« EelmineJätka »
a further political allusion (No. 9). It is very skilfully arranged | early in the morning, a patch of wet stucco was laid, about enough to fit in the awkward space round the window, and is remarkable to serve for the day's painting ; this of course obliterated the outfor an attempt, not much suited for fresco-painting, to combine line on the wall, and the part covered by the patch was again and contrast the three different qualities of light coming from the sketched in by freehand, with a point on the wet stucco, so as to moon, the glory round the angel, and the torches of the sentinels. be a guide for the outline traced with the brush and the subsequent
For room C Raphael designed and partly painted the Incendio del painting. A line impressed on the wet stucco was easily smoothed Borgo (No. 11), a fire in the Borgo or Leonine City, which was out, but a touch of the brush full of pigment sank deeply into the miraculously stopped by Leo IV. appearing and making the sign moist stucco, and could not easily be etfaced. It will thus be seen of the cross at a window in the Vatican. In the background is that in fresco painting the only use of pouncing the hole design shown the facade of the old basilica of St Peter, not yet destroyed on to the wall was to keep the general positions of the figures right, when this fresco was painted. One group on the left, in the fore- and was no guide as to the drawing of each separate part. Fig. 5 ground, is remarkable for its vigour and powerful drawing; the shows the portrait-heads of himself and Perugino, at the extreme motive is taken from the burning of Troy; a fine nude figure of left of the School of Athens; on this are visible many of the Eneas issues from the burning houses bearing on his back the old impressed sketch-lines, and also part of the "fresco edge" of the Anchises and leading the boy Ascanius by the hand. Some of the patch on which this part is painted. The heads in this figure are female figures are designed with much grace and dramatic power. less than one day's work. It will be seen that there is no attempt Many studies for this picture exist. This is the last of the stanze at any accuracy of drawing in the impressed lines. Raphael, especi. frescos on which Raphael himself worked. Others designed by ally in his later frescos, worked with wonderful rapidity: three Jim and painted by Giulio Romano, Gianfrancesco Penni, and other life-sized busts, or half a full-length figure, more than life-size, pupils were the Battle of Ostia (No. 12), a very nobly composed was a not unusual day's work. In some of the frescos the edges picture, and the Oath of Leo III. before Charlemagne (No. 14). of each day's patch of stucco can easily be traced, especially in the The other great picture in this room (No. 13), the Coronation of Incendio del Borgo, which has a strong side light. In the Disputa Charlemagne (a portrait of Francis I. of France), is so very inferior much use was made of tempera in the final touches, but less was in composition that it is difficult to believe that Raphael even made used in the subsequent frescos, owing to his increasing mastery of a sketch for it. The enormous fresco of the Defeat of Maxentius the difficulties of the process. by Constantine (room D, No. 17) was painted by Giulio Romano, The paintings in the stanze were only a small part of soon after Raphael's death, from a sketch by the latter ; it is even more harsh and disagreeable in colour than most of Giulio Romano's Raphael's work between
1509 and 1513. To this period early frescos. Among the other very inferior frescos in this great belong the Madonna of Foligno (Vatican), painted in 1511 hall are two female figures (Nos. 15 and 16) representing Comitas for Sigismondo Conti; it is one of his most beautiful and Justitia, painted on the wall in oil colours, very harmonious compositions, full of the utmost grace and sweetness of and rich in tone ; they are usually, though wrongly, attributed to expression, and appears to be wholly the work of his hand. Raphael himself.
Technical Methods employed in Raphael's Frescos. — Having It has suffered much from repainting. Of about the same malo many studies, both nude and draped, for single figures and date are the gem-like Garvagh Madonna (National Gallery,
bought for £9000; once in the possession of the Aldobrandini family), the Diademed Virgin of the Louvre, and the Madonna del Pesce at Madrid. The last is a very noble picture, but the design is more pleasing than the colour, which, like other paintings of Raphael's at Madrid, suggests the inferior touch of a pupil; it was executed in 1513 for S. Domenico in Naples. In addition to other easel pictures a number of his finest portraits belong to this period—that of Julius II. (Uffizi), of which a good replica or contemporary copy exists in the National Gallery, the so-called Fornarina in the Palazzo Barberini, the Baldassare Castiglione of the Louvre, and the unfinished portrait of Federigo Gonzaga of Mantua.
