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abundant mucilaginous slime, and by taking up oxygen it | residence of Urbino, built by Federigo II., even now one acquires a peculiar disagreeable odour and an acrid taste. of the most magnificent palaces in Italy, was lavishly Refined by the ordinary processes (see Oils, vol. xvii. p. adorned with works of art of every class—frescos, panel743), the oil assumes a clear golden yellow colour. In pictures, tapestries, tarsia-work, stucco-reliefs, and sculpspecific gravity it ranges between 0.9112 and 0.9117 in ture—executed for the duke by some of the chief Italian the raw state, and from 0.9127 to 0.9136 when refined; artists of his time, and contained a collection of oil-paintings the solidifying point is from -2° to -10° C. Rape oil by the Van Eycks and other celebrated Flemish painters. consists of a mixture of three simple fats or glycerides of Giovanni Santi was a welcome guest at this miniature but fatty acids—the glyceride of oleic acid (olein), of stearic acid splendid court, and the rich treasures which the palace (stearin), and of brassic acid, the latter being a fat found contained, familiar to Raphael from his earliest years, hitherto only in oils from the Cruciferæ and from grape were a very important item among the various influences seeds. The olein of rape oil differs from ordinary olein which formed and fostered his early love for art. It may in not yielding sebacylic acid on destructive distillation. not perhaps be purely fanciful to trace Raphael's boyish

The principal uses of rape oil are for lubrication and lighting; admiration of the oil-paintings of Jan Van Eyck and Justus but since the introduction of mineral oils for both these purposes of Ghent in the miniature-like care and delicacy with employed in soap-making, as it sapovišes with difficulty and yields which some of his earliest works, such as the Knight's only an indifferent product. In Germany it is very considerably Dream, were executed. used as a salad oil under the name of Schmalzöl, being for that Though Raphael lost his father at the age of eleven, purpose freed from its biting taste by being mixed with starch, yet to him he certainly owed a great part of that early heated till the starch is carbonized, and filtered after the vil has training which enabled him to produce paintings of appatreatment with a small proportion of sweet spirit of nitre (nitrous rently mature beauty when he was scarcely twenty years of ether). In the East Indies rape oil and its equivalents, known age. From his father, too, Raphael learned much of the under various names, are the most important of oils for native use. religious sentiment and grace of inotive which are specially They are largely consumed as food instead of ghi under the name of "metah or sweet oil, but for all other purposes

the same sub conspicuous in his earlier paintings. The altar-piece stance is known as “kuwah" or bitter oil. Most natives prefer it

painted by Giovanni for the church of Gradara, and a for the preparation of their curries and other hot dishes. Rape oil fresco, now preserved in the Santi house 3 at Urbino, are is the subject of extensive adulteration, principally with the cheaper clearly prototypes of some of Raphael's most graceful most conveniently detected, first by taste and next by saponifica paintings of the Madonna and Child. On the death of his tion, rosin oil and mineral oil remaining unsaponified, hemp oil father in 1494 young Raphael was left in the care of his giving a greenish soap, while rape oil yields a soap with a yellow stepmother (his own mother, Magia Ciarla, having died tinge. With concentrated sulphuric acid, fuming nitric acid, in 1491) and of his uncle, a priest called Bartolomeo. nitrous acid, and other reagents rape oil gives also characteristic coloratious; but these are modified according to the degree of

First or Perugian Period.-In what year Raphael was purity of the oil itself. The presence of sulphur in rape and other apprenticed to Perugino and how the interval before that cruciferous oils also aftords a ready means for their identification. was spent are matters of doubt. Vasari's statement that Lead plaster (emplastrum lithargyri) boiled in rape oil dissolves, he was sent to Perugia during his father's lifetime is cérand, sulphide of lead being formed, the oil becomes brown or black. tainly a mistake. On the whole it appears most probable Other lead compounds give the same black coloration from the formation of sulphide.

that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of RAPHAEL (58an, “God heals ") first appears in litera-1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino ture in the book of Tobit, where in human disguise and

was mostly absent from his native city.5 As was the case under the name of Azarias (“God helps") he accompanies with every one with whom Raphael came in contact

, the Tobias in his adventurous journey and conquers the demon Perugian master was fascinated by the charm of his manner Asinodaus. He is said to be one of the seven angels and delighted by his precocious ability, and seems to have [archangels] who present the prayers of the saints and devoted special pains to his artistic education. The so-called enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One." In Sketch Book of Raphael in the academy of Venice contains the book of Enoch Raphael is the angel of the spirits of studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's man, and it is his business to gather the souls of the dead Sistine frescos, possibly done as practice in drawing. in the place where they are reserved till the day of judg- preserved in portfolios, bears signs of having once formed a bound

