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Preface, p. 13, and Steinschneider, fibr. IIandschr. in der kön. Her name is unknown, as is also that of the wife whom Bib. Berlin, p. 3. (4) Rcsponsa ; see, for example, Raban (Prague, Rashi, according to Mishnic precept (Aboth, v. 21), married 1610, folio), leaves 113, col. 2, to 146b, col. 1, and elsewhere, (5) at the age of eighteen. Soon after his marriage, and with Of his controversies with Christians nothing is left except what is occasionally to be found in his commentary on the Pentateuch.

his wife's consent, he left her to prosecute his studies in (6) On his book on the calendar calculations see Berliner Magazin, Germany, returning home only from time to time. She vii. p. 185. (7) On the true author of the commentary on Aboth, bore him no sons, but three daughters. 10 ascribed to Rashbam, see Taylor, Catal., No. 20. (8) Although

Rashi had at least six teachers,—(1) his father ; (2) R. the attack on his hemero-nyction theory (commentary on Gen. i. 4, 5) was made by Ibn 'Ezra (Tygereth Ilasshabbath ; see Kerem Ya'akob b. Yaşar (chief rabbi at Worms) for Bible and Hemed, iv. 11. 159-173, and Mitħar Ilammaannarini by Nathan Talmud (Rashi on T. B., Pesaḥim, 11la), a disciple of b. Shemuel, printed at Leghorn in 1840, leaves 58a-66a) in Rash R. Gershom (Rashbam, ibid., and Siddur, ií. leaf 10a) and bam's lifetime he seems not to have answered it. (S. M. S.-S.)

friend of R. Eli'ezer haggadol; (3) his successor, R. Yishaķ RASHI (O), that is, RABBENU SHELOMOH YIŞHAĶI Segan Leviyyah (T.B., Beşah, 24b), a pupil of R. Eli'ezer (Solomon, son of Isaac), whence by Christian writers he is haggadol ; (1) his mother's brother, already named (T.B., also called Isacides 1 (1040-1105), was the greatest rabbi Shabbath, 856); (5) R. Yishaķ b. Yehudah, also a pupil of the Middle Ages. He is equally important for Biblical of R. Eliezer, and head of the community at Mainz and Talmudic study, and in the former connexion as inter- (Pardes, xxi.) ; (6) R. Elyaķim, head of the community esting to Christians as to Jews from the influence of his at Spires (ibid., clix., clxxxi., ccxc., cccvi.). Besides the exegesis on Luther's Bible (through De Lyra; see vol. xi. oral instruction of his teachers, Rashi had and used copies p. 601) and on the English version of the Old Testament of, and commentaries on, sundry parts of the Talmud (inainly through Ibn 'Ezra, and still more through Ķimhi). written by these scholars themselves or by their teachers Rashi is the most eminent of the “sages” or “great men or disciples (T. B., Berakhoth, 39a, 57b; Shabbath, 10b; of Lothaire” 2 (0%, i.e., Lorraine) in whom culminated R. Ilasshanah, 28a; Sukkah, 45b; Siddur, ii. leaf 10a). that movement of Jewish scholarship to which Charlemagne He had also before him all the Jewish literature existing had given the first impulse. From the Jew Isaac, first in- and known at his time, as the Bible, part of the Apo terpreter and then ambassador in his famous mission to crypha, all the Targums, sundry cabbalistic works (Sepher Hárún ar-Rashid, Charlemagne had doubtless learned how rexiroh, Ilekhaloth, &c.11), both Talmuds, the Midrashim, superior in literary attainments the Jews of the East were Skeeltoth, Ilalukhoth Gedoloth, Teshuboth Haggeonim, the to those of the West, and therefore he gave great privileges works of R. Mosheh Haddarshan, the lexicographical works to the accomplished Makhirites 3 who were introduced into of Menahem b. Seruķ and Donash b. Labrat, and, last but the south of France, and spread Jewish culture and litera- not least, the commentaries of R. Gershom, which he used ture there. Later on he brought from Rome to Mainz largely, but mostly silently. He also used the works of the Kalonymites, a family of distinguished Talmudists, his own contemporaries, such as the 'Arukh.13 His studies poets, &c., of Lucca ;5 and soon Spires, Worms, and Mainz completed, Rashi returned to his native town and opened (spoken of as Shum, D'1“) became famous seats of Jewish a school for Bible and Talmud. His fame quickly rose; learning; their ordinances (Takkınoth Shum) were of norm- disciples gathered round him from the whole north of ative authority for centuries, and the study of the IIebrew France and south of Germany, and men in office, who had Bible and the Babylonian Talmud steadily spread from grown grey in study, addressed to him " religious quessouthern Germany to northern France. Though Spires, tions,” his""answers" to which give us insight into his Worms, and Mainz by the partition treaty of Verdun in character, piety, and ability.14 He died on 13th (not 26th) 843 belonged to East Frankland, yet in Jewish literature July 1105,15 having already seen two of his grandsons “inLothaire includes these cities; and all the greatest doctors