When Giovanni de' Medici, at the age of thirty-eight, became pope as Leo X., a period of the most glowing splendour and reckless magnificence succeeded the sterner rule of Julius II. Agostino Chigi, the Sienese financier, was the chief of those whose lavish expenditure contributed to enrich Rome with countless works of art. For him Raphael painted, in 1513-14, the very beautiful fresco of the Triumph of Galatea in his new palace by the Tiber bank, the Villa Farnesina, and also made a large series of magnificent designs from Apuleius's romance of Cupid and Psyche, which were carried out by a number of his pupils. These corer the rault and lunettes of a large loggia (now closed in for protection); in colouring they are mostly harsh and gaudy, as is usually the case with the works of his pupils, a great contrast to the fresco of the Galatea, the greater part of which is certainly the
master's own work. For the same patron he painted Fro. 5. – Heads of Raphnel and Perugino from the School of Athens, showing incised lines and "fresco edges."
3 A very fine ancient copy of this portrait is in the Pitti Palace ;
certain peculiarities in its execution show it to be by some Venetian groups the painter made a small drawing of the whole composi; painter, as was pointed out to the present writer by Mr Fairfax tion, which was enlarged by his pupils with the help of numbered
Murray. squares, drain all over it, to the full size required, a on paper or
4 Chiefly by Giulio Romano, Gianfrancesco lenni, and Gioranni da Holes were then pricked along the outlines of the cartoon, and the design pounced through on to an undercoat of dry stucco
Udine; much injury has been done to these frescos by repainting, on the wall, with poupiled charcoal and a still brush. Over this,
especially in the coarse blue of the grounil.
3 These and other frescos by his pupils are much disfigured by the See Montagnani, Sıla di Costantino, Rome, 1831. Though he disagreeable hot tone of the flesh, very unlike the pearly tone of the is never a good colourist, the great frescos by Giulio Romano in the flesh of Galatea. Palazzo del Te, Mantun, show seme improvement as compared with his
6 Dorigny, Psychis et Amoris fabula a Raphnele, &c., Rome, 1603 ; Roman work
and Gruner, Fresco Decoratinns in Italy, London, 1854, pls. 16-18. These three stages were usually distinguished as study, sketch, The group of the Triton and lymph on
left of the composition was probably executed by Giulio Romano.
(also in 1513) his celebrated Sibyls in S. Maria della Pace, | known about the Madonna di S. Sisto, the glory of the
one of Raphael's finest portraits, though only a chalk
The tapestry cartoons, seven of which are in the South Kensington Museum, were painted by pupils from Raphael's designs. They are part of a set of ten, with scenes from the Acts of the Apostles, intended, when copied in tapestry, to adorn the lower part of the walls of the Sistine chapel
. The tapestries themselves, worked at Brussels, are now, after many vicissitudes, hung in a gallery in the Vatican; the set is complete, thus preserving the design of the three lost cartoons. The existing seven, after being cut ир
into strips for use on the looms, were bought by Rubens for Charles I. 6 The tapestry copies are executed with wonder
ful skill, in spite of Raphael's having treated the subjects Fig. 6.- Mosaic of God creating the stars, from the Chigi chapel, in
in a purely pictorial way, with little regard to the exicentre of dome, designed by Raphael.
gencies of textile work. The designs are reversed, and the planets, each with its pagan deity and directing angel.3 colours far more brilliant than those of the cartoons, much He has not hampered himself by any of the usual rules gold and silver being introduced. The noble figure of which should apply to the designing of mosaic; they are
Christ in the Delivery of the Keys to St Peter is in the simply treated as pictures, with almost deceptive effects tapestry much disfigured by the addition of a number of of perspective. The execution of these brilliant mosaics large gold stars all over the drapery, which spoil the simple was carried out by the Venetian Luigi della Pace, whose dignity of the folds. The rich" framework round each picsignature is introduced on the torch of Cupid in the panel ture, designed by Raphael's pupils, probably by Penni and representing the star Venus (Ludovico della
Giovanni da Udine, exists in the tapestries and adds greatly
to their decorative effect. The cartoons were executed in
DP are still as perfect and brilliant as if they
1515 and 1516, and the finished tapestries were first exhiwere the work of yesterday. Probably in
F 1516 bited in their place in the Sistine chapel on 26th December the early years of Leo X.'s reign were painted the Madonna 1519,-a very short time for the weaving of such large della Seggiola (Pitti), the S. Cecilia at Bologna (not com
and elaborate pictures.