This celebrated collection of thirty drawings, now framed or ment, a conception which seems to imply a derivation book, and has been supposed to be a sketch-book filled by Raphael from D'857, “ ghosts.” In later Midrash Raphael appears during his Perugian apprenticeship. Many points, however, make as the angel commissioned to put down the evil spirits that this tempting hypothesis very improbable; the fact that the drawvexed the sons of Noah with plagues and sicknesses after ings were not all originally on leaves of the same size, and the the flood, and he it was who taught men the use of simples style and merit of execution-seem to show that it is a collection and furnished materials for the “Book of Noah,” the of studies by different hands, made and bound together by some earliest treatise on materia medica (Rönsch, Buch der subsequent owner, and may contain but very few drawings by Jubiläen, p. 385 sq.).

Raphael himself.6 RAPHAEL (1483-1520). RAPHAEL Sanzio was the son

Before long Raphael appears to have been admitted to

take a share in the execution of paintings by his master ; of Giovanni Santi, a painter of some repute in the ducal city of Urbino, situated among the Apennines on the 3 The house of Giovanni Santi, where Raphael was born, still exists borders of Tuscany and Umbria. For many years both municipality, is now safe from destruction.

at Urbino in the Contrada del Monte, and, being the property of the before and after the birth of Raphael the city of Urbino was

4 The administration of Giovanni Santi's will occasioned many one of the chief centres in Italy of intellectual and artistic painful family disputes and even appeals to law; see Pungileoni, El. activity, thanks to its highly cultured rulers, Duke Federigo Stor. di Raffaello.

5 Crowe and Cavalcaselle (Life of Raphael, vol. i., London, 1882) II. of Montefeltro and his son Guidobaldo, who succeeded

adopt the notion that Raphael went to Perugia in 1495, but the reasons him in 1482,2 the year before Raphael was born. The ducal

with which they support this view appear insufficient.

6 See an excellent critical examination of the Sketch Book by 1 See Pungileoni, Elogio Storico di Rafaello, Urbino, 1829; for Morelli, Italian Masters in German Galleries, translated by Mrs a valuable account of Raphael's family and his early life, see also Id., Richter, London, 1882 ; according to this able critic, only two draw. Vita di Giov. Santi, Urbino, 1822, and Campori, Notizie e Documenti ings are by Raphael. See also Schmarsow, "Raphael's Skizzenbuch per la Vita di Giov. Santi e di Raffaello, Modena, 1870.

in Venedig,” in Preussische Jahrbücher, xlviii. pp. 122-149, Berlin, 2 See an interesting account of the court of Urbino by Delaborde, 1881, who takes the opposite view. Kahl, Das venezianische Skizzen. Études sur les B. Arts. en Italie, Paris, 1864, vol. i. p. 145. buch, Leipsic, 1882, follows Morelli's opinion.

and his touch can with more or less certainty be traced in to the gonfaloniere Pier Soderini. In Florence Raphael some of Perugino's panels which were executed about 1502. was kindly received, and, in spite of his youth (being Many of those who, like Messrs Crowe and Cavalcaselle, barely of age), was welcomed as an equal by the majority adopt the earlier date of Raphael's apprenticeship believe of those great artists who at that time had raised Florence that his hand is visible in the execution of the beautiful to a pitch of artistic celebrity far above all other cities of series of frescos by Perugino in the Sala del Cambio, dated the world. At the time of his arrival the whole of artistic 1500; as does also M. Müntz in his excellent Raphaël, Italy was being excited to enthusiasm by the cartoons of sa Vie, Paris, 1881, in spite of his accepting the end of the battle of Anghiari and the war with Pisa, on which 1499 as the period of Raphael's first entering Perugino's Da Vinci and Michelangelo were then devoting their studio, -two statements almost impossible to reconcile. utmost energies (see LEONARDO and MICHELANGELO). To Considering that Raphael was barely seventeen when these describe the various influences under which Raphael came frescos were painted, it is hardly reasonable to attribute and the many sources from which he drank in stores of the finest heads to his hand; nor did he at an early age artistic knowledge would be to give a complete history master the difficulties of fresco buono. The Resurrection of Florentine art in the 15th century. With astonishing of Christ in the Vatican and the Diotalevi Madonna in the rapidity he shook off the mannerisms of Perugino, and Berlin Museum are the principal pictures by Perugino in put one great artist after another under contribution for parts of which the touch of Raphael appears to be visible, some special power of drawing, beauty of colour, or grace though any real certainty on this point is unattainable.1 of composition in which each happened to excel. Nor was

