« EelmineJätka »
abundant mucilaginous slime, and by taking up oxygen it | residence of Urbino, built by Federigo II., even now one acquires a peculiar disagreeable odour and an acrid taste of the most magnificent palaces in Italy, was lavishly Refined by the ordinary processes (see Oils, vol. xvii. p. adorned with works of art of every class—frescos, panel743), the oil assumes a clear golden yellow colour. In pictures, tapestries, tarsia-work, stucco-reliefs, and sculpspecific gravity it ranges between 0.9112 and 0.9117 in ture—executed for the duke by some of the chief Italian the raw state, and from 0.9127 to 0.9136 when refined ; artists of his time, and contained a collection of oil-paintings the solidifying point is from -2° to -10° C. Rape oil by the Van Eycks and other celebrated Flemish painters. consists of a mixture of three simple fats or glycerides of Giovanni Santi was a welcome guest at this miniature but fatty acids—the glyceride of oleic acid (olein), of stearic acid splendid court, and the rich treasures which the palace (stearin), and of brassic acid, the latter being a fat found contained, familiar to Raphael from his earliest years, hitherto only in oils from the Cruciferæ and from grape were a very important item among the various influences seeds. The olein of rape oil differs from ordinary olein which formed and fostered his early love for art. It may in not yielding sebacylic acid on destructive distillation. not perhaps be purely fanciful to trace Raphael's boyish
The principal uses of rape oil are for lubrication and lighting ; admiration of the oil-paintings of Jan Van Eyck and Justus but since the introduction of mineral oils for both these purposes of Ghent in the miniature-like care and delicacy with the importance of rape has considlerably decreased. It is but little which some of his earliest works, such as the Knight's employed in soap-making, as it saponifies with difficulty and yields only an indifferent procluct. In Germany it is very considerably Dream, were executed. used as a salad oil under the name of Schmalzöl, being for that Though Raphael lost his father at the age of eleven, purpose freed from its biting taste by being mixed with starch, ficated till the starch is carbonized, and tiltered after the oil has yet to him he certainly owed a great part of that early cooled. The offensive taste of rape oil may also be removed by training which enabled him to produce paintings of appatreatment with a small proportion of sweet spirit of nitre (nitrous rently mature beauty when he was scarcely twenty years of ether). In the East Indies rape oil and its equivalents, known age. From his father, too, Raphael learned much of the under various names, are the most important of oils for native use. religious sentiment and grace of inotive which are specially They are largely consumed as food instead of ghi under the name
The altar-piece of “metah” or sweet oil, but for all other purposes the same subconspicuous in his earlier paintings. stance is known as “kurwah” or bitter oil. Most natives prefer it painted by Giovanni for the church of Gradara, and a for the preparation of their curries and other hot dishes. Rape oil fresco, now preserved in the Santi house 3 at Urbino, are is the subject of extensive adulteration, principally with the cheaper clearly prototypes of some of Raphael's most graceful most conveniently detected, first by taste and next by saponifica- paintings of the Madonna and Child. On the death of his tion, rosin oil and mineral oil remaining unsaponificil, hemp oil father in 149+ young Raphael was left in the care of his giving a greenish soap), while rape oil yields a soap with a yellow stepmother (his own mother, Magia Ciarla, having died tinge. With concentrated sulphuric acil, fuming nitric acid, in 1191) and of his uncle, a priest called Bartolomeo. nitrous acidl, and other reagents rape oil gives also characteristic
First or Perugian Period.-In what year Raphael was colorations ; but these are modificil accoriling to the degree of purity of the oil itself. The presence of sulphur in rape and other apprenticed to Perugino and how the interval before that cruciferous oils also afforils a ready means for their identification. was spent are matters of doubt. Vasari's statement that Learl plaster complastrum lithargyri) boiled in rape oil dissolves, he was sent to Perugia during his father's lifetime is cerand, sulphide of load being formed, the oil becomes brown or black: tainly a mistake. On the whole it appears most probable Other leal compounds give the same black coloration from the formation of sulphidle.