The three of which the cartoons pleted till 1510), the miniature Vision of Ezekiel (Pitti), are lost represent the Martyrdom of St Stephen, the Conand three important pictures at Madrid. The latest of version of St Paul, and St Paul in Prison at Philippi. these, known as Lo Spasimo, from the church at Palermo, Probably no pictures are better known or have been more for which it was painted, is one of Raphael's finest com
often engraved and copied than these seven cartoons.? positions, representing Christ bearing His Cross. It bears
The Transfiguration. S _In 1519 Cardinal Giuliano de' signs of Giulio Romano's hand in its heavy colouring with Medici (afterwards Clement VII.), as bishop of Narbonne, unpleasant purple tones. The Madonna called Della Perla ordered two altar-pieces for his cathedral,--the one by has much changed from the darkening of the pigments; Raphael, the other by Raphael's Venetian rival Sebastiano in design it recalls Leonardo da Vinci.4 The small del Piombo (see SEBASTIANO). That by the latter painter Madonna della Rosa is the most perfect in colour of all
is the noble Resurrection of 'Lazarus, now in the National the master's pictures in the Madrid Gallery, and is usually Gallery, in the drawing of which the Venetian received rather undervalued; it is a most graceful little picture. important aid from Michelangelo. Several studies for The portrait of Leó X. with Cardinals de' Rossi and de' Raphael's picture exist, showing that he at first intended Medici, in the Pitti, is one of his finest portrait-pictures, to paint a Resurrection of Christ as a pendant to Sebasespecially as regards the figure of the pope. Little is tiano's subject, but soon altered his scheme into the Trans
figuration. The eight or nine existing studies are scattered 1 Thanks to Michelangelo's generous intervention, Raphael was paid through the Oxford, Lille, Windsor, and some private the large sum for that time of 900 gold ducats for this fresco.
? Gruner, Mosaici in S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, 1839.
O Fortunately they were not sold with the bulk of Charles's collec-
they were made at Brussels. It is much to be regretted that visitors 5 The magnificent portrait-heads of the Venetian scholars Navagero to the Vatican are no longer allowed to see these priceless examples of and Beazzano, now in the Doria Gallery in Rome, are worthy of Raphael textile work. at his best, and have for long been attributed to him. There are good 8 See Morgenstern, Ueber Rafael's Verklärung, Leipsic, 1822, and contemporary copies at Madrid.
Justi, Die Verklärung Christi, Leipsic, 1870.
collections. A great part of the lower group was un- | preliminary part of the sculptor's art, though there is no evidence
to show that he ever worked on marble.4 One of these is a letter finished at the time of the painter's sudden death in 1520, and a good deal of the heavy colouring of Giulio Romano vading his province as a sculptor by modelling a boy, which had
written to Michelangelo to warn him that Raphael had been inis visible in it. On the death of Raphael the picture be- been executed in marble by a pupil, and was a work of much came too precious to send out of Rome, and Cardinal de beauty. Again, after his death his friend Baldassare Castiglione, Medici contented himself with sending the Resurrection of in a letter dated $th May 1523, asks his steward in Rome "if Lazarus to Narbonne. The Transfiguration was bequeathed and what liis lowest price for it would be," "s'egli [Giulio Romano)
Giulio Romano still possesses a certain boy in marble by Raphael by him to the monks of S. Pietro in Montorio, in whose
ha più quel puttino di marmo di mano di Raffaello e per quanto si church it remained till it was stolen by Napoleon I. It daria all'ultimo.” A group in marble of a Dead Boy on his Dolphin
Playfellow, now in now hangs in the Vatican Gallery. Architectural Work. 1— Though he designed but few buildings, Hermitage, has been
the St Petersburg Raphael's great repute even in this branch of art is shown by the fact that Bramante, before his death in March 1514, specially
to be requested that Raphael should be made his successor as chief archi- Raphael's "puttoet of St Peter's. To this most important post he was appointed tino,” which has also
been identified with by a brief of Leo X., dated 1st August 1511. The progress of St
a statuette of a chill Peter's was, however, too slow for him to leave much mark on its design. Another work of Bramante's, completed by Raphael, was
till recently at Florthe graceful Cortile di S. Damaso in the Vatican, including the
ence in the possession loggie, which were decorated with stucco-reliefs and paintings of
of Signor Molini.5
The statue of Jonah sacred subjects by his pupils under his own supervision, but only
executed in very partially from his designs.” The Palazzo dell'Aquila, built
marble by Lorenfor Giovanni Battista Branconio, and destroyed in the 17th century during the extension of St Peter's, was one of Raphael's chief work's zetto, a Florentine as an architect. He also designed the little cross church, domed sculptor; and it reat the intersection like a miniature St Peter's, called s. Eligio mained in his studio degli Orefici, which still exists near the Tiber, almost opposite the
for many years after Farnesina gariens, a work of but little merit. According to M.