About 1502 Raphael began to execute independent it from painters only that Raphael acquired his enlarged works; four pictures for churches at Città di Castello field of knowledge and rapidly growing powers. Sculptors were probably the earliest of these, and appear to have like Ghiberti and Donatello must be numbered among been painted in the years 1502-4. The first is a guild- those whose works helped to develop his new-born style.5 banner painted on one side with the Trinity, and below, The Carmine frescos of Masaccio and Masolino taught kneeling figures of S. Sebastian and S. Rocco; on the this eager student long-remembered lessons of methods reverse is a Creation of Eve, very like Perugino in style, but of dramatic expression. Among his contemporaries it possessing more grace and breadth of treatment. These was especially Signorelli and Michelangelo who taught are still in the church of S. Trinità. Also for Città di him the importance of precision of line and the necessity Castello were the coronation of S. Niccolo Tolentino, now of a thorough knowledge of the human form.7 From Da destroyed, though studies for it exist at Oxford and Lille Vinci he learned subtleties of modelling and soft beauty (Gaz. d. B. Arts, 1878, i. p. 48), and the Crucifixion, now of expression, from Fra Bartolomeo nobility of composiin the Dudley collection, painted for the church of S. tion and skilful treatment of drapery in dignified folds.9 Domenico, and signed RAPHAEL VRBINAS P. It is a The friendship between Raphael and the last of these panel 8 feet 6 inches high by 5 feet 5 inches wide, and was very close and lasted for many years. The architect contains noble figures of the Virgin, St John, St Jerome, Baccio d'Agnolo was another of his special friends, at and St Mary Magdalene. The fourth painting executed whose house the young painter enjoyed social intercourse for this town, for the church of S. Francesco, is the with a large circle of the chief artists of Florence, and exquisitely beautiful and highly finished Sposalizio, now probably learned from him much that was afterwards usein the Brera at Milan, signed and dated RAPHAEL ful in his practice as an architect. VRBINAS MDIIII. This is closely copied both in com- The transition in Raphael's style from his first or position and detail from Perugino's painting of the same Perugian to his second or Florentine manner is well shown subject now at Caen, but is far superior to it in sweetness in the large picture of the Coronation of the Virgin painted of expression and grace of attitude. The Temple of for Maddalena degli Oddi, now in the Vatican, one of the Jerusalem, a domed octagon with outer ambulatory in most beautiful that he ever produced, and especially rePerugino's picture, is reproduced with slight alterations markable for its strong religious sentiment,-in this respect by Raphael, and the attitudes and grouping of the figures a great contrast to the paintings of his last or Roman are almost exactly the same in both. The Connestabile manner which hang near it. The exquisite grace of the Madonna is one of Raphael's finest works, painted during angel musicians and the beauty of the faces show signs his Perugian period; it is a round panel; the motive, the of his short visit to Florence, while the general formality Virgin reading a book of hours, is a favourite one with of the composition and certain details, such as the flutterhim, as it was with his father Giovanni. This lovely ing ribbands of the angels, recall peculiarities of Perugino picture was lost to Perugia in 1871, when Count Connes and of Pinturicchio, with whose fine picture of the same tabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200. subject hung close by it is interesting to compare it.

Second or Florentine Period, 1501-1508.–From 1504 to | Raphael's painting, though by far the more beautiful of 1508 Raphael's life was very stirring and active. In the the two, is yet inferior to that of Pinturicchio in the first half of 150 t he visited Urbino, where he painted two composition of the whole; an awkward horizontal line small panels for Duke Guidobaldo, the St George and the divides the upper group of the Coronation from that below, St Michael of the Louvre. His first and for him mo- the apostles standing round the Virgin's tomb, filled with mientous visit to Florence was made towards the end of roses and lilies (Dante, Par., xxiii. 73), while the older 1504, when he presented himself with a warm letter of Perugian has skilfully united the two groups by a less recommendation from his patroness Joanna della Rovere formal arrangement of the figures. The predella of this

Parts of Perugino's beautiful triptych of the Madonna, with the masterpiece of Raphael is also in the Vatican ; some of archangels Raphael and Michael, pointed for the Certosa near Pavia and now in the National Gallery of London, have been attributed to

+ See Minghetti, “I Maestri di Raffaello," in the Vuora Antologia, Raphael, but with little reason. Perugino's grand altar-piece at 1st August 1891. Florence of the Assumption of the Virgin shows that he was quite

See his sketch of St George and the Dragon in the Uffizi, largely capable of painting figures equal in beauty and delicacy to the St taken from Donatello's pedestal relief outside Or San Michele. Michael of the Certosa triptych. See Frizioni, L'Arte Italiana nella 6 See his cartoon of St Paul preaching at Athens (South Kensington Gal Val di Londra, Florence, 1880.