9 See ļlophes Matmonim, ed. Goldberg, p. 2 (nwOw78082 D"71 of Jewish lore in the south of Germany or north of France

) belong to the “great men” or “sages of Lothaire.”6 Rashi

10 They married three of their father's disciples. The husband of was born, in the year in which the last nominal gaon of the eldest was, according to Schiller-Szinessy (Camb. Cat., ii. 88 sq., Pumbadithā died, at Troyes, where his father Yishaḥ was note 1), R. Simhah of Vitry-le-Français (ob. 1105), reputed author of no doubt rabbi. R. Yishaḥ was probably a disciple of R. the Jah.cor l'itii, which, if the other MSS. so called have no better (tershom ; certainly he was an eminent Talmudist.? His

title to the name than that in the British Museum, Add. 27200-1, must

now be regarded as lost (Taylor, Catal. I/SS. of Aboth, &c., No. 20; wife, Rashi's mother, was a sister of R. Shime'on hazzaķen. Schiller-Szinessy, op. cit., ii. 61 sq.). The issue of this marriage was

1 The interpretation of the ' of ""7 as meaning Yarchi (Jarchi), (1) R. Shema'yah of Soissons (see MISHNAH, vol. xvi. p. 506); (2) i.l., of Lunel, is not to be charged on Buxtorf, nor on Seb. Miinster,

R. Shemuel, who married his cousin, Rashbam's only sister. Rashi's being alreadly found in the text of the Pugio Filei of Raymundus second daughter, Yokhebel, inarried R. Meir of Rameru (b. Shemuel), a Martini, written in the second half of the 13th century.

brother of R. Simhah. IIe was father of four sons, -(1) Ribam (R. ? Lothaire never means Lhuitre (Luistre), as appears from the phrase Yishak b. Meir), who died in his father's lifetime; (2) RASHBAM (q.r.);

5 nuose,“ realm of Lothaire.” Instead of us muy in Rashi's (3) R. Tham or Rath; (4) R. Shelomoh (Br. Mus., Add. 27200, leaf 1586) so-called Sidulur, ii. leaf 33a, must be read 740015 any, as will be easily plemented his father-in-law's conimentary on Makkoth, and wrote the seen froin the context.

commentary that goes by Rashi's name on T. B., Nazir, &c. Their son's 3 See Yousin IIasshalem (London anıl Elinburgh, 1857, Svo), p. 81. name was R. Yom Tob (Sepher Ilayyushar, Vienna, 1810, $ 599).

4 Possibly also, like some princes of the 10th century, Charlemagne 11 See Rashi, T. B., Berakhoth, 51a; ļIagīguh, 13a ; Sukkah, 452 ; encouraged Jewish literature in order to keep at home the considerable and many other places. See also Siddur, ii. leaf 22h, col. 2 (on the suins which the Jews had been wont to send to the Babylonian geonim. reading of the Shemei in bed). Such passages as ķiddushin, 71a, do

5 See 'EmeIlabbakha, ed. Letteris (Vienna, 1852, 12mo), p. 13, not, when rightly understool, testify to the contrary. Rashi's “they” and Wiener's German translation (Leipsic, 1858, 8vo), p. 8. Reshal's refers not to his contemporary teachers, but to those of the Talmud wko Responsa, $ xxix., is unfortunately corrupt in many places.

"lad not explained to us the IIoly Names of the Twelve and Forty-two." See Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27200, leaf 24a.

It is therefore quite untrue that Rashi “knew nothing of kabbalah,' 7 This appears from an explanation quoted from him by his son 12 R. Gershom, "the light of the Diaspora ” (see vol. xvi. p. 506), on a passage of 'bodah Zarah (f. 750, catchword "baxS). This died in the year in which Rashi was born, and was the immediate

teacher of his teachers, treatise was at that time scarcely studied, even by eminent rabbis, and

One of his commentaries is printed in the the explanation is markedly superior to one which Rashi also gives Shittah Jokubbeseth on Karcthoth, Vienna, 1878, folio. from R. Ya'akob b. Yakar, hitherto regarded as the most eminent 13 See T. B., Shabbath, 13b, catchword 53187. of his teachers.

