (1868), the Jewish synagogue (1858), and the high acted before the king and queen ; Aristippus, or the Jovial

a Comedy ; Amyntas, or the Impossible Dowry, a pastoral school (1858; the institution founded by Christian III.). Philosopher; The Conceited Pedlar ; The Jealous Lovers, a The population was 11,354 in 1870 and 13,457 in 1880.

Randers is best known in history as the scene of the assassina. Comedy; ITey for Honesty, down with Knavery, a Comedy; tion of Count Geerts by Niels Ebbesön in 1340. In the Middle

and several other poems. His works have recently been Ages it had six churches and four monastic establishments—the edited by W. Carew Hazlitt. oldest a Benedictine nunnery (1170). The Grey Friars' building RANGOON TOWN, a district in the Pegu division was turned into a castle (Dronningborg) after the Reformation ; of the province of British Burmah, situated in 16° 47' its church was burned down in 1698.

RANDOLPII, John (1773-1833), of Roanoke, American N. lat. and 96° 13' E. long., on the left bank of the statesman, was descended from an influential and wealthy Hlaing or Rangoon river at its junction with the Pegu Virginian family, and was the third and youngest son of and Pu-zwon-doung streams, 21 miles from the sea.

In John Randolph of Cawsons, Chesterfield county, where he

1880 the town was detached from the surrounding area was born on 20 June 1773. His father having died in

of the old district of Rangoon and constituted a separate his infancy, his early years were passed under the care of district, the remainder of the country being formed into his stepfather. He attended schools at Williamsburg and

a distinct jurisdiction under the title of Hanthawady. Princeton and for a short time studied at Columbia College, The soil of Rangoon in the mountains and elevated tracts New York, but, although well read in modern works bear is grey sandy clay, and in the plains it is mostly alluvial ing on politics and philosophy, his own statement, "I am

mixed with earth of reddish colour, well suited for the an ignorant man, sir," was in other respects not inaccurate. growth of rice, vegetables, and fruit trees. Both his religious and his political views were radical river flows from the junction of the Panlaing and Hlaing and extreme. At an early period he imbibed deistical rivers to the sea ; from the sea to Rangoon it is navigable opinions, which he promulgated with extreme cagerness. during the monsoons by vessels of the largest draught

, Ile was also so strongly opposed to the new constitution and in the dry season by vessels of 1000 tons.

Pu-zwonof the United States that he could not bear to hear Wash- doung creek empties itself into the Rangoon river at Battery ington take the oath to support it. In order to assist in Point. It is navigable during the spring tides of the southasserting the right of resistance to national laws, and to

west monsoon for cargo boats of 100 tons; near its junction withstand the "encroachments of the administration upon

with the Rangoon river is a small rock, dangerous to large the indisputable rights” of Virginia, he was in 1799 vessels

. The only lake of any importance is the kandaugyi elected as a democrat to Congress, where he sat, with the

or Royal Lake within the Dalhousie Park. The chief exception of two terms, till 1825. After the election of products of the district are grains and pulses (principally Jefferson as president in 1801 Randolph was elected chair- rice), cotton, timber, and cutch (catechu) and gambier. man of the committee of ways and means.

He took an Rangoon comprises an area of 22 square miles, with a active part in agitating for the reform of the judiciary, and population in 1881 of 134,176 (males 91,501, females

42,672); Hindus numbered 35,871, Mohammedans 21,169, | All of these are in the British Museum.

Christians 9711, and Buddhists 67,131.

The Rangoon

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The town was first built in 1753 by Aloung-bhoora, the founder was born at Edinburgh in 1820, and completed his educa-
of the Burmese monarchy. On the outbreak of the first Burmese tion in its university. He was trained as an engineer under
War, in 1824, it was taken by the British, but subsequently restored Sir J. Macneill, working chiefly on surveys, harbours, and
to the native power. It was captured a second time in 1852 and
passed along with the province of Pegu into the hands of the railroads, and was appointed in 1855 to the chair of civil
British. The town was destroyed by fire in 1850, and serious engineering in Glasgow, vacant by the resignation of
conflagrations occurred again in 1853 and 1855. Since the last Lewis Gordon, whose work he had undertaken during the
devastation Rangoon has undergone considerable improvements; previous session.
among the latest may be mentioned the construction of steam
tramways in the principal thoroughfares and the establishment

He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly conof a volunteer fire brigade.