Museum). * For an account of processional banners painted by distinguished

See many of his life-studies, especially the one he sent to Albert artists, see Mariotti, Lettere pittoriche Perugine, p.76 7.

Diirer, now at Vienna. This letter, which still exists, was sold in Paris in 1856, and is 8 See the portrait of Maddalena Doni in the Pitti. now in private hands

9 See the Madonna del Baldacchino in the Pitti.

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its small paintings, especially that of the Annunciation | death) by his old master Perugino. It was probab to the Virgin, are interesting as showing his careful study earlier than this that Raphael visited Siena and assist of the rules of per

Pinturicchio with sketches for his Piccolomini fresco spective. 1 Several

The Madonna of S. Antonio was also finished in 150 preparatory sketches

but was probably begun before the Florentine visit. for this picture exist:

record of his visit to Siena exists in a sketch of t fig. 1 shows a study,

antique marble group of the Three Graces, then in t now at Lille, for the

cathedral library, from which, not long afterwards, two principal figures,

painted the small panel of the same subject now in Lo Christ setting the

Dudley's collection, crown on His mother's

In 1506 Raphael was again in Urbino, where he paint head (see fig. 2). It

for the duke another picture of St George, which was se is drawn from two

to England as a present to Henry VII. The bearer of t youths in the ordi

and other gifts was Guidobaldo's ambassador, the acco nary dress of the

plished Baldassare CASTIGLIONE (q.v.), a friend of Raphae time; and it is in

whose noble portrait of him is in the Louvre. At teresting to compare

court of Duke Guidobaldo the painter's ideas appear it with his later

have been led into a more secular direction, and to t studies from

stay in Urbino probably belong the Dudley Graces, FIG. 1. — Silver-point study for the main nude, many of which figures in the Coronation of the Virgin

miniature Knight's Dream of Duty and Pleasure in are for figures which (Vatican). In the Lille museum. Illus- National Gallery (London),5 and also the Apollo in the future picture trating Raphael's use of draped models Marsyas, sold in 1882 by Mr Morris Moore to the Lou were to be draped, during his early period.

for £10,000, a most lovely little panel, painted i made at a time when his developed style required a more almost Flemish minuteness, rich in colour, and gracefu careful rendering of the human form than was necessary arrangement.6 for the simpler and more religious manner of Perugia. Towards the end of 1506 Raphael returned to Flore It was at Florence, as Vasari says, that Raphael began and there (before 1508) produced a large number of

finest works, carefully finished, and for the most wholly the work of his own hand. Several of these signed and dated, but the date is frequently very doub owing to his custom of using Roman numerals, introd among the sham Arabic embroidered on the border dresses, so that the I's after the V are not always tinguishable from the straight lines of the ornament. following is a list of some of his chief paintings of period :—the Madonna del Gran Duca (Pitti); Madonn Giardino, 1506 (Vienna); Holy Family with the L 1506 or 1507 (Madrid); the Ansidei Madonna, 150 1507 (National Gallery); the Borghese Entombment, 1 Lord Cowper's Madonna at Panshanger, 1508; La Giardiniera, 1508 (Louvre); the Eszterhazy Madonna, ably the same year; as well as the Madonna del Carde (Uffizi), the Tempi Madonna (Munich), the Co Madonna (Berlin), the Bridgewater Madonna (Bridge House), and the Orleans Madonna (Duc d'Aumale? lection). The Ansidei Madonna was bought in 188 the National Gallery from the duke of Marlboroug £70,000, more than three times the highest price before given for a picture. It was painted for the A

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? The fresco of the Last Supper, dated 1505, in the refector Onofrio at Florence is not now claimed as a work of Raphael's, of a signature partly introduced by the restorer.

3 Raphael probably had no land in the actual execution paintings; see Schmarsow, Raphael und Pinturicchio in Siena gart, 1880, and Milanesi, in his edition of Vasari, iii. p. 5

appendix to life of Pinturicchio. FIG. 2.—The group for which fig. 1 is a study.