11 See ļIophes Jatmonim, P. 8. 8 Not to be confounded with his older contemporary, the poet and 15 See MS. De-Rossi (Roy. Libr., Parma) 175 (Catal., p. 116), and Halakhist, Shine'on b. Yishak haggadol. The epithets "hazzaken " and MS. Luzzatto (Literaturll. il. Orients, vii. p. 418). This precious MS., “haggados” both mean “the elder,” but the epithet is varied to clistin which subsequently belonged to Halberstam of Bielitz, is now the guish the persons,

property of the master of St John's College, Cambridge.

.(לפניהם

terpreting' in his presence, and the budding intelligence | massekhtoth death surprised him. Rashi on the Talmud has never of a third, who became the greatest Talmudist of his age. been printed apart from the text, and so the first complete cilition

Rashi, though not the originator of all that he teaches in his is that contained in the editio princeps of the Babylonian Talmud cominentary on the Talmud, had so digested the whole literature (Venice, 1520-23, folio). Portions háil come out before with parts bearing on that stupendous work that his teaching, even when it

of the Talmud (Soncino, 1483, and elsewhere later). There are BISS. appears to be imitative, is really creative. In his Biblical com

containing Rashi on isolated Talmudic treatises in various libraries : mentaries he has not, of course, grammatical and philological

the Cambrilge University Library and British Museum have six knowledge of the modern type, but he had a very fine sense for each, the Boilleian twelve, the Paris National Library seven. linguistic points, which was not equalled, much less surpassed, by

C. The Religious Decisions (D'PDE) given by Rashi are to be found the greatest rabbis who followed him. He gave satisfaction, if not

in various works, principally in the so-called Siidur (i. and ii.) and to all, at least to the best of his time, and, as the great Geriau

Happardes (Warsaw, 1870, folio) — called Huppardes lugyalol to poet says, “ he who has given satisfaction to the best of his time distinguish it from the abridgment by, R. Shemuel of Bamberg fives for all ages."

(13th century) called Likkute Ilapparılıs (Venice, 1519, 4to)—a Rasn's WorkS.-A. Bible Commucntary (~72).—Rashi com

work of which Rashi himself seems to have laid the foundation, mented on the whole of the Hebrew Bible except Job, chaps. xl.

though other literature on other subjects is now mixed up with it. 21 to the end, and the books of Chronicles. Kimhi's is the only

Of the same nature are Irrorah and 7777 1DX, MSS. of which lic Rabbinical commentary which can be said to have successfully

at Munich (kindly lent to the writer by Merzbacher) anil Oxford. approached this great work in its influence on Jewishi scholarship; Various halakhoth, &c., are also to be found in various mahzorim and on the Pentateuch Rashi had no rival. For centuries too his

(2.g., the Cambridge MS. Add. 667, leaves 153-156, and elsewhere), was the text-book in boys' schools throughout the Jewish world—and

the Shibbole IIallehrt, ii. (by R. Șilkiyyahu b. Abraham Harophe, in some countries it is so still, its depth and subtilty being com

Cambridge US. Ald. 653). bined with simplicity of exposition. Its currency is attested by

D. Poems (D'O15).-Rashi was no poet by profession and much more than a hundred supercommentaries, translations, extracts,

less by genius; but he had a tenderly feeling heart, and saw the and the like, of which there are about fifty in print. An eminent

horrors of the first crusade ; and he wrote Scliņoth (propitiatory rabbi declares that Rashi may be substituted for the Targum "in

and penitential prayers), which are by no means without their the reading of the weekly pericope" (Reshal, Yam shel Shclomoh

value. One is einbocliecl in the additional service of the day of on Killushin, ii. $ 14). Rashi's influence on Christian scholars has

atonement and begins “ Tunnoth. Şoroth(Reshal's Responsa, § already been allu led to. N. de Lyra copied him so closely as to vaix), and several more, which form the acrostic Shelomoh bar be called his "ape."

Yishak, are found in the collection of the Selihoth of the AshTranslations. The whole commentary was rendered into Latin

kenazic rite. It is not improbable also that the Aramaic Reshuth by PELLICANIS (9.2.), but never printed, and again by Breithaupt

iv. to the Haphtarah in Targum (introiluction to the prophetic (3 vols. Ito, Gotha, 1710-14). This version includes the spurious portion as given in Yonathan b. 'l'zz'iel's Aramaic paraplırase), commentary on Chronicles and is accompanied by notes. Of separate which is to be found in the Reuchlinian Colex De Lagarde, parts there are printed versions of Gcn. i.-vi. (Scherzer, 1663), Gen. Prophetæ chaldaice, Leipsie, 1872, 8vo, leaf 192), is his. It is vi.- xi. (Abicht, 1705), Gen. xlix. (Loscani, 1710), Hosea (Mercier,