that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of RAPHAEL (587, “God heals ") first appears in litera- 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino ture in the book of Tobit, where in human disguise and was mostly absent from his native city: 5 As was the case under the name of Azarias (“God helps ") he accompanies with every one with whom Raphael came in contact, the Tobias in his adventurous journey and conquers the demon Perugian master was fascinated by the charm of his manner Asmodæus. He is said to be one of the seven angels and delighted by his precocious ability, and seems to have [archangels] who present the prayers of the saints and devoted special pains to his artistic education. The so-called enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.” In Sketch Book of Raphul in the academy of Venice contains the book of Enoch Raphael is the angel of the spirits of studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's man, and it is his business to gather the souls of the dead Sistine frescos, possibly done as practice in drawing. in the place where they are reserved till the day of judy- preserved in portfolios, bears signs of having once formed a bound
This celebrated collection of thirty drawings, now framed or ment, -a conception which seems to imply a derivation book, and has been supposed to be a sketeh-book filled by Raphael from D'xat, “ghosts." In later Vidrash Raphael appears during his Perugian apprenticeship. Many points, however, make as the angel commissioned to put down the evil spirits that this tempting hypothesis very improbable; the fact that the drairvexed the sons of Noah with plagues and sicknesses after ings were not all originally on leaves of the same size, and the
miscellaneous character of the sketches-varying much both in the flood, and he it was who taught men the use of simples style and merit of execution—seem to show that it is a collection and furnished materials for the “Book of Noah," the of studlies by different hands, made and bound together by some earliest treatise on materia medica (Rönsch, Buch der subsequent owner, and may contain but very few drawings by Jubiläen, p. 385 sq.).
Before long Raphael appears to have been admitted to RAPILAEL (1183-1520). RAPHAEL Sanzio was the son
take a share in the execution of paintings by his master; of Giovanni Santi, a painter of some repute in the ducal city of Urbino, situated among the Apennines on the
3 The house of Giovanni Santi, where Raphael was born, still exists borders of Tuscany and Umbria. For many years both municipality, is now safe from destruction.
at Urbino in the Contrada del Monte, and, being the property of the before and after the birth of Raphael the city of Urbino was 4 The administration of Giovanni Santi's will occasioned many one of the chief centres in Italy of intellectual and artistic painful family disputes and even appeals to law; see Pungileoni, El. activity, thanks to its highly cultured rulers, Duke Federigo Star. di Raffarello. II. of Montefeltro and his son Guidobaldo, who succeeded adopt the notion that Raphael went to Perugia in 1495, but the reasons
5 Crowe and Cavalcaselle (Life of Raphael, vol. i., London, 1882) him in 1182,” the year before Raphael was born. The ducal with which they support this view appear insufficient.
6 See an excellent critical examination of the Sketch Book by 1 See Pungileoni, Elogio Storico di Raffuello, Urbino, 1829 ; for Morelli, Italian Masters in German Galleries, translated by Mrs a valuable account of Raphael's family ancî his early life, see also II., Richter, London, 1882; according to this able critic, only two drawl'ita di Giov. Sunti, Urbino, 1822, and Campori, Notizie e Documenti ings are by Raphael
. See also Schmarsow, "Raphael's Skizzenbuch per la Vita di Giov. Santi e di Ruffuello, Modena, 1870.
in Venedig,” in
Jahrbücher, xlviii. pp. 122-149, Berlin, 2 Sce an interesting account of the court of Urbino by Delaborde, 1881, who takes the opposite view. Kahl, Das venezianische SkizzenÉtudes sur les B. arts. en Italie, Paris, 1864, vol. i. p. 115. buch, Leipsic, 1882, follows Morelli's opinion.
and his touch can with more or less certainty be traced in to the gonfaloniere Pier Soderini. In Florence Raphael some of Perugino's panels which were executed about 1502. was kindly received, and, in spite of his youth (being Many of those who, like Messrs Crowe and Cavalcaselle, barely of age), was welcomed as an equal by the majority adopt the earlier date of Raphael's apprenticeship believe of those great artists who at that time had raised Florence that his hand is visible in the execution of the beautiful to a pitch of artistic celebrity far above all other cities of series of frescos by Perugino in the Sala del Cambio, dated the world. At the time of his arrival the whole of artistic 1500; as does also M. Müntz in his excellent Raphaël, Italy was being excited to enthusiasm by the cartoons of sa Vie, Paris, 1881, in spite of his accepting the end of the battle of Anghiari and the war with Pisa, on which 1499 as the period of Raphael's first entering Perugino's Da Vinci and Michelangelo were then devoting their studio,—two statements almost impossible to reconcile. utmost energies (see LEONARDO and MICHELANGELO). To Considering that Raphael was barely seventeen when these describe the various influences under which Raphael came frescos were painted, it is hardly reasonable to attribute and the many sources from which he drank in stores of the finest heads to his hand; nor did he at an early age artistic knowledge would be to give a complete history master the difficulties of fresco buono. The Resurrection of Florentine art in the 15th century. With astonishing of Christ in the Vatican and the Diotalevi Madonna in the rapidity he shook off the mannerisms of Perugino, and Berlin Museum are the principal pictures by Perugino in put one great artist after another under contribution for parts of which the touch of Raphael appears to be visible, some special power of drawing, beauty of colour, or grace though any real certainty on this point is unattainable.1 of composition in which each happened to excel. Nor was