This fine altar-piece, with many large figures, is now the p serious life studies, not only from nude models but also

of the heirs of the duke of Ripalta, and is stored in the bases

the National Gallery, London. by making careful anatomical drawings from dissected 5 This missal-like painting is about 7 inches square ; it was corpses and from skeletons.

in 1847 for 1000 guinens. The National Gallery also posse His first visit to Florence lasted only a few months; in cartoon, in brown ink, pricked for transference. 1505 he was again in Perugia painting his first fresco,

6 In spite of some adverse opinions, frequently expressed :

treme virulence, the genuineness of this little gem can ha the Trinity and Saints for the Camaldoli monks of San

doubted by any one who carefully studies it without bins. Severo, now a mere wreck from injury and restorations. for it at Venice and in the Ullizi also appear to bear the im The date MDV and the signature were added later, prob

Raphael's manner. See Delaborde, Études sur les B. Arts ably in 1521. Part of this work was left incomplete by the

Italie, i. p. 236; Gruyer, Raphaël et l'Antiquité, ii, p. 421 ; Eite

Rafael's Apollo und Marsyas, Vienna, 1860; Batté, Le Rapha painter, and the fresco was finished in 1521 (after his Noore, Paris, 1859 ; and also various pamphlets on it by its

owner, Mr Morris Moore. 1 While at Florence he is said to have taught the science of per- ? It is engraved at p. 53, vol. ii., of Dohme, Kunst und Kür spective to his friend Fra Bartolomeo, who certainly gave his young Mittelalters, Leipsic, 1878, a work which has many good repro instructor valuable lessons on composition in return,

of Raphael's paintings and sketches,

family of Perugia as an altar-piece in the church of S. youth with turned-up nose, not bearing the remotest Fiorenzo, and is a work of the highest beauty in colour, resemblance to Raphael, except the long hair and black well preserved, and very large in scale. The Virgin cap common to nearly all the portraits of this time. A with veiled head is seated on a throne, supporting the fine but much-restored portrait of Raphael by himself, Infant with one hand and holding a book in the other. painted at Florence, exists in the Uffizi; it represents him Below stands S. Niccolo da Tolentino, for whose altar it at a very early age, and was probably painted during the was painted; he holds a book and a crozier, and is clad early part of his stay in Florence. in jewelled mitre and green cope, under which appear the Third or Roman Period, 1508-20.—In 1508 Raphael alb and cassock. On the other side is the Baptist, in red was painting several important pictures in Florence; in mantle and camel's-hair tunic, holding a crystal cross. The September of that year we find him settled in Rome, from rich jewellery in this picture is painted with Flemish- a letter addressed in the warmest terms of affectionate like minuteness. On the border of the Virgin's robe is a admiration to Francia, to whom he sent a sketch for his date, formerly read as MDV by Passavant and others; it | Adoration of the Shepherds, and promised to send his own really is MDVI or MDVII. If the later date is the true portrait in return for that which Francia had given him.4 one, the picture was probably begun a year or two before. Raphael was invited to Rome by his fellow-citizen (not A favourite method of grouping his Holy Families is that relation, as Vasari says) Bramante, who was then occupied seen in the Madonna del Cardellino and the Bella Giar- in the erection of the new church of St Peter's, the foundadiniera, in which the main lines form a pyramid. This tion-stone of which had been laid by Julius II. on 18th arrangement is also used in the Madonna del Giardino and April 1506. At this time the love of the popes for art in the larger group, including St Joseph and St Elizabeth, had already attracted to Rome a number of the chief artists known as the Canigiani Holy Family, now at Munich, of Tuscany, Umbria, and North Italy, among whom were one of the least graceful of all Raphael's compositions. Michelangelo, Signorelli, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Lorenzo The Entombment of Christ, now in the Palazzo Borghese Lotto, Peruzzi, Sodoma, and many others, and it was in Rome, was painted during a visit to Perugia in 1507 for among this brilliant assembly that Raphael, almost at Lady Atalanta Baglioni, in memory of the death of her once, took a leading position. Thanks to Bramante's brave and handsome but treacherous son Grifonetto, who friendly intervention, Julius II. (Della Rovere) soon became was killed in 1500 by his enemies the Oddi party. The Raphael's most zealous patron and friend, as did also the many studies and preliminary sketches ? for this import- rich bankers Agostino Chigi (the Rothschild of his time) ant picture which exist in various collections show that and Bindo Altoviti, whose portrait, at the age of twenty, it cost Raphael an unusual amount of thought and labour now at Munich, is one of the most beautiful that Raphael in its composition, and yet it is quite one of his least suc- ever produced. cessful paintings, especially in colour. It is, however, A series of rooms in the Vatican, over the Appartamenti much injured by scraping and repainting, and appears not Borgia, were already decorated with frescos by Bonfigli, to be wholly by his hand. The Madonna del Baldacchino, Perugino, Piero della Francesca, Andrea del Castagno, one of the finest compositions of the Florentine period, Signorelli, and Sodoma ; but so rapidly had the taste of owing much to Fra Bartolomeo, is also unsatisfactory in the time changed that Julius II. decided to sweep them execution ; being left unfinished by Raphael, it was completed by Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, by whom the ungraceful angels of the upper part and the canopy were wholly executed, and even designed. It was painted for the Dei family as an altar-piece for their chapel in S. Spirito, Florence. The St Catherine of the National Gallery was probably painted in 1507; its cartoon, pricked for transference, is in the Louvre. In colouring it much resembles parts of the Borghese Entombment, being quiet and grey in tone. To the Florentine period belong some of his finest portraits, and it is especially in these that Da Vinci's influence appears. The portraits of Angelo Doni and his wife Fig. 3.- Plan showing position of Raphael's frescos in the stanze. Maddalena (Pitti) are vivid and carefully executed paint | 3, Justinian giving his code to Trebonian ;' 4, Gregory IX. giving decretals to