Raphael's death. The
South Kensington Geymüller, whose valuable work, Raffaello come Architetto, Milan,
Museum possesses a 1883, has done so much to increase our knowledge of tifis subject, the l'illa Farnesina of Agostino Chigi, usually attributed to Peruzzi,
small clay sketch for
this beautiful group, was, as well as its palace-like stables, designed by Raphael ; but
dillerent internal evidence makes this very difficult to believe. It has too slightly much of the delicate and refined character of the 15th century for
from the marble ; it Raphael, whose tasto seems to have been strongly inclined to the
is probably the orimore developed classic style, of which Palladio afterwards became ginal design by the
master's own hand. the chief exponent. The Palazzo Vidoni, near S. Andrea della Valle, also in Rome, is usually attributed to Raphael, but an
The whole feeling of original sketch for this in Peruzzi's own hand has recently been
the group—a beautiidentified among the collection of drawings at Siena ; this, how
ful youth seated on ever, is not a certain proof that the design was not Raphael's. M.
sea - monster - is Geymüller has, however, shown that the Villa Madama, on the purely classical, and slopes of Monte Mario above Rome, was really designed by him,
the motive is prob
ably taken from though its actual carrying out, and the unrivalled stucco-reliefs
Fig. 7.-Statue of Jonah in the Chigi chapel, which make its interior one of the most magnificent palaces in the
some antique statue world, are due to Giulio Romano and Giovanni da Udine, as men
representing Arion designed by Raphael, sculptured by Lorenor Taras on a dol
zetto ; heroic size. tioned in Vasari's life of the latter. The original design for this phin. Being intended for a church it was necessary to give the villa made by Raphael himself has been discovered by W. Gey: ligure a sacrel name, and hence the very incongruous title that it S. Maria del Popolo, built in 1516, for the dome of which the received. There is no trace of Raphael's hand in the design of the above-mentioned mosaics were designed (see fig. 6). At the time
other statue, an Elijah by Lorenzetto, though it also is ascribed to
him by Vasari. of his death he was preparing to build himself a handsome palace near the church of S. Eligio ; the deed for the purchase of its site
Lesser Arts practised by Raphael.–Like other great artists, was signed by him only a few days before his last short illness. Raphael did not disdain to practise the lesser branches of art : a Though not completel till 1530, the Palazzo Pandolfini at Florence design for a silver Perfume-burner with female caryatids is preserved was also designed by him ; it is a dull scholastic building without
in an engraving by Marco da Ravenna, and he also designed two
handsome repoussé salvers for Agostino Chigi, drawings for which any special beauty cither in proportion or treatment of the mass; it is illustrated by Montigny and Famin, Architecture Toscane, ing he was especially skilful ; witness the magnificent doors and
are now at Dresılen. In designs for tarsia-work and wood-carv. Paris, 1815, pls. 33-36.
shutters of the stanze executed by his pupil Giovanni Barile of A sober criticism of Raphael's architectural works must force one
Siena,? The majolica designs attributed to him were by a name. to refuse him a high position in this branch of art. In the church
sake and relation called Raffaello di Ciarla ;8 and, though many of S. Eligio and the Chigi chapel he is merely a copyist of Bramante,
fine dishes and ewers of Urbino and other majolica are decorated and his more original works show but little power of invention or
with Raphael's designs, they are all taken from pictures or engrav. eren mastery of the first principles of architectural design. His details are, however
, often delicate and refined (especially in the ings, not specially done by him for ceramic purposes. With the Palazzo Pandolfini), and he was supremely successful in the decora
frivolity of his age Leo I. occasionally wasted Raphael's skill on tive treatment of richly ornamented interiors when he did not, as
unworthy oljects, such as the scenery of a temporary theatre; and
in 1516 the pope set him to paint in fresco the portrait life-size in some of the Vatican stanze, sacritico the room to the frescos on its walls.
of a large clephant, the gift of the king of Portugal, after the Sculpture. --That Vasari is right in attributing to him the model for the beautiful statue of Jonah in the Chigi chapel (tig. 7) is
4 See note on r. 369, vol. iv., of Milanesi's edition of Tasari, Florence, 1879.
To one branch of the sculptor's art, practised under Raphael's snpervision, horne witness to by two important documents, which show that belong the elaborate and delicately executed stucco-reliels of the loggie and his almost universal talents led him to attempt with success the
Among these occur many panels with figure-subjects, large in
scale and important in composition ; those executed during his lifetime ara See Ojetti, Discorso su Raffaello Architetto, Rome, 1883, but more especially free from the too pictorial character which is an obvious fault in the very Geymullers Fork mentioned below, and his Projets Primitifs pour la Dis. de S.