About 1502 Raphael began to execute independent it from painters only that Raphael acquired his enlarged works; four pictures for churches at Città di Castello field of knowledge and rapidly growing powers. Sculptors were probably the earliest of these, and appear to have like Ghiberti and Donatello must be numbered among been painted in the years 1502-4. The first is a guild- those whose works helped to develop his new-born style. 5 banner painted on one side with the Trinity, and below, The Carmine frescos of Vasaccio and Masolino taught kneeling figures of S. Sebastian and S. Rocco; on the this eayer student long-remembered lessons of methods reverse is a Creation of Eve, very like Perugino in style, but of dramatic expression. Among his contemporaries it possessing more grace and breadth of treatment. These was especially Signorelli and Michelangelo who taught are still in the church of S. Trinità. Also for Città dihim the importance of precision of line and the necessity Castello were the coronation of S. Niccolo Tolentino, now of a thorough knowledge of the human form. From Da destroyed, though studies for it exist at Oxford and Lille Vinci he learned subtletics of modelling and soft beauty (Gaz. d. B. Arts, 1878, i. p. 48), and the Crucifixion, now of expression, from Fra Bartolomeo nobility of composiin the Dudley collection, painted for the church of S. tion and skilful treatment of drapery in dignified folds.9 Domenico, and signed RAPHAEL VRBINAS P. It is a The friendship between Raphael and the last of these panel 8 feet 6 inches high by 5 feet 5 inches wide, and was very close and lasted for many years. The architect
contains noble figures of the Virgin, St John, St Jerome, Baccio d'Agnolo was another of his special friends, at · and St Mary Magılalene. The fourth painting executed whose house the young painter enjoyed social intercourse
for this town, for the church of S. Francesco, is the with a large circle of the chief artists of Florence, and exquisitely beautiful and highly finished Sposalizio, now probably learned from him much that was afterwards usein the Brera at Milan, signed and dated RAPHAEL ful in his practice as an architect. VRBINAS MDIIII. This is closely copied both in com The transition in Raphael's style from his first or position and detail from Perugino's painting of the same Perugian to his second or Florentine manner is well shown subject now at Caen, but is far superior to it in sweetness in the large picture of the Coronation of the l'irgin painted of expression and grace of attitude. The Temple of for Maddalena degli (dili, now in the Vatican, one of the Jerusalem, a domed octagon with outer ambulatory in most beautiful that he ever produced, and especially rePerugino's picture, is reproduced with slight alterations markable for its strong religious sentiment,-in this respect by Raphael, and the attitudes and grouping of the figures a great contrast to the paintings of his last or Roman are almost exactly the same in both. The Connestabile manner which hang near it. The exquisite grace of the Madonna is one of Raphael's finest works, painted during angel musicians and the beauty of the faces show signs his Perugian period; it is a round panel; the motive, the of his short visit to Florence, while the general formality Virgin reading a book of hours, is a favourite one with of the composition and certain details, such as the flutterhim, as it was with his father Giovanni. This lovely ing ribbanuls of the angels, recall pieculiarities of Perugino picture was lost to Perugia in 1871, when Count Connes and of l'inturicchio, with whose fine picture of the same tabile sold it to the omperor of Russia for £13,200. subject hung closely it is interesting to compare it.
Second or Florentine Period, 150-1508.-From 1504 to Raphael's painting, though boy far the more beautiful of 1.508 Raphael's life was very stirring and active. In the the two, is yet inferior to that of Pinturicchio in the first half of 150 1 he visited Urbino, where he painted two composition of the whole: an awkwari horizontal line small panels for Duke Guidobaldo, the St George and the divides the upper group of the Coronation from that below, St Michael of the Louvre. His first and for him mo- the apostles standing round the Virgin's tomb, filled with mentous visit to Florence was made towards the end of roses and lilies (Dante, Pirr., xxiii. 73), while the okler 1.504, when he presented himself with a warm letter of Perugian las skilfully united the two groups liv a less recommendation from his patroness Joanna della Rovere formal arrangement of the figures. The poredella of this
Parts of Perugino's beautiful triptych of the Madonna, with the masterpiere of Raphael is also in the Vatican ; some of anhaugels Raphael and Michael, painted for the certo»: near Pavia and now in the Sational Gallery of Lonlon, have been attributed to See Minghet:i, "1 Maestri di Ra!.«lle," ili ihe Viinintulonna, Raphael, bnt with little reason. Perugino's grand altar-piece at Firence of the Assumption of the Virgin shows that he was quite 3 sier his sketeh of St George and live Drugs in th: 1:!zi, larsiy capable of painting figures equal in beauty and delicay to the St taken fron Dogarit,quales el tief outside of San M:!.. Mucharl of the Certosa triptych. See Frizzoni, L'Arte Ilizionu wrior * Sve his cari. O'S: Paul pre !:i.: : 1:!ens No.::! K: incon Giul. Var, di Loniini, Florence, 1880.