much his style, and the acrostic is Shelomoh (and not you'). It 1621), Joel, Jonah (Leus.len, 1656), Joel (Genebraru, 1563), Jonah, is also very probable that Rrshuth v. is his. If so, he must have Zephaniah, Obauliah (Pontac, 1556), Obadiah (Crocius, 1673), Malachi composed it when very young, as several expressions in it testify. (S. de Muis, 1618), Ps. xix. (Id., 1620), Proverbs (Giygirus, 1620), E. Lrucim (DryS). — In his commentaries Rashi, like R. Gershom Canticles (Genebrard, 1570), Ruth (Carpzov, 1703), Esther (11quinas, before him and others after him, often introdures French words 1622). The Pentateuch was translated into German by L. Dukes (chiefly verbs and nouns) to give precision to his explanations. (Pragnie, 1833-38, 810); Genesis was done by L. Haymann (Bonn, Of these Lc'azim there are certainly more than 3000, and they are 1833, 8vo). Editions, especially of the Pentateuch, are very numer most valuable to the student of old French. Unfortunately copyists, ous. Only some of the chief can here be named, -(a) on the whole notably in Italy, and printers subsequently, have often substituted Bible, with the sarrel text-Venice, 1545, 1595, 1607 (all three in their own vernacular for the original French ; there are now creu 401; Cracow, 1010, 4to ; Basel, 1618, folio ; (h) Pentateuch with Russian words to be found in Rashi. Four hundred years ago trat (all sm. folio) - Bologna, 1482 ; Ixar, 1190 ; Lisbon and explanations of some of these Liucim and of those of Kimhi were Naples, 1191; (c) l'entateuch without text-Reggio, 1175, folio offered by the author of Juw burile lor Naples, 1498). Other (the first llebrow book printeil with date); s.l. ct w., but before 1.180, contributions have followed intermittingly down to the present 4to : Soncino, 1487, folio. MSS. of Rasli on the whole Bible are time (Brothers Bonili in Or Esther, Dessau, 1812; Dormitzer and very rare, and even those which are supposed to be such turn out, Landau in Jurpr Lushon, Oddessa, 1805, 12mol. The labours of J. on examination, to be either incomplete or defurtive, or both. There Arsene Darmstöter promise to lie exhaustive', aul are based on exlics a precious MS. in Leyilen (1 Scal.); but it is a trille defective tensive collations, see Romumi, Ipril 1872, p. 116 s. in Exlus. St John's College, Cambridge, possesses a still more There is no satisfactory life of Ra-lii: most torrent account rest olla li foloy ancient and precious 15. (1. 3; late 1239); Put it lacks the lenta Zunz (1-2), which has tot bernieporintul in his collected works. (S. M. S.-S.) touch and Ezra - Nehemiah), anl is defective in the end though, RISIT (also Räscht, Rescht, Rashil, and Resht), a it is fitte, only in Chronicles, which is not Rashi's, as mentioned before! But MSS. of Rishi on the Pentateuch, both oll anıl good,

town in northern l'ersia, situated in 37'18 X. lat, and abound. There are few libraries in Europe that have not one or 19'37' E. long., capital of the richly wooded maritime pro. two of this commentary. It is to be hopil, therefore, that Dr 1. vince of Gilan, contains from 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. Berliner, who has almaly celited critically Rasli on the Pentateuch Eastwick, who was there in 1861, accepts the former berlin, 18on, Svol, although not on the faith of a silicient mumbat estimate, but states that the place was four times as popullof MSS., will soon ille a seront and superior clition. B. Commentary on the Dubylonian Tolmuil

. 072917. -- Ra-hi lous before the plague of 18:31. The clistance from Enzelli, hul not been cal a hundred years when it was folt in the learned on the southern shores of the ('a-pian, the actual port of lisForlil that no such master in the Talmud had ever exi-teel before embarkation for passengers and grounds from Rusia, is about pretthon only emluulivol in his commentary), the sea of the Baby 1.16 miles, of which 1.3 (to Pari Bazuar) are accomplished lonia Talmu coull not surely be siled on. lle berame now tie in an open boat, the last part his river, lont for the ino-t tokhreven of the Jews in the East. He coinmentel on the whole part over a widespread brackish lake or lagoon (muridíb), of the Talmal to which crem-ra is attached -MIHS". Prept abounding in wild foul, surrounded by reeds, and separated 01.Valerion from leaf 22b to the end, Viveir anıl Turiniol from beyin