5 See Aprendir, r. 401, vol. iv., of Milanesi's elition of Pasari; Rembali, Sve Mariani, la Bibhin nelle Logie de l'aliano, Rome; Anon., Dipinti
Duel putto . . . di Raffaello, Florence, 1872; Gennarelli, Smyra una scultura di mello Luggie del lavoro, Rome, 1941; and Gruner, Frroco Decorations, London, Mafaello, Florence, 1573.
The evidence which would attribute this pece of IN A pla 1.5. Too great a share in the decoration of the loggie is usually given sculpture to Raphael is almost worthless.
Se on the St Petersburg TORP, to Rapharl: not only the harsh colour but also the feebleness of much of the Gurdeopoff, telur die dem Iaphael zunarhr. Harmoniruppur, St Peter Bonra, 152 druring shome that he can have had but little to do with it.
6 Compare this latter subject on reverses of the beautiful didrachins of Sue Gruner, Fresma Dhomtions, &c., London, 1934, pls. 6-12, and Raffaelle Tarentum, c. 500 BC. Santi, Ornata della Villa Vadomo, &c., Rome, 1973 Two other little known
7 The very leautiful and elaborate choir-stalls of the church of S Pietro de But very lwautiful architectural works, executed ainder Raphael's
Casinensi at Perugia, with panels carred in relief, errented in 1533 loy Stefano hy his piepils, are the bath mom of Canlinal Bibbiena in the Vatican and the da Bergamo, are mainly adajted from Rapharl's desins. hathinin eni of Clement til in the castle of S. Angelo, both richly decorated
8 Campari, Notizie Stor, d. Naiolica di Ferrari, sudeci., Pesaro, 1879, ITwith delicate stucco-reliefs and paintings, treated after a classical model.
magniticent reliefs of the Villa Malama.
Pirte, Paris, 1973-SO.
animal was dead. This elephant is also introduced among the for a church, a large historical fresco, a portrait, or decorstucco reliefs of the Vatican loggie, with the poetaster Barrabal | ative scenes from classical mythology, he seems to excel sitting in mock triumph on its back.
Though Raphael himself does not appear to have practised the art equally in each; and the widely different methods of of engraving, yet this formed one of the many branches of art which painting in tempera, oil, or fresco are employed by him were carried on under his supervision. A large number of his with apparently equal facility. His range of scale is no designs were engraved by his pupils Marcantonio Raimondi (see less remarkable, varying from a miniature, finished like an vol. xv. p. 530)
and Agostino Veneziano. These valuable engravings are from Raphael's sketches, not from his finished pictures,
illuminated MS., to colossal figures in fresco dashed in and in some cases they show important alterations inade in the
with inimitable breadth and vigour. execution of the picture. Raimondi's engraving of the S. Cecilia An additional glory is thrown round his memory by the of Bologna in design is very inferior to that of the actual painting. personal beauty, charm of manner, and deep kindliness of Several of Raphael's most important compositions are known to us
heart which endeared him to all who knew him. His only by these early engravings, e.g., the Massacre of the Innocents (engraved by Raimondi), which is one of his finest works, both for sincere modesty was not diminished by his admission as skilful composition and for masterly drawing of the nude. Another an equal by the princes of the church, the distinguished magnificent design is the Judgment of Paris, containing a large scholars, and the world-famed men of every class who number of figures ; the nude figure of Minerva is a work of especial formed the courts of Julius II. and Leo X. In accordance force and beauty. A standing figure of Lucretia ? about to stab herself is also one of his most lovely figures. Many of Raphael's with the spirit of the age he lived with considerable disstudies for Marcantonio's engravings still exist.