Murum . : For an account of pmcessional banners painted hy distin uished i sve many of hi- ifo-tuulies, pawecially tione le sent :-) Alt artist, mee Mariotti, lattere pittoriche Perugine, p.70 4.
Durer, now at V1!1!1.1.
Sve the Musli Balla. Lirico in : 1:::1.
1st August 1:41.
its small paintings, especially that of the Annunciation | death) by his old master Perugino. It was probably to the Virgin, are interesting as showing his careful study earlier than this that Raphael visited Siena and assisted of the rules of per
Pinturicchio with sketches for his Piccolomini frescos.3 spective. Several
The Madonna of S. Antonio was also finished in 1505, preparatory sketches
but was probably begun before the Florentine visit. A for this picture exist:
record of his visit to Siena exists in a sketch of the fig. 1 shows a study,
antique marble group of the Three Graces, then in the now at Lille, for the
cathedral library, from which, not long afterwards, he two principal figures,
painted the small panel of the same subject now in Lord Christ setting the
Dudley's collection. crown on His mother's
In 1506 Raphael was again in Urbino, where he painted head (see fig. 2). It
for the duke another picture of St George, which was sent is drawn from two
to England as a present to Henry VII. The bearer of this youths in the ordi
and other gifts was Guidobaldo's ambassador, the accomnary dress of the
plished Baldassare CASTIGLIONE (q.v.), a friend of Raphael's, time; and it is in
whose noble portrait of him is in the Louvre. At the teresting to compare
court of Duke Guidobaldo the painter's ideas appear to it with his later
have been led into a more secular direction, and to this studies from the
stay in Urbino probably belong the Dudley Graces, the Fig. 1. —Silver-point study for the main nude, many of which
figures in the Coronation of the Virgin miniature Knight's Dream of Duty and Pleasure in the are for figures which
(Vatican). In the Lille museum. National Gallery (London),5 and also the Apollo and in the future picture trating Raphael's use of draped models Marsyas, sold in 1882 by Mr Morris Moore to the Louvre were to be draped, during his early period.
for £10,000, a most lovely little panel, painted with made at a time when his developed style required a more almost Flemish minuteness, rich in colour, and graceful in careful rendering of the human form than was necessary arrangement. for the simpler and more religious manner of Perugia. Towards the end of 1506 Raphael returned to Florence, It was at Florence, as Vasari says, that Raphael began and there (before 1508) produced a large number of his
finest works, carefully finished, and for the most part wholly the work of his own hand. Several of these are signed and dated, but the date is frequently very doubtful, owing to his custom of using Roman numerals, introduced among the sham Arabic embroidered on the borders of dresses, so that the I's after the V are not always distinguishable from the straight lines of the ornament. The
following is a list of some of his chief paintings of this USE
period :—the Madonna del Gran Duca (Pitti); Madonna del Giardino, 1506 (Vienna); Holy Family with the Lamb, 1506 or 1507 (Madrid); the Ansidei Madonna, 1506 or 1507 (National Gallery); the Borghese Entombment, 1507; Lord Cowper's Madonna at Panshanger, 1508; La bella Giardiniera, 1508 (Louvre); the Eszterhazy Madonna, probably the same year; as well as the Madonna del Cardellino (Uffizi), the Tempi Madonna (Munich), the Colonna Madonna (Berlin), the Bridgewater Madonna (Bridgewater House), and the Orleans Madonna (Duc d'Aumale's collection). The Ansidei Madonna was bought in 1884 for the National Gallery from the duke of Marlborough for £70,000, more than th times the highest price ever before given for a picture. It was painted for the Ansidei
2 The fresco of the Last Supper, dated 1505, in the refectory of S. Onofrio at Florence is not now claimed as a work of Raphael's, in spite of a signature partly introduced by the restorer.
3 Raphael probably had no land in the actual execution of the paintings; see Schmarsow, Raphael und Pinturicchio in Siena, Stuttgart, 1880, and Milanesi, in his edition of Vasari, iii. p. 515 sq.,
appendix to life of Pinturicchio. FIG. 2. The group for which fig. 1 is a study.