nected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost RANGPUR, a district of British India, in the lieu- weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, tenant-governorship of Bengal, lying between 25° 3' and brought out a series of standard text-books on Civil 26° 19' N. lat. and 88° 47' and '89° 56' E. long., is bounded Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, on the N. by Jalpaiguri district and Kuch Behar state, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics. These on the E. by the Brahmaputra, separating it from Goalpará have passed through many editions, have done more for and Maimansinh, on the S. by Bogra, and on the W. by the advancement of their subjects than any works of Dinájpur and Jalpaiguri. The district is one vast plain; modern date, and are still in the very highest rank of the greater part of it, particularly towards the east, is in- educational works. To these must be added his elaborate undated during the rains, and the remainder is traversed treatise on Shipbuilding, Theoretical and Practical. This, by a network of streams which frequently break through however, corresponded to but one phase of Rankine's their sandy banks and plough for themselves new channels immense energy and many-sided character. He was an over the fields.

Agricultural industry has taken full enthusiastic and most useful leader of the volunteer moveadvantage of the natural fertility of the soil, which is ment from its commencement, and a writer, composer, and composed of a sandy loam. The river system is constituted singer of humorous and patriotic songs, some of which, as by the Brahmaputra and its tributaries, chief of which are “The Three Foot Rule” and “They never shall have the Tista, Dharla, Sankos, and Dudhkumar. There are Gibraltar," became well known far beyond the circle of no embankments or artificial canals in the district, nor his acquaintance. Rankine was the earliest of the three does the alluvial soil produce any minerals. The climate founders of the modern science of THERMODYNAMICS (q.v.)on of Rangpur is generally malarious owing to the numerous the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and Joule respectively, and stagnant swamps and marshes filled with decaying vege- the author of the first formal treatise on the subject. His table matter. The

average annual rainfall is 86'14 inches. contributions to the theories of Elasticity and of Waves rank The Northern Bengal State Railway cuts through the high among modern developments of mathematical physics, western half of the district from north to south, with a although they are mere units among the 150 scientific branch to Rangpur town.

papers attached to his name in the Royal Society's CataIn 1881 the population was 2,097,964 (males 1,067,701, females logue. The more important of these have been collected 1,030, 263); Hindus numbered 816,532, Mohammedans 1,279, 605, and reprinted in a handsome volume (Rankine's Scientific and Christians 86. The population is for the most part rural; the Papers, London, 1881), which contains a memoir of the only towns containing upwards of 10,000 inhabitants are RANGPUR; author, written by Professor Tait. Rankine died in 1872. the capital (q.v.), Barakhatta (11,393), Bhogdabari (10,892), and Dimlah (10,503). The district contains an area of 3486 square RANPUR, a native state of India, in the province of miles, about three-fourths being under continuous cultivation. The Orissa in the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal

, situated staple crops are rice, wheat, and other grains, oil-seeds, and jute ;

on the western boundary of the British district of Puri, among the miscellaneous crops are indigo, sugar-cane, betel- leaf, betel-nut, and mulberry for silkworms. Spare land capable of

in about 20° N. lat. and 85° 20' E. long. The southcultivation can hardly be said to exist,—even the patches of waste west part of the state is a region of hills, forest clad, and land yield a valuable tribute of reeds and cane. Of industries the almost entirely uninhabited, which wall in its whole western chief is the manufacture of paper from jute fibre ; other products side, except at a single point, where a pass leads into the worm fed on the castor-oil plant, baskets and mats, brass-ware, adjoining state of Nayagarh.' Its population in 1881 was and ornaments carved in ivory and buffalo horn. In 1883-84 the 36,539 (18,382 males, 18,157 females). The only town gross revenue of Rangpur district was £165,165, of which the land is the rájá’s place of residence, which consists of one long tax contributed £102, 248.

and wide street. The tract comprised within the district of Rangpur was formerly the western outpost of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kamup; the species of this genus form the type of the order