A. Stanza della Segnatura (1509-11): 1, Disputa ; 2, School of Athens; ings, and the unknown lady with hard features (now in jurist : 5 (over the window), Three Virtues ; 6 (over the other window), Apollo

and a group of poets on Mount Parnassus; vault with medallions of Poetry, the Uflizi) is a masterpiece of noble realism and conscien- Theology, Science, and Justice, and other paintings. B. Stanza d'Eliodoro tious finish. The Czartoriski portrait, a graceful effemi

(1511-14): 7, Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple ; 8, Mass of Bolsena;

, St Peter freed from prison ; 10, Attila repulsed by Leo I. ; vault with scenes nate-looking youth with long hair and tapering lands, from 011 Testament, by pupils. C. Stanza dell'Incendio (1517), nearly all now moved to Cracow, is probably a work of this period ;

painted by pupils : 11, Burning of the Borgo; 12, Victory of Leo IV. over the

Saracens at Ostia : 13, Coronation of Charlemagne by Leo II. in St Peter's : though worthy to rank with Raphael's finest portraits, its

14, Oath of Leo III. before Charlemagne. D. Sala di Costantino, painted by

pupils (1520-21): 15 and 16, oil-paintings of Comitas and Justitia attributed authenticity has been doubted. Very similar in style is to Raphael; 17, 17, great fresco of the Defeat of Maxentius, the Herrenhausen portrait, once attributed to Giovanni

Raphael's loggia, by his pupils. F. Chapel of Nicholas V., painted by Fra

Angelico. G, Cortile of Bramante. Bellini, but an undoubted work of Raphael, in his second all away and re-cover the walls with paintings in the more manner; it also represents a young man with lon close slaven chin, a wide cloth hat and black dress, painted developed but less truly decorative style of Raphael

. It in half length. The so-called Portrait of Raphael by him

was not without regret that Raphael saw the destruction

of this noble series of frescos. One vault, that of the self at Hampton Court is a very beautiful work, glowing with light and colour, which may possibly be a genuine

3 To judge of the authorship of a portrait from internal evidence is picture of about 1506. It represents a pleasant-looking person represented obscures that of the painter.

especially difficult, as in so many cases the strong individuality of the

4 Malvasia, Felsina pittrice, Bologna, 1678, was the first to publish See Symonds, Sketches in Italy, the chapter on Perugia, mainly this letter; see also Muntz, Raphnel, sa l'ie, &c., p. 315, Paris, 1881. taken from the conteniporary chronicle of Matarazzo.

Minghetti (Vuora Antologia, 1883) throws doubt on the date of this * These show that Raphael at first intended to paint a Deposition letter. from the Cross, and afterwards altered his scheme into the Entomb- 3 Müntz, " Michel-Ange et Raphaël à la cour de Rome," Gaz des ment; an excess of study and elaboration partly account for the B. Arts, March and April 1892, and Les arts à la cour des Papes, roh. shortcomings of this picture.

iii., Paris, 1881.