4 This fine altar-piece, with many large figures, is now the property
of the heirs of the duke of Ripalta, and is stored in the basement of serious life studies, not only from nude models but also
the National Gallery, London. by making careful anatomical drawings from dissected 5 This missal-like painting is about 7 inches square ; it was bought corpses and from skeletons.
in 1847 for 1000 guineas. The National Gallery also possesses its His first visit to Florence lasted only a few months; in cartoon, in brown ink, pricked for transference. 1505 he was again in Perugia painting his first fresco, treme virulence, the genuineness of this little gem can hardly be
6 In spite of some adverse opinions, frequently expressed with ex the Trinity and Saints for the Camaldoli monks of Sandoubted by any one who carefully studies it without bias. Sketches Severo, now a mere wreck from injury and restorations. for it at Venice and in the Ullizi also appear to bear the impress of The date MDV and the signature were added later, prob- Italie, i. p. 236; Gruyer, Raphaël et l' Antiquité, ii. P. 421 ; Eitelberger,
See Delaborde, Études sur les B. Arts . . . en ably in 1521. Part of this work was left incomplete by the
Rafael's Apollo und Marsyas, Vienna, 1860; Batté, Le Raphaël de M. painter, and the fresco was finished in 1521 (after his
Moore, Paris, 1859 ; and also various pamphlets on it by its former
owner, Mr Morris Moore. 1 While at Florence he is said to have taught the science of per ? It is engraved at p. 53, vol. ii., of Dohme, Kunst und Künstler des spective to his friend Fra Bartolomeo, who certainly gave his young Mittelalters, Leipsic, 1878, a work which has many good reproductions instructor valuable lessons on composition in return.
of Raphael's paintings and sketches.
family of Perugia as an altar-piece in the church of S. youth with turned-up nose, not bearing the remotest Fiorenzo, and is a work of the highest beauty in colour, resemblance to Raphael, except the long hair and black well preserved, and very large in scale. The Virgin
cap common to nearly all the portraits of this time. A with veiled head is seated on a throne, supporting the fine but much-restored portrait of Raphael by himself, Infant with one hand and holding a book in the other. painted at Florence, exists in the Uffizi; it represents him Below stands S. Niccolo da Tolentino, for whose altar it at a very early age, and was probably painted during the was painted; he holds a book and a crozier, and is clad early part of his stay in Florence. in jewelled mitre and green cope, under which appear
the Third or Roman Period, 1508-20.-In 1508 Raphael alb and cassock. On the other side is the Baptist, in red was painting several important pictures in Florence ; in mantle and camel's-hair tunic, holding a crystal cross. The September of that year we find him settled in Rome, from rich jewellery in this picture is painted with Flemish- a letter addressed in the warmest terms of affectionate like minuteness. On the border of the Virgin's robe is a admiration to Francia, to whom he sent a sketch for his date, formerly read as MDV by Passavant and others; it Adoration of the Shepherds, and promised to send his own really is MDVI or MDVII. If the later date is the true portrait in return for that which Francia had given him.! one, the picture was probably begun a year or two before. Raphael was invited to Rome by his fellow-citizen (not A favourite method of grouping his Holy Families is that relation, as Vasari says) Bramante, who was then occupied seen in the Madonna del Cardellino and the Bella Giar in the erection of the new church of St Peter's, the foundadiniera, in which the main lines form a pyramid. This tion-stone of which had been laid by Julius II. on 18th arrangement is also used in the Madonna del Giardino and April 1506. At this time the love of the popes for art in the larger group, including St Joseph and St Elizabeth, had already attracted to Rome a number of the chief artists known as the Canigiani Holy Family, now at Junich, of Tuscany, Umbria, and North Italy, among whom were one of the least graceful of all Raphael's compositions. Michelangelo, Signorelli
, l'erugino, Pinturicchio, Lorenzo The Entombment of Christ, now in the Palazzo Borghese Lotto, Peruzzi, Sodoma, and many others, and it was in Rome, was painted during a visit to Perugia in 1507 for among this brilliant assembly that Raphael, almost at Lady Atalanta Baglioni, in memory of the death of her once, took a leading position. Thanks to Bramante's brave and handsome but treacherous son Grifonetto, who friendly intervention, Julius II. (Della Rovere) soon became was killed in 1500 by his enemies the Oddi party. The Raphael's most zealous patron and friend, as did also the many studies and preliminary sketches ? for this import- rich bankers Agostino Chigi (the Rothschild of his time) ant picture which exist in various collections show that and Bindo Altoviti, whose portrait, at the age of twenty, it cost Raphael an unusual amount of thought and labour now at Munich, is one of the most beautiful that Raphael in its composition, and yet it is quite one of his least suc cver produced. cessful paintings, especially in colour. It is, however, A series of rooms in the Vatican, over the Appartamenti much injured by scraping and repainting, and appears not Borgia, were already decorated with frescos by Bonfigli, to be wholly by his hand. The Madonna del Baldacchino, Perugino, Piero della Francesca, Andrea del Castagno, one of the finest compositions of the Florentine period, Signorelli
, and Sodoma ; but so rapidly had the taste of owing much to Fra Bartolomeo, is also unsatisfactory in the time changed that Julius II. decided to sweep them execution; being left unfinished by Raphael, it was completed by Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, by whom the ungraceful angels of the upper part and the canopy were wholly executed, and even designed. It was painted for the lei family G. as an altar-piece for their chapel in S. Spirito, Florence. The St Catherine of the National (allery was probably painted in 1507; its cartoon, pricked for transference,