From Lari Bazar oing to enl. bisi Bathni from ...to the end, and Mukkuth from i from the sea by a narrow belt of sanci. lr of 19h to the end In commenting on the two last-named to Rasht the roail, piercing through forint and swamp,

had for many long pars leen momosalile only for its IT spolement to the former is generally ascribe to R. Yaakob 1:1r : its relation to the author of the Ms.comment iry on lol lumbi puklles anil pools, ita ruta alivl 111...ness, love it has more 11.11. Lats, DS. 33: h24 still to ly worked ont. The commentary recently under one yto at improvement. ls for the town on osnutes in which Rashi is three times cited by name 2 ohron. I itself, the tile-i hones in the streves, and the lates, lineal 11:15, v. 11. nnil xxiii. 11) is the work of a tierran rabili reiling with herder and cottage in the enviro, import a chrot: in IT's!!

sie J. II. Mains, l'ita Rouhlini, 1687. Præf. The thanks of the fulness to the locality little in unison with the sickly and pen! #pier are due to the curators anıl librarian of the Budleian for fiver-stricken faces and forms of the inhabitants. Yittle t... of aliis luok.

1

beauty and hazel eyrn of the chilelren), wiil their "tru. la the wront see Schiller-Szinesey, Cortstogu7, i. p. 191. nnte. * 11is disciple, son-in-law, and continuator Rablenn Vihulah h.: Englislı pink and white complexionis" motivo y Entwiki S:!!ian writes : ' At the wont 'tahor' pure the soul of our teacher

are not significant of inheritordenesration. well out in parity."

Rasht is the residence of a Riinan and an English

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consul, and the seat of a local governor nominated by the brought out the first complete editions of Snorro's Edda shah. It is the centre of the silk trade, which once and Sæmund's Edda, in the original text, along with flourished so greatly in Persia as to show an annual export Swedish translations of both Eddas, the originals and the of nearly a million and a half pounds in weight, valued at versions occupying each two volumes. From Stockholm £700,000. In 1882, however, the prevalence of disease he went in 1819 to St Petersburg, where he wrote, in among the silkworms caused many of the peasants of Gilan German, a paper on “The Languages and Literature of to abandon the culture of silk in favour of rice, which Norway, Iceland, Sweden, and Finland,” which was pubbecame largely exported to Russia. But the geographical lished in the sixth number of the Vienna Jahrbücher. position of Rasht gives it a world-wide reputation irre- From Russia he proceeded through Tartary into Persia, spective of trade. If the roads by Trebizond, Erzeroum, and resided for some time at Tabriz

, Teheran, Persepolis, and Tabriz on the one hand and by Poti, Tiflis, and Tabriz and Shiraz. In about six weeks he made himself suffion the other can still be considered the two "commercial ciently master of the Persian to be able to converse highways” from Europe to Persia, the line of land and freely in that language with the natives. In 1820 he water communication by Astrakhan and the south-eastern embarked at Bushire for Bombay; and during his residence shores of the Caspian has a good claim to be called the in the latter city he wrote, in English, “A Dissertation on true modern highway for travellers and diplomatists moving the Authenticity of the Zend Language(Trans. Lit. Soc. in the same direction.

of Bombay, vol. iii., reprinted with corrections and addiRasht was visited in 1739 by “two English gentlemen from tions in Trans. R. As. Soc.). From Bombay he proceeded Petersburg," whose narrative, published three years later, contains through India to Ceylon, where he arrived in 1822, and much interesting information on the existing relations of Gilan with Russia. It is noteworthy, but not astonishing, to find that in

soon afterwards wrote, in English, “A Dissertation respectthose days the sháh (Nálir Kúli) was himself in a manner the ing the best Vethod of expressing the Sounds of the sole merchant or trader in all Persia.” In 1744 Jonas IIanway Indian Languages in European Characters,” which was came there also ; but no fuller account of the capital of Gilan has printed in the Transactions of the Literary and Agricultural perhaps ever been recorded than that of Samuel Gmelin, in 1771; Society of Colombo. Rask returned to Copenhagen in May wlen Hilaiyat Khán rulel the province, and Karin Khán Zeal was sovereign of Persia. Gmelin was received with extraordinary 1823, bringing with him a considerable number of Oriental

of Russia, and every opportunity manuscripts, Persian, Zend, Pali, Singalese, and others, was afforded him of observing the country, its features and produce, which now enrich the collections of the Danish capital. and of acquainting himself with the manners and customs of the inhabitants. In 1882 a concession for the construction of a railway He died at Copenhagen on 14th November 1832. from Rasht to Teheran, via Kazvin, was granted to a M. Boital. During the period between his return from the East and his It is probable that no more practical effect will be given to this death Rask published in his native language a Spanish Grammar scheme than to that of Baron de Reuter some ten years before. (1824), a Frisic Grammar (1825), an Essay on Danish Orthography

See A Journey through Russia into Persia (London, 1712); Histoire des Décou. (1826), a Treatise respecting the Ancient Egyptian Chronology and l'ertes, vol. ii. (Lausanne, 1781); Eastwick, Three Years' Residence in Persic an Italian Grammar (1827), and the Ancient Jewish Chronology (1861); Telegraph and Travel (1874); and published official Reports (1882).

previous to Moses (1828). He likewise edited an edition of Schneider's RASK, RASMUS CHRISTIAN (1787-1832), an eminent Danish Grammar for the use of Englishmen (1830), and superscholar and philologist, was born at Brändekilde in the intended the English translation of his valuable Anglo-Saxon Island of Fünen or Fyen in Denmark in 1787.