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E E. Part of

Stanza dell' Incendio, painted by his master Perugino, he is Earthly Knowledge, represented by an assembly of those great saved from obliteration; it still exists, well preserved, a philosophers, poets, and men of science of ancient Greece who were most skilful piece of decorative work; and he also set his

admitted by the church to have been not wholly without inspira

tion from Heaven, and by their labours to have prepared the way pupils to copy a number of portrait-heads in the frescos

for the clearer light of Christianity. The central figures are Plat of Piero della Francesca before they were destroyed.? and Aristotle, while below and on each side are groups arranger Fig. 3 shows the positions of Raphael's frescos in the stanze,

with the most consummate skill, including the whole "filosofica which, both from their size and method of lighting, are

famiglia” of Dante (Infer., iv. 133-144), and a number of othe

leaders of thought, selected in a way that shows no slight acquaint very unsuited for the reception of these large pictures.

ance with the history of philosophy and science among the ancien The two most important rooms (A and B) are small, and Greeks. In this selection we may fairly suppose that Raphael wa have an awkward cross light from opposite windows.2 aided by Bembo, Ariosto, Castiglione, Bibbiena, or others of th Stanza della Segnatura (papal signature room), painted in 1509-11

crowd of scholars who at this time thronged the papal court (A on fig. 3). The first painting executed by Raphael in the stanze Many interesting portraits are introduced— Bramante as the age was the so-called Disputa, finished in 1509. It is very unlike the Archimedes, stooping over a geometrical diagram; a beautiful faiz later ones in style, showing the commencement of transition from

haired youth on the left is Francesco Maria della Rovere, duke his Florentine to his “Roman manner"; as a decorative work it

Urbino ; and on the extreme right figures of Raphael himself an is very superior to the other frescos; the figures are much smaller Perugino are introduced (see fig. 5, below). The stately buildin in scale, as was suited to the very moderate size of the room, and

in which these groups are arranged is taken with modifications from the whole is arranged mainly on one plane, without those strong

Bramante's first design for St Peter's. effects of perspective which are so unsuited to the decorative treat

Over the window (No. 6 on fig. 3) is a group of poets and musician ment of a wall-surface. In its religious sentiment too it far excels on Mount Parnassus, round a central figure of Apollo; it contain any of the later stanze paintings,

many heads of great beauty and fine portraits of Dante and Petrarc retaining much of the sacred charac

The former, as a theologian, appears also in the Disputa. Ovter of earlier Florentine and Umbrian

the opposite window (No. 5) are graceful figures of the three chi art. As a scheme of decoration it

Virtues, and at one side (No. 4) Gregory IX. (a portrait of Julin appears to have been suggested by

II.) presenting his volume of decretals to a jurist; beside him some of the early apsidal mosaics.

a splendid portrait of Cardinal de' Medici (afterwards Leo X.) b Fig. 4 shows the disposition of its

fore his face was spoiled by getting too stout. This painting show main masses, which seem to indicate

the influence of Melozzo da Forli.? On the other side Justinia the curved recess an apse. Gold

presents his code to Trebonianus (No. 3); this is inferior in ex is largely used, with much richness

cution and appears to have been chiefly painted by pupils. of effect, while the later purely

The next room (B), called La Stanza d'Eliodoro, was painted pictorial frescos have little or none: Fig. 4. - Diagram to show main

1511-14 ;8 it is so called from the fresco (No. 7 in fig. 3) represel The subject of this magnificent paint

ing the expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple (2 Macc. iii.), ing is the hierarchy of the church on

lines of the Disputa, suggest- allusion to the struggles between Louis XII. of France and Juli earth and its glory in heaven. The

ing an apse, with mosaic de

II. The whole spirit of the subjects in this room is less broad a

coration, angels in the upper tier and the nude

tolerant than in the first ; no pagan ideas are admitted, and cherubs who carry the books of the Gospels are among the most

chief motive is the glorification of the pontificate, with insister beautiful figures that Raphael ever painted.

on the temporal power. The main incident of this picture is The painting on the vault of this room is the next in date, and

least successful part of it: the angel visitant ou the horse is wa shows further transition towards the “Roman manner.” In his ing in dignity, and the animal is poorly drawn, as is also the c treatment of the whole Raphael has, with much advantage, been

with the horses of Attila's army in the fresco opposite. The gro partly guided by the painting of Perugino's vault in the next room

of women and children on the left is, however, very beautiful, (C). Though not without faults, it is a very skilful piece of de

the figures of Julius II. and his attendants are most nobly desig coration ; the pictures are ke subordinate to the lines of the

and painted with great vigour. The tall standing figure of M vault, and their small scale adds greatly to the apparent size of the