7. B. 102 A.
C. 13 is in the Louvre. In colouring it much resembles parts of the Borghese Entombment, being quiet and grey in tone. To the Florentine period belong some of his tinest portraits, and it is especially in these that Da Vinci's influence appears. The portraits of Angelo Doni and his wife FIG. 3.- Plan showing position of Rapla-1's frescos in the stanze. Maddalena (Pitti) are vivid and carefully executed paint-3, Justinangrum his could to Trebunian :' 4, lifesty IX. ging decretala, ta
A. Stanza della Signatura (1904-11): 1, Diputa; 2. School of the 114; ingry, and the unknown laily with hard features (now in a jurist; 5 (oir the wew), Thuer l'ities; cover the other wow), Apollo
and a group of puts on Mount Barna-1; vult with meallt of l'19', the l'ttizi) is a masterpiece of noble realism and conscien- Thulya Soner, and Justicer, and other famine 1 stanza il 1:37doros tions finish. The Czartoriski portrait, a graceful effemi- 9:11:0) Explomat Hidundelus from 1. Timple Man of Bola 11a :
!, St Irfor frufroll p1-011: 10. Attila Troll-od by I.; Sanlı with roll nate-lowking youth with long hair and tapering hands, from Old Testament, is pipils, (. Stanea dell' Irree telo (1.17), Hariy all now more to Cracow, is probably a work of this period i mantel poma : 11Boft 11: 1:23. Victory of T. IV...!"
Savaeris at (-ia : 1:, ( Off!n of Charakte 1.0 III in St Peters; though worthy to rank with Raphael's finest portraits, its
19. Saldi (want to los
populls (1.3-0-90): 10 alle opwinn. of Coma-aul J11, 1:1 attributi authenticity has been doubted. Very similar in style is to Raphael ; 17, 17, LTE 1: piofilir Synt. Mammilis. T E. Mart the Herrenhausen portrait, once attributed to Giovanni Napoli.is lo, hl.puis 1:1!
.in NP., od los na
neu (1. (iki te Bellini, but an undoubted work of Raphael, in his second all away and recover the walls with paintine in the more manner; it also represents a young man with long hair, lewe slaven chin, a wide cloth hat and black dress, painted developed but less truly decorative style of Raphael. It
was not without limit that Raphael saw the contruction in half length. The so-called Portrait of Raphael by him
of this noble series of frescos. One vult, that of the seli at Hampton Court is a very beautiful work, glowing with light and colour, which may possibly be a genuine 3 Tour of thes-lup of partirali su in intreal.se is picture of about 1506. It represents a pleasant-looking me the fim. in.disa lun...the
I per un ripiene del colonih............
+ Malva-12, lic.n.11!.. Bo 32:1, 167, 1.1. fir-t : quli-h i Setes Symonds, Sketches in Italy, the chapter on Perugia, mainly the better; al 12:?, R!!!. :126.96.36.199., 11., 1-1. taken from the contemporary chronicle of Matarazzo.
i Min ketit ..'
1. !.mot..!.: : These show that Raphael at tirst intenleed to paint a Deponitionletier. from the Crus, and afterwanla altered his scheme into the Euelle • Munti, "M! :-.11.2: Balviu D...","19.1.. ' nient; an excess of stu.ly and elaborativn partly account for the Bob Mali.1.155. Sisi Lais: visos l'a, B. shortcoming of this picture.
i u., l'aris, 1951.