RANUNCULUS. Familiarly known as “buttercups," The realm appears to have attained its greatest power and prosperity under Rájá Nilambhar, who was treacherously overthrown by Husain | Ranunculacea. The plants are herbs, sometimes with fleshy Sháh, king of Bengal, at the close of the 15th century. On the root-fibres, or with the base of the stem dilated into a kind conquest of the kingdom of Bengal about 1542 by the renowned Afghan Sher Shah, subsequently emperor of Delhi, Rangpur

of tuber (R. bulbosus). They have tufted or alternate appears to have become incorporated with the empire. During leaves, dilated into a sheath at the base and very generally, the turbulent period which followed the death of Sher Shah it, but not universally, deeply divided above. The lowers are threw off allegiance to Delhi, but the country was re-annexed by solitary, or in loose cymes, and are remarkable for the numAkbar in 1584, though it was not completely subjugated till the ber and distinctness (freedom from union) of their parts. time of Aurangzeb, about 1661. India Company in 1765 under the firman of the emperor Shih Thus there are five sepals, as many petals arranged in Alam. Numerous changes have since taken place in the jurisdiction, whorls, numerous stamens, and numerous carpels arranged in consequence of which the district area has been much eliminished. in spires. The petals have a little pit or gland at the

RANGPUR, principal town and administrative head-base, which is interesting as foreshadowing the more fully quarters of the above district, is situated on the north bank developed tubular petals of the nearly allied genera Aconiof the Ghaghat river in 25° 44' N. lat. and 89° 17' E. tum and Helleborus. The presence of all the floral organs long., and contains a population (1881) of 13,320. in a free condition induced A. P. de Candolle to place

RANJIT SINGH (RUNJEET SINGH). See PUNJAB, Ranunculus at the head of the vegetable kingdom, but at above, p. 111.

the present time the reverse opinion holds good, and RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN (1820-1872), Ranunculus with its numerous separate parts is supposed a descendant of old Scottish families, the Rankines of to occupy a lower status than a flower in which a greater Carrick and the Cochranes of Dundonald by the father's amount of consolidation and differentiation takes place. side, and the Grahames of Dougalston by the mother's, The genus is large as to number of species, which occur in

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most temperate countries in the northern and southern RAPANUI, or EASTER ISLAND (Paascheylandt, Osterhemispheres, and, while they extend into arctic and ant- insel, Île de Paques, &c.), the Waihu or TeAPI of Cook, arctic regions, they show little or no tendency to inhabit an island in the eastern part of the South Pacific, lying in tropical countries except on the higher mountains. Several 27° 8' S. lat. and 109° 25' W. long., 1000 miles east of are natives of Great Britain, occurring in pastures, while Pitcairn. It is rudely triangular in shape, with its hypothe water-buttercups, denizens of pools and streams, vary tenuse 12 miles long running north-east and south-west, greatly in the character of the foliage according as it is and its three angles marked by three volcanic peaks. The submersed, floating, or aerial, and when submersed varying coasts have no natural harbours of any importance, and in accordance with the depth and strength of the current. landing is difficult. There is no lack of fertile soil, and the The ranunculus of the florist is a cultivated form of R. climate is moist enough to make up for the absence of asiaticus, remarkable for the range of colour of the flowers running water. At one time the island would appear to (yellow to purplish black) and for the regularity with have been wooded, but it now presents only a few bushes which the stamens and pistils are replaced by petals. The (Edwardsia, Broussonetia, &c.), ferns, grasses, sedges, &c. common or lesser celandine is the R. Ficaria of the The natives keep a few goats and a large stock of domestic botanist, remarkable for its tuberous root-fibres. The fowls, and the French house which now owns a large part species are all more or less acrid.

of the island feeds about 10,000 sheep. RAOUL ROCHETTE, DÉSIRÉ (1783-1854), French It is doubtful whether Rapanui (i.e., Great Rapa) was discovered archæologist

, was born in 1783 at St Amand in the depart- by Davis in 1686, though it is sometimes marked Davis Island on ment of Cher, and received his education at Bourges. In

our maps.

Admiral Roggeveen reached it on 6th April 1722 ; in 1813 he was called to the chair of history in the Collége by La Perouse (1776), Kotzebue (1816), Beasby (1826), &c. At the

1744 Captain Cook discovered it anew, and it has since been visited de Louis-le-Grand at Paris. About four years afterwards time of Roggeveen's discovery the island probably contained from he was translated to the similar chair in the Sorbonne. 1500 to 2000 inhabitants of Polynesian race, who, according to The first result of his labours, published in 1815 under

their own tradition, came from Rapa Iti (Little Rapa) or Oparo,

one of the Tibuai or Austral group. the title of lIistoire Critique de l'Établissement des Colonies