play and luxury, and was approached with the utmost Archæology.--As an antiquary Raphael deserves to take the deference by the ambassadors of foreign princes, whether highest rank. His reports to Leo X. in 1518 is an eloquent plea their master desired a picture, or, as the duke of Ferrara for the preservation of ancient buildings. In 1515 he had been appointed by Leo X. inspector of all excavations in Rome and did, sent to consult him on the best cure for smoky within 10 miles round. His careful study of the antique, both chimneys. To his pupils he was as a father, and they statues and modes of decoration, is clearly shown in many of his frescos, and especially in the graceful stucco reliefs and painted formed round him a sort of royal retinue, numbering about
were all, as Vasari says, “vinti dalla sua cortesia”; they grotteschi, of which he and his pupils made such skilful use in the decorations of the Vatican loggie, the Villa Madama, and fifty youths, each talented in some branch of the arts.6 elsewhere.4
Giulio Romano and Gianfrancesco Penni, his two favourite Raphael's Fame.- When we consider the immense field pupils, lived with him in the Palazzo di Bramante, a house over which his labours were spread and the strong personal near St Peter's, where he resided during the greater part individuality which appears in all these varied branches of of his life in Rome. This fine palace, designed by Braart, together with the almost incredible number of paint mante, was destroyed in the 17th century at the same ings that issued from his studio, it will be seen that he time as Raphael's Palazzo dell'Aquila. must have laboured with an amount of unflagging industry It is difficult to realize the furor of grief and enthusiasm which has perhaps never been surpassed, and that too in a excited by the master's death on Good Friday 1520, at the time and in a city of which the social habits and luxurious age of thirty-seven exactly, after an attack of fever which splendour certainly threw every possible temptation in the lasted only ten days. His body was laid out in state in way of steady application and regular work.
his studio, by the side of the unfinished Transfiguration, Among all the painters of the world none has been so and all Rome flocked to the place for a last sight of the universally popular as Raphael, or has so steadily main-“divino pittore." His property amounted to about tained his pre-eminent reputation throughout the many £30,000 ; his drawings and MSS. he left to Giulio changes in taste which have taken place in the last three Romano and Gianfrancesco Penni; his newly bought land and a half centuries. Apart from his combined merits as to Cardinal Bibbiena, the uncle of the lady to whom he a draughtsman, colourist, and master of graceful composi- had been betrothed; there were liberal bequests to his tion, he owes the constancy of admiration which has been servants; and the rest was mostly divided among his felt for him partly to the wide range of his subjects, but relatives at Urbino. He desired to be buried in the Panstill more to the wonderful varieties of his style. If the theon, under the noble dome which he and Bramante had authorship of his paintings were unknown, who would dreamed of rivalling. His body is laid beside an altar, guess that the Sposalizio of the Brera, the Madonna del which he endowed with an annual chantry, and on the Baldacchino of the Pitti, and the Transfiguration could wall over it is a plain slab, with an inscription written by possibly be the work of one painter? In his earliest pic- his friend Cardinal Bembo. Happily his grave has as yet tures he touches the highly spiritual and sacred art of the escaped the disfigurement of a pretentious monument such Perugian Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, while in his latest Roman as those erected to Michelangelo, Dante, and other great work he is fully embarked in che pagan spirit of the last Italians; it has not, however, remained undisturbed : in development of the Renaissance, already on the brink of 1833 it was opened and the bones examined. In March the most rapid decline. In the seventeen or eighteen years 1883 a festival was held at Urbino, on the occasion of the which composed his short working life he passed through 4th centenary of his birth, and on this occasion many stages of development for which a century would not have interesting articles on Raphael were published, especially seemed too long, while other painters lived through the one by Geymüller, "Le Ivo Centenaire de la Naissance same changeful time with but little alteration in their de Raphaël,” 1483-1883, in the Gaz, de Lausanne, March manner of work. Perugino, who outlived his wonderful 1883. pupil, completed in 1521 Raphael's San Severo fresco in Literature.—Comolli, Vita incdita di Raffaello, 1790 ; Duppa, a style differing but little from his paintings executed in Life of Raphael
, London, 1816; Braun, Raphael Leben und the previous century.
Werke, Wiesbaden, 1819; Fea, Raffacllo .
cd alcune di lui In versatility of power Raphael (as a painter) remains 1824 ; Quatremère de Quincy, Vita ed Opere di Raffaello, trans
Opere, Rome, 1822; Rehberg, Rafaci Sanzio aus Urbino, Munich, almost without a rival; whether painting an altar-piece Longhena, Milan, 1829 (a work marred by many inaccuracies)
Rumohr, Veber Raphacl und sein Verhältniss, Berlin, 1831 ; Rio1 Under it was inscribed—“Raphael Urbinas quod natura abstu
Michelange et Raphaël, Paris, 1863 ; Gruyer, Raphaël et l'Antiquite lerat arte restituit.” 2 On a pedestal is inscribed in Greek—“Better to die than live
6 See the eloquent eulogy of his character at the end of Vasari's Life
• See Minghetti, “Gli Scolari di Raffaello," Nuova Antologia, June 3 Published by Visconti, Lettera di Raffaello a Leone X., Rome, 1880. 1840; see also Müntz, “Raphaël Archéologue,” &c., Gaz. des B. Arts, 7 See "Ritrovamento delle ossa di Raffaello,” Soc. Virtuosi al Pan October and November 1880.
teone, Rome, 1833 ; other pamphlets on this were published in th 4 See Gruyer, Raphaël et l'Antiquité, Paris, 1864.
same year by Fea, Falconieri, and Odescalchi.