COURT OF THE SISTINE
3. 5. 4
Stanza dell' Incendio, painted ly his master Perugino, he is Earthly Knowledge, represented by an assembly of those great saved from obliteration ; it still exists, well preserved, a philosophers, poets, and men of science of ancient Greece who were most skilful piece of decorative work; and he also set his admitted by the church to have been not wholly without inspira
tion from Heaven, and by their labours to have prepared the
way pupils to copy a number of portrait-heads in the frescos
for the clearer light of Christianity. The central figures are Plato of Piero della Francesca before they were destroyed.? and Aristotle, while below and on each side are groups arranged Fig. 3 shows the positions of Raphael's frescos in the stanze, famiglia"
. "of Dante (Infer., iv. 133-144), and a number of other which, both from their size and method of lighting, are
leaders of thought, selected in a way that shows no slight acquaintvery unsuited for the reception of these large pictures.
ance with the history of philosophy and science among the ancient The two most important rooms (A and B) are small, and Greeks. In this selection we may fairly suppose that Raphael was have an awkward cross light from opposite windows.? aided by Bembo, Ariosto, Castiglione, Bibbiena, or others of the Stanza della Segnatura (papal signature room), painted in 1509-11
crowd of scholars who at this time thronged the papal court. (A on fig. 3). The first painting executed by Raphael in the stanze
Many interesting portraits are introduced— Bramante as the aged was the so-called Disputa, finished in 1509. It is very unlike the
Archimedes, stooping over a geometrical diagram ; a beautiful fairlater ones in style, showing the commencement of transition from haired youth on the left is Francesco Maria della Rovere, duke of his Florentine to his “Roman manner"; as a clecorative work it
Urbino ; and on the extreme right figures of Raphael himself and is very superior to the other frescos ; the figures are much smaller Perugino are introduced (see fig. 5, below). The stately building in scale, as was suited to the very moderate size of the room, and
in which these groups are arranged is taken with modifications from the whole is arranged mainly on one plane, without those strong
Bramante's first design for St Peter's. effects of perspective which are so unsuited to the decorative treat
Over the window (No. 6 on fig. 3) is a group of poets and musicians ment of a wall-surface. In its religious sentiment too it far excels
on Mount Parnassus, round a central figure of Apollo ; it contains any of the later stanze paintings,
many heads of great beauty and fine portraits of Dante and Petrarch. retaining much of the sacred charac
The former, as a theologian, appears also in the Disputa. Over • ter of earlier Florentine and Umbrian
the opposite window (No. 5) are graceful figures of the three chief art. As a scheme of decoration it
Virtues, and at one side (No. 4) Gregory IX. (a portrait of Julius appears to have been suggested by
II.) presenting his volume of decretals to a jurist; beside him is some of the early apsidal mosaics.
a splendid portrait of Cardinal de' Medici (afterwards Leo X.) heFig. 4 shows the disposition of its
fore his face was spoiled by getting too stout. This painting shows main masses, which seem to indicate
the influence of Melozzo da Forli.? On the other side Justinian the curved recess of an apse. Gold
presents his code to Trebonianus (No. 3); this is inferior in exeis largely used, with much richness
cution and appears to have been chiefly painted by pupils. of effect, while the later purely
The next room (B), called La Stanza d'Eliodoro, was painted in pictorial frescos have little or none. Fig. 4.- Diagram to show main ing the expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple (2 Mace. iii.), an
1511-14 ;8 it is so called from the fresco (No. 7 in fig. 3) representThe subject of this magnificent painting is the hierarchy of the church on
lines of the Disputa, suggest allusion to the struggles between Louis XII. of France and Julius earth and its glory in heaven. The
ing an apse, with mosaic de II. The whole spirit of the subjects in this room is less broad and
coration. angels in the upper tier and the nude
tolerant than in the first : no pagan ideas are admitted, and its cherubs who carry the books of the Gospels are among the most
chief motive is the glorilication of the pontificate, with insistence beautiful figures that Raphael ever painted.
on the temporal power. The main incident of this picture is the The painting on the vault of this room is the next in date, and
least successful part of it: the angel visitant on the horse is wantshows further transition towards the “Roman manner.”
In his ing in dignity, and the animal is poorly drawn, as is also the case treatment of the whole Raphael has, with much advantage, been
with the horses of Attila's army in the fresco opposite. The group partly guided by the painting of Perugino's vault in the next room
of women and children on the left is, however, very beautiful, and (C). Though not without faults, it is a very skilful piece of de
the figures of Julius II. and his attendants are most nobly designed coration; the pictures are kept subordinate to the lines of the
and painted with great vigour. The tall standing figure of Marc vault, and their small scale adds greatly to the apparent size of the
Antonio Raimondi, as one of the pope's bearers, is a marvellous piece whole. A great part of the ground is gilt, marked with mosaic
of portrait painting, as is also the next figure who bears his name like squares, a common practice with decorative painters,—not
on à scroll-10 . PETRO. DE. FOLIARIIS . CREMONẾN. intended to deceive the eye, but simply to give a softer texture to
Behind, Giulio Romano is represented as another papal attendant. the gilt surface by breaking up its otherwise monotonous glare. This picture was completed in 1512. Over the window (No. 8) is The principal medallions in each cell of this quadripartite vault
the scene of the Miracle at Bolsena of 1264, when the real presence are very graceful female figures, representing Theology, Science, was proved to a doubting priest by the appearance of blood-stains Justice, and Poetry. Smaller subjects, some almost ininiature-liké on the Corporal (sce ORVIETO). Julius II. is introduced kneeling in scale, are arranged in the interinediate spaces, and each has behind the altar; and the lower spaces on each side of the windows some special meaning in reference to the medallion it ailjoins ; some
are filled with two groups, that on the left with women, that on of these are painted in warm monochrome to suggest bas-reliefs.