Rask's services to comparative
Grammar by Thorpe (1830).
He

philology were very great. He was the first to point out the constudied at the university of Copenhagen, and early dis- nexion between the ancient Northern and Gothic on the one hand, tinguished himself by singular talent for the acquisition and of the Lithuanian, Selavonic, Greek, and Latin on the other, of languages. In the year 1808 he was appointed assistant and he also has the credit of being the real discoverer of the so

called “Grimm's Law” for the transmutation of consonants in the keeper of the university library, and some years after

transition from the old Indo-European languages to Teutonic, wards made professor of literary history. In 1811 he although he only compared Teutonic and Greek, Sanskrit being at published, in Danish, his Introduction to the Grammar of the time unknown to him. Rask's facility in the acquisition of the Icelandic and other Ancient Northern Languages, from languages was extraordinary ; in 1822 he was master of no less printed and MS. materials which had been accumulated

than twenty-five languages and dialects, and is stated to have

studied twice as many. His numerous philological manuscripts by his predecessors in the same field of research.

The

were transferred to the king's library at Copenhagen. Rask's reputation which Rask thus acquired recommended him to Anglo-Saxon, Danish, and Icelandic Grammars have been given the Arna-llagnæan Institution, by which he was employed to the English public by Thorpe, Repp, and Dasent respectively. as editor of the Icelandic Lexicon (1814) of Björn Haldor

RASKOLNIKS. See RUSSIA. son, which had long remained in manuscript. About the RASPBERRY. See HORTICULTURE, vol. xii. p. 276. same time Rask paid a visit to Iceland, where he remained RASTATT, or RASTADT, a small town in Baden, is from 1813 to 1815, and made himself completely master situated on the Murg, 4 miles above its junction with of the language and familiarized himself with the litera- the Rhine and 12 miles south-west of Čarlsruhe. It ture, manners, and customs of the natives. To the interest is a fortress of great strength, commanding the passage with which they inspired him may probably be attributed through the Black Forest. The only notable building is the establishment at Copenhagen, early in 1816, of the the old palace of the margraves of Baden, a large RenaisIcelandic Literary Society, which was mainly instituted sance edifice in red sandstone, now partly used for military by his exertions, and of which he was the first president. purposes and containing a collection of pictures, antiquities,

In October 1816 Rask left Denmark on a literary and trophies from the Turkish wars. The industry of expedition, at the cost of the king, to prosecute inquiries Rastatt is almost confined to local needs, and the town into the languages of the East, and collect manuscripts may be said to live on the garrison, which forms nearly for the university library at Copenhagen. He proceeded half of its population (1880) of 12,356. Two-thirds of first to Sweden, where he remained two years, in the the inhabitants are Roman Catholics. course of which he made an excursion into Finland, for

Previous to the close of the 17th century Rastatt was a place of the purpose of studying the language of that country.

no importance, but after its destruction by the French in 1689 it

was rebuilt on a larger scale by Margrave Lewis, the well-known Here he published, in Swedish, his anglo-Saxon Grammar | imperial general in the Turkish wars, and became the residence of in 1817. In 1818 there appeared at Copenhagen, in the margraves of Baden down to 1771. In 1714 the preliminary Danish, an Essay on the Origin of the Ancient Scandi- articles of the peace between Austria and France, ending the War navian or Icelandic Tongue, in which he traced the affinity | Rastatt in 1797-99 had for its object the re-arrangement of the

of the Spanish Succession, were signed here. The congress of of that idiom to the other European languages, particu- map of Germany by providing compensation for those princes who larly to the Latin and the Greek. In the same year he l had relinquished to France territory on the left bank of the Rhine.

It dispersed, however, without result, war having again broken was granted on 27th October 1558.