(Paris, 1864), Les Vierges de Raphaël (Paris, 1878), and Raphaël, | Railway, is situated on the Byaly Lom, 970 feet above Peintre de Portraits (Paris, 1880); Grimm, Das Leben Raphaels von sea-level. It has increased in population during the last Urbino, Berlin, 1872 (intended specially to point out the errors of Vasari and Passavant, and not written in a very fair spirit); Gher- fifty years from 3000 to 10,000 inhabitants. In 1810 it ardi, Della Vita di Raffaello, Urbino, 1874 ; Springer, Raffael und was the scene of the defeat of the Turks by the Russians. Michelangelo, Leipsic, 1878; Perkins, Raphael and Michelangelo, RASHBA (8")07) stands for three rabbins of various Boston, 1878; Dohme, Kunst und Künstler des Mittelalters, Leipsic, ages and various countries. 1878 (vol. ii. of this valuable work, with many illustrations, is
1. R. SHIMEʻON BEN ELʻAZAR was a Mishnic teacher of devoted entirely to Raphael and Michelangelo); Alippi, Il Raffaello, Urbino, 1880 ; Clément, Michelange et Raphaël, 5th ed. (improved), the 2d century. Paris, 1881; Eug. Miintz, Raphaël, sa Vie, sun Euvre, &c., Paris, 2. RABBENU SHIMSHON BEN ABRAHAM of Sens wrote 1881 (this is on the whole the best single work on Raphael, both commentaries on various Mishnic treatises (see MISHNAH, from its text and its numerous well-chosen illustrations); Passavant, vol. xvi. p. 506). Rafael und sein Vater, Leipsic, 1839-58 (a valuable book, especially for its list of Raphael's works ; a new edition translated by Guasti
3. R. SHELOMOH BEN ABRAHAM (or Ben [Ibn] Addinto Italian was published at Florence in 1882, but, though printed ereth) was a disciple of Nachmanides, upon whom his so recently, this edition is in no way superior to the French one of master's mantle had fallen (see RAMBAN). He became Lacroix, Paris, 1860, which, however, is a great advance on the chief rabbi of Barcelona. Here so many disciples from original German text); Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Life and Works of the neighbouring provinces flocked to him as to excite liques de Raphaël
, Paris, 1883 (contains a good bibliography of the emulation among the Jews in the capital of Castile, who subject). The student of Raphael owes a special debt of gratitude thereupon appointed the German Rabbi Asher b. Yehiel
Reproductions of Raphael's Works. From the time of Raimondi (Rosh). At the same time religious questions poured in downwards no painter's works have been so frequently engraved. upon him from all Israel, so that it is a marvel how he The Calcografia Camerale (now called Regia) of Rome possesses could go through his mere clerical work. an enormous number of copper-plates of his pictures by a great His works extend over the whole Talmud, although not all of many good (and bad) engravers of this and the last century. Élec- them are printed. But thousands of his Responsa have been printed, trotypes of the old coppers are still worked, and are published by while many others lie in MS, at Cambridge (Add. 500). Of his the Stamperia at very moderate prices ; in the catalogue Nos. 736 other works, the enumeration of which would occupy columns, to 894 are the works of Raphael, including several books of engrav- mention can be made only of his explanations of the Agadoth of ings containing whole sets, such as the Vatican loggie, &c. A the Babylonian Talmul, containing polemic against both Christians very complete collection of photographs from these and other en- and Moslems (MS., Univ. Canıb., Add. 1567, 1). On his part in gravings is published by Gutbier and Lübke, Rafagl's Werke, sämmt- the Maimonidcan controversy see Schiller- Szinessy, Catalogue, i. liche Tafelbilder und Fresken, Dresden, 1881-82, in three large 187 sq.