the right with officers of the papal guard. The last group is one The fine painting of the Flaying of Marsyas is interesting as show
of the most masterly of all throughout the stanze : each face, a ing Raphael's study of antique sculpture: the figure of Marsyas careful portrait, is a marvel of expression and power, and the is a copy of a Roman statue, of which several replicas exist. The technical skill with which the whole is painted to the utmost very beautiful little picture of the Temptation of Eve recalls Albert degree of finish, almost without any tempera touches, is most Dürer's treatment of that subject, though only vaguely. Much wonderful... The next fresco in date (No. 10) is that of the Repulmutual admiration existed between Raphael and Dürer: in 1515
sion of Attila from the walls of Rome by Leo I., miraculously aided Raphael sent the German artist a most masterly life study of two by the apparitions of St Peter and St Paul; it contains another nude male figures (now at Vienna); ou it is written in Albert allusion to the papal quarrels with France. It was begun in the Dürer's beautiful hand the date and a record of its being a gift lifetime of Julius II., but was only half finished at the time of his froin Raphael. It is executed in red chalk, and was a study for
death in 1513; thus it happens that the portrait of his successor, two figures in the Battle of Ostia (see below).
the Medici pope Leo X., appears twice over, first as a cardinal On the wall opposite the Disputa is the so-called School of riding behind the prope, painted before the death of Julius II., and Athens. In this and the succeedling frescos all notion of decora- again in the character of S. Leo, instead of the portrait of Julius tive treatment is thrown aside, and Raphael has simply painted a
which Raphael was about to paint.9 Attila with his savage-looking magnificent series of paintings, treated as easel pictures might army is not the most successful part of the fresco : the horses are have been with but little reference to their architectural surround- very wooden in appearance, and the tight-fitting scale armour, put ings. The subject of this noble fresco, in contrast to that opposite,
on in some impossible way without any joints, gives a very unreal 1 How tine these portrait-heads probably were may be guessed from Piero's
and theatrical look to the picture. Part is the work of pupils. inagnificent frescos at Arezzo, in the retro-choir of S. Francesco.
1u 1514 he painted the Deliverance of St Peter from Prison, with 2 Sec Brunn, Die Composition der Mundgemülde Raphaels im Vatican, Berlin, 0 Ariosto visited Rome twice about this time, as ambassador from the duke and Gruyer, Les Fresques de Raphaël au Vatican, Paris, 1859.
of Ferrara to Julius II.,—the first time in 1509. 3 It need hardly be said that the name Disputa is a misnomer; there could 7 Compare his fresco of Sixtus IV., now in the picture-gallery of the Vatican. be no dispute among the saints and doctors of the church about so well estab). 8 The vault of this room is painted with scenes from the Old Testament on lished a dogma as the real presence: the monstrance with the Host below and a harsh blue ground, much restored; they are probably the work of Giulio the figure of Christ above indicato llis double presence both on earth and in Romano, and in a decorative way are very unsuccessful, -a striking contrast
Dr Braum, Springer, and Hagen have published monographs in Ger to the beautiful vaults of Perugino and Raphael in rooms C and A. The deep man on this painting.
blue grounds so much used by Raphael's school are very liable to injury 4 See Trendelenburg, l’rber Rafuel's Schule von Athen, Berlin, 1843, and from camp), and in most cases have been coarsely restored. Richter (same title), Heidelberg, 1882; the title "School of Athens " is com Villa Madama are untouched, and in parts the damp has changed the ultraparatively modern.
marine into emerald green. has shown great skill in the way in which he has fitted his end frescos 9 A pen sketch in the Louvre by Raphael shows Julius II. in the place into the awkward spaces cut into by the windows, but they are none the less afterwards occupied by Leo X.; another clifference in this sketch is that the treatel in a purely pictorial inannor.
pope is borne in a chair, not on horseback as in the fresco.
Those in the