One of his preout between France and Austria. As the French plenipotentiaries decessors, John Boteler, had also been printer and judge. were leaving the town they were waylaid and assassinated by Rastell continued on the bench until 1562, when he retired Hungarian hussars. The object and instigators of this deed have reinained shrouded in mystery, but the balance of evidence seems to Louvain without the queen's licence. By virtue of a to indicate that the Austrian authorities had ordered a violent special commission issued by the barons of the Exchequer seizure of the ambassadors' papers, to avoid damaging disclosures on the occasion an inventory of his goods and chattels was with regard to Austrian designs on Bavaria, and that the soldiers haul simply exceeded their instructions. The Baden revolution of taken. It furnishes an excellent idea of the modest nature 1849 began at Rastatt with a military mutiny and ended here a of the law library (consisting of twenty-four works) and of few months later with the capture of the town by the Prussians. the chambers of an Elizabethan judge (see Law Vagazine, Rastatt is now a fortress of the German einpire.

February 18-14). He died at Louvain on 27th August 1565. RASTELL, the name of two early English printers. It is difficult to distinguish between the books written by him I. JOHN RASTELL or RASTALL, printer and author, was

and those by his father. The following are believed to be his : A born at London towards the end of the 15th century. the Kynges of Englande (1561), both frequently reprinted with con

Colleccion of all the Statutes (1557), -1 Table collected of the Yearcs of He was educated at Oxford, and married Elizabeth, the tinuations, and 1 Colleccion of Entrers, of Declaracions, &c. (1566), sister of Sir Thomas More. He was a man of considerable also frequently reprinted. The entries are not of Rastell's own learning and, although not bred to the law like his son, drawing, but have been selected from printed and MS. collections ; showed his devotion to legal studies by his writings. He

their "pointed brevity and precision” are commended by Story.

He supplied tables or inclexes to several law books, and edited in went into the printing business about the year 1514, and novcl natura brcrium de Monsieur Anton. Fitzherbert and The produced Liber assisarum, with a preface by himself. His Workcs of Sir T. More in the Enylish Tonge (1557). IIe is also first dated publication was Abbreviamentum librorum legum stated to have written a life of Sir T. More, but it has not come

down to us. Anglorum (1517). He also printed The Wydow Edyth

See Bale, Scriptores maioris Brytunniæ, 1557-59 ; Pits, Relationes hist. de rebus (1525), A Dyaloge of Syr Thomas More (1529), and a

Angl., 1619; Tanner, Bibliothecai, 1718; Ames, Typogr. antiq., by Diblin, 1816, number of other books. The last dated piece from his

iii. pp. 81, 370 ; Wood, thene Oronienses, 1813, i. pr. 100, 343; Dodil, church

History, 1739, ii. p. 149; Foss, Biographia Juridica, 1870; Reeves, History of the press was F’ubyl's Ghoste (1533), a poem. He lived "at Engl. Law, 1909, iii, P: 132 ; Marvin, La Bibliography, 1847; Clarke, Dilliothe sygne of the meremayd at Powlysgate.” John Rastell,

theca Legum, 1519; Bridgman, Legal Bibliography, 1507; Catalogue of Books in

the British Museum before 1640, 1881. the Jesuit, who has been frequently confounded with him,

RASTRICK, an urban sanitary district in the West was no relation. By his will, dated 20th April 1536, he Riding of Yorkshire, is situated on an acclivity near the appointed Henry VIII. one of his executors ; administra- Calder, and on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 5 tion was granted on the renunciation of the executorship miles south-east of Halifax and 3! north of Huddersfield. by the king on 18th July 1536. It is a curious document, It possesses woollen and silk manufactures, and there are and contains a long account of the testator's religious stone quarries in the neighbourhood. The ancient chapel belief. Rastell was occupied upon a concordance at the of St Matthew was replaced in 1798 by a church in the time of his death ; its publication was provided for by the Grecian style, which was restored in 1879. A school was will (neo Arber's Registers of Comp. of Stationers, ii. 8, 9). founded in 1701 by Mrs Mary Law, who also endowed a He died at London, leaving two sons, -William, printer charity for poor widows. The population of the urban and judge (see below), and John, a justice of the peace. sanitary district (area, 1371 acres) in 1871 was 5896, and

Rastell's chief writings are the following. The Pustyme of in 1881 it was $0:39.
Prople; the Chronycles of dyuers Realmys and most specyally of the RIT. Under the article Vorse (vol. xvii. p. 5) an
Prilme of Englonile (1529), now of extreme rarity; a note in the
catalogric of the British Museum says, "the only perfect copy

account lias been already given of the relationships and known." It ranges from the carliest times to Richard III., and chief allies of the animals known as rats, and the present wins edited by Dibulin in 1811 for the quarto series of English article is confined to the two species to which the name chronirles. new Boke of Purgatory, 1530, being cialogues on

rat is most strictly applicable. These are the so-called the subject between "Comyngo au Almayne a Christen Man, and one Gyngemyn a Turke." "This was answered by John Frith, pro

old English black rat, llus rattus, and the common brown ducing Rastell's 1 pulovry against John Fryth, also answered by the or Norway rat, Jl. verumimus. The first of these is a comlatter. The controversy is said to have ended in Rastell's con paratively small version to the Reformed religion. Erpositiones terminorum logo and lightly built anglorum in French, also translated into English, 1527 ; reprinted As mcently as 1812 as Les Termes de la Ley). The Abbrerincion animal, seldom