(S. M. S.-S.) volumes, divided into classes, -pictures of the Madonna, frescos, RASHBAM. RABBENU SHEMUEL BEN MEIR, commonly stanzo of the Vatican, tapestry cartoons, &c. The descriptive text and life of Raphael aro by Lübke. The Malcolm, Oxford, British called, from his title and the initials of his own and his Museum, Lille
, Dresden, and other collections of Raphael's father's names, Rashbam, was born at Rameru (Ramerupt drawings have mostly been published in photographic facsimile, near Troyes, in France) about 1080. He was almost the and an enormous number of illustrated monographs on single greatest Talmudist of his time, the only two excelling him pictures exists. Braun's autotypes of the stanze and Farnesina frescos are especially good.
till 1105 being Rashi and later on his own younger brother,
(J. H. M.) RAPIN, PAUL DE (1661-1725), sieur of Thoyras, Bible criticism and exegesis, however, he excelled all the French historian, was the son of Jacques de Rapin, avocat Bible criticism, and exegesis
, however, he excelled all the at Castres (Tarn), where he was born on 25th March
men of the 11th and 12th centuries, even if we include 1661. He was educated at the Protestant academy of | R. Menahen b. Helbo, R. Yoseph Bekhor Shor, and R. Saumur, and in 1679 he became an advocate, but soon Yoseph Kara of the Franco - Ashkenazic school, and afterwards entered the army. The revocation of the Edict Abraham Ibn `Ezra of the Sepharadic school. Rashbam of Nantes in 1685 and the death of his father, which
was the son of Yokhebed, second daughter of RASHI (2.v.), happened two months afterwards, led him to come to and of Rabbenu Meir of Rameru (b. Shemuel). He sueEngland; but, unable to find employment there, he crossed ceeded his grandfather Rashi as head of the Rabbinical to Holland and enlisted in the company of French volun- college, and probably also of the congregation, of Troyes. teers at Utrecht commanded by Daniel de Rapin, his Later, however, we meet him at other places, e.9., Cåen, cousin-german. He accompanied the prince of Orange Loudun. He died about 1160. to England in 1688, and the following year Lord Kingston the Bible: (a) his commentary on the Pentateuch, uneritically
or his works the following are known. (1) Commentaries on made him ensign in his regiment, with which he proceeded edited several times (ed. princeps, Berlin, 1705), and critically and to Ireland. He took part in the siege of Carrickfergus most ably for the first time by Rosin of Breslau (1881, 8v0); (1) and the battle of the Boyne, and was shot through the
commentaries on most of the other books of the Bible, the greater shoulder at the battle of Limerick. Soon afterwards he part of which are now lost, but the existence of which is in early
. Those on Ecclesiastes and Canticles 1 was promoted captain ; but in 1693 he resigned in order published by Dr Jellinek at Leipsic (1855, 8vo); specimens of both to become tutor to the earl of Portland's son. His next books have been translated into English by Dr Ginsburg (Song of change was to return to his family, which he had settled Songs, London, 1857, and Colcloth, London, 1861). (2) Coni
mentaries on the Babylonian Talmud ; of these we now possess only at The Hague, and there he continued some years. But, I his supplements on Pesahim (leaves 99b-121b), Baba Bathră as he found his family increase, he resolved to retire to a (leaves 29a-176b), and Makkoth (leaves 19b sq. ; see the so-called more economical residence, and accordingly removed in Rashi on the Riph, in the Mishnalı, iii, 5, catchword 1212 Sym). 1707 to Wesel, where he commenced his great work Commentaries on five other treatises are distinctly referred to by L'Histoire d'Angleterre. Though he was of a strong con- old authorities, but Rashi's commentaries so thoroughly eclipsed stitution, the seventeen years' application entirely ruined all those written before and after him that none of them had a his health. He died in 1725.
chance of surviving, except in the shape of a supplement. (3)
Additamenta or Tosa photh ; see Rabbinovicz (variæ lectiones), ii., Rapin was also the author of a Dissertation sur les higs et les Torys, 1717. L'Histoire d'Angleterre, embracing the period from 1 The present writer cannot share the opinion of those who, because the invasion of the Romans to the death of Charles I., was printed of the Agadic explanations with which that commentary abounds, call at The Hague in 1724 in 8 vols. It was translated into English, Rashbam's authorship in question. Ibn 'Ezra himself, who was sober anil improved with notes, by Tindal, in 2 vols. folio, 1725-31.
thinker enough, is compelled in Canticles to resort to the Rabbinic Although the work of a foreigner, it is deservedly esteemed as one of the fullest and most impartial collections of English political explanation; - a proceeding and a method in which every modern com.
mentator must take refuge, unless he wishes to explain the book as a transactions extant.
merely profane one. RISGRAD or PIESARGRAD, a town of Bulgaria, with a ? See. Eerliner Magazin, &c., vii. 186, and Or Zarua, in several station about 2 miles distant on the Varna and Rustchuk 'places (comp. Magazin, ii. p. 100).