The remarkable colossal statues which give a unique archæoGrecques, in 4 vols. 8vo, was favourably received by the logical interest to Rapanui have been described under POLYNESIA, public. In 1819 he was appointed superintendent of vol. xix. p. 428 ; figures of them will be found in Pinart's valuable antiquities in the Bibliothèque at Paris, an office which paper in the Tour du Monde (1878, No. 927). he held till 1818. To this was added in 1826 the pro- RAPE OIL. This important fatty oil, known also as fessorship of archæology at the Bibliothèque, a result of “sweet oil,” is obtained from seeds of cultivated varieties which may be seen in his excellent Cours d'Archéologie of the cruciferous genus Brassica, the parent form of the (1828). In the following year (1829) appeared his Monu- whole apparently being the wild navew, B. campestris ments Inédits, and if this great work is now less frequently (Lin.), the B. præcox of De Candolle. From the same stock, referred to than in former years it is because the path it is generally assumed, have sprung the Swedish turnip which it indicated has been steadily followed out by others, and the common turnip; but the oil-yielding plants have and with more complete results than was possible in his developed in a special direction and are exclusively cultiday. A still valuable and interesting work is his Peintures vated for the oil they yield. Under the general name Inélites (1836). So also his Peintures de Pompei (1844) “rape oil” is included the produce of several plants having remains a splendid monument of the enterprise with which distinct and fairly constant characters, and one of these oils he sought to render attractive the study of archæology.

-COLZA (9.v.)—is a very well-known commercial variety. He was a frequent contributor to the Annali of the Roman In Germany, where the production of rape oil centres, Institute, the Journal des Savants, and the Académie des three principal oil-seeds—colza (Kohlsaat), rape, and rübsen Inscriptions, and often engaged in disputes with his con- are well recognized. Colza is the produce of the parent temporaries in matters on which time has for the most stock B. campestris and is the form principally cultivated part proved him to have been right. At his death in 1854 in France and Germany. Rape seed, the variety produced Raoul Rochette was perpetual secretary of the Academy by B. campestris

, var. napus, and ribsen seed, yielded of Fine Arts and a corresponding member of most of the by B. campestris, var. rapa, are extensively cultivated in learned societies in Europe.

the valley of the Danube and eastwards through Persia R.AOUT, JEAN, French painter, was born at Montpellier into India. These plants are principally distinguished in 1677 and died at Paris in 1734. After the usual course

from each other by the colour of their radicle leaves and of training he became a member of the Academy in 1717

the form of inflorescence, but also by the size and appearas an historical painter. His reputation had been previ- ance of the small ovoid seeds. The seed of the colza is ously established by the credit of decorations executed ruddy brown, rape is blue-black, and rübsen is almost black during his three years in Italy on the palace of Giustiniani in colour. It has been found that 1000 seeds of colza Şolini at Venice, and by some casel paintings, the Four weigh 29:3 grains, the same number of rübsen weighing Ages of Man (National Gallery), commissioned by the 31.5 grains and of rape 71:75 grains. Each of these granul prior of Vendôme. To this latter class of subject plants has summer and winter, or annual and biennial, Raous devoted himself, nor did he even paint portraits varieties; and as there are numerous intermediate forms ercept in character. The list of his works is a long series in cultivation the varieties merge into each other. of sets of the Seasons, of the Hours, of the Elements,

The oil yielded by these seeds is, in physical and chemior of those scenes of amusement and gallantry in the cal properties, practically the same, the range of fluctuarepresentation of which he was immeasurably surpassed tions not being greater than would be found in the oil of by his younger rival Watteau. After his stay in England any specific seed under similar varying conditions of pro(1720) he lived much in the Temple, where he decorated duction. Colza seed is, in general, the richest in oil, and

His best pupils were Chevalier and Mont- the winter varieties of all the seeds are more productive didier. His works, of which there is a poor specimen in

than the summer rarieties. In summer rape and rübsen the Louvre, were much engraved by Poilly; Voyreau, the proportion of oil arerages from 30 to 35 per cent., the Dupuis, dc.

winter seeds have from 35 to 10, and winter colza contains See Mariette, Abecedario Arch, de l'Art Français ; Dussieur, Lís

from 40 to 45 per cent. Newly pressed rape oil has a Artistes Français a l Etranger; Soulie, Musée de Versailles; De dark sherry colour with, at first, scarcely any perceptible Chennevières, Peintres prorinciaux,

smell; but after resting a short time the oil deposits an

sereral rooms.

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