Antonio Raimondi, as one of the pope's bearers, is a marvellous pi whole. A great part of the ground is gilt, marked with mosaic- of portrait painting, as is also the next figure who bears his na like squares, a common practice with decorative painters,—not on a scroll 10 . PETRO. DE, FOLIARIIS . CREMONI intended to deceive the eye, but simply to give a softer texture to Behind, Giulio Romano is represented as another papal attenda the gilt surface by breaking up, its otherwise monotonous glare. This picture was completed in 1512. Over the window (No. 8 The principal medallions in each cell of this quadripartite vault the scene of the Miracle at Bolsena of 1264, when the real prese are very graceful female figures, representing Theology, Science, was proved to a doubting priest by the appearance of blood-stę Justice, and Poetry. Smaller subjects, some almost miniature-like on the Corporal (see Orvieto). Julius II. is introduced knee in scale, are arranged in the interinediate spaces, and each has behind the altar; and the lower spaces on each side of the wind some special meaning in reference to the medallion it adjoins ; some are filled with two groups, that on the left with women, that of these are painted in warm monochrome to suggest bas-reliefs. the right with officers of the papal guard. The last group is The fine painting of the Flaying of Marsyas is interesting as show- of the most masterly of all throughout the stanze : each fac ing Raphael's study of antique sculpture: the figure of Marsyas careful portrait, is å marvel of expression and power, and is a copy of a Roman statue, of which several replicas exist. The technical skill with which the whole is painted to the ute very beautiful little picture of the Temptation of Ève recalls Albert degree of finish, almost without any tempera touches, is Dürer's treatment of that subject, though only vaguely. Much wonderful. The next fresco in date (No. 10) is that of the Re mutual admiration esisted between Raphael and Dürer: in 1515

sion of Attila from the walls of Rome by Leo I., miraculously a Raphael sent the German artist a most masterly life study of two by the apparitions of St Peter and St Paul; it contains ano nude male figures (now at Vienna); on it is written in Albert allusion to the papal quarrels with France. It was begun in Dürer's beautiful hand the date and a record of its being a gift lifetime of Julius II., but was only half finished at the time of from Raphael. It is executed in red chalk, and was a study for death in 1513 ; thus it happens that the portrait of his succetwo figures in the Battle of Ostia (see below).

the Medici pope Leo X., appears twice over, first as a card On the wall opposite the Disputa is the so-called School of riding behind the pope, painted before the death of Julius II., Athens. In this and the succeedling frescos all notion of decora- again in the character of S. Leo, instead of the portrait of J tive treatment is thrown ido, and Raphael has simply painted a which Raphael was about to paint.o Attila with his savage-loo magnificent series of paintings, treated as easel pictures might army is not the most successful part of the fresco : the horse have been, with but little reference to their architectural surround- very wooden in appearance, and the tight-fitting scale armourings. The subject of this noble fresco, in contrast to that opposite, on in some impossible way without any joints, gives a very 1 1 How fine these portrait-heads probably were may be guessed from Piero's

and theatrical look to the picture. Part is the work of pi magnificent frescos at Arezzo, in the retro-choir of S. Francesco.

In 1514 he painted the Deliverance of St. Peter from Prison, 2 See Brunn, Die Composition der Wandgemälde Raphaels im Vatican, Berlin, 0 Ariosto visited Rome twice about this time, as ambassador from the and Gruyer, Les Fresques de Raphaël au Vatican, Paris, 1859.

of Ferrara to Julius II.,--the first time in 1509. 3 It peed hardly be said that the name Disputa is a misnomer; there could

7 Compare his fresco of Sixtus IV., now in the picture-gallery of the Va be no dispute among the saints and doctors of the church about so well estab.

$ The vault of this room is painted with scenes from the Old Testame lished a dogma as the real presence: the monstrance with the Host below and a harsh blue ground, much restored; they are probably the work of the figure of Christ above indicate His double presence both on earth and in Romano, and in a decorative way are very unsuccessful,-&

Dr Braun, Springer, and Hagen have published monographs in Ger- to the beautiful vaults of Perugino and Råphael in rooms C and A. Th man on this painting.

blue grounds so much used by Raphael's school are very liable to 4 See Trendelenburg, Veber Rafuel's Schule von Athen, Berlin, 1843, and

from damp, and in inost cases have been coarsely restored. Richter (same title), Heidelberg, 1882; the title “School of Athens” is com- Villa Madama are untouched, and in parts the damp has changed the paratively modern.

marine into emerald green. 5 He has shown great skill in the way in which he has fitted his end frescos

9A pen sketch in the Louvre by Raphael shows Julius II. in the into the awkward spaces cut into by the windows, but they are uone the less

afterwards occupied by Leo X.; another difference in this sketch is tla treated in a purely pictorial manner.

pope is borne in a chair, not on horseback as in the fresco.



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