Salutis (1520), the first abridgment of the statutes in English, exceeding about with an interesting preface hy Rastell

, giving reasons for tlie in Tinchesin length, novation ; down to 18:25 fifteen cditions appeared.

with

a slender II. William RASTELL (:. 1508-1565), printer and judge, head, large cars son of the above, was born in London about 1508. At (see fig., -1), and the age of seventeen he went to the university of Oxford, a long thin scaly but did not take a degree, being probably called home to tail about sor ! superintend his father's business. The first work which inches in length. lwars his own imprint was 11 Dyaloge of Sir Thomas Jorn Its colour is, at 11.331), a reprint of the edition published by liis father in least in all tem1509. He also brought out a few law books, some poetry; perate climates, a

Firhyun's Cronyrle (1533), and The Apolonnue peculiar shining 11.533) and The Supplycaryun of Soulys of his uncle Sir bluish black, Thomas More. His office was “in Fletestrete in saynt rather lighter on Brydy chyrche parle." He became a student at Lincoln's the belly, the Inn on 12th September 1532, and gave up the printing cars, feet, and A. 1)... R.it 11!.... business two years later. In 1547 he was appointed tail bein, also B. Bruwn Hai J. ilum 7,1%. realer. On account of his religion he left England for black; but in tropical regions it is representeil ly a grey Lurain ; but upon the accession of Mary he returned, or rufous-backed and white-bellieel race to which the and was made sergeant-at-law in October 1,555. He was name of Alexandrian rat (JI. ale rovnarinnar has luun one of the seren sergeants who gave the famous feast that applied, owing to its having bee'n first discorised at Fiar in the Inner Temple Hall (see Dugdale's Orig. Juril., Alexandria, but which canut le considered to the rally 1680, p. 128). His patent as judge of the Queen's Bench sprecifically distinct from the true Wuk rat.

Its dispusi

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tion is milder and more tamable than that of M. decu- | been named 11. leuconota. All the ratels are of very much manus, and it is therefore the species to which the tame the same colour, namely, iron-grey on the upper parts of white and pied rats kept as pets commonly belong. It is the head, body, and tail, and black below, a style of colorasaid that in some parts of Germany 11. rattus has been tion rather rare among mammals, as the upper side of the lately reasserting itself and increasing at the expense of body is in the great majority darker than the lower. Their 11. decumanus, but this seems very unlikely from the pre- body is stout and thickly built; the legs are short and vious history of the two animals (compare MOUSE, vol. strong, and armed, especially on the anterior pair, with xvii. p. 5).

long curved fossorial claws; the tail is short; and the The brown or Norway rat, ll, decumanus, is a heavily ear-conches are reduced to mere rudiments. These modibuilt animal, growing to 8 or 9 inches in length, with a fications are all in relation to a burrowing mode of life, bluff rounded head, small ears (see fig., B), and a com for which the ratels are among the best adapted of all paratively short tail,—always shorter than the head and carnivores. The skull is conical, stout, and heavy, and body combined, and generally not longer than the body the teeth, although sharper and less rounded than those alone. Its colour is a uniform greyish brown above, and of their allies the badgers, are yet far less suited to a purely white below, the ears, feet, and tail being flesh-coloured ; carnivorous diet than those of such typical Isustelidæ as melanistic varieties are by no means rare, and these are the stoats, weasels, and martens. The two species of often mistaken for true black rats, but the differences in ratel may be distinguished by the fact that the African size and proportions form a ready means of distinguishing has a distinct white line round the body at the junction of the two. The brown rat is believed to be a native of the grey of the upper side with the black of the lower, western China, where a wild race has been recently dis- while in the Indian this line is absent; the teeth also of covered so like it as to be practically indistinguishable. the former are on the whole decidedly larger, rounder, and The two species agree fully in their predaceous habits, heavier than those of the latter. In spite of these difomnivorous diet, and great fecundity. They bear four ferences, however, the two ratels are so nearly allied that or five times in the year from four to ten blind and naked they might almost be considered to be merely geographical young, which are in their turn able to breed at an age of races of a single widely spread species. about six months. The time of gestation is about twenty The following account of the Indian ratel is extracted from Dr days.

(0.T.) Judson's Jummals oj India :-“The Indian badger is found RATAFIA is a term applied to a flavouring essence,

throughout the whole of India, from the extreme south to the foot the basis of which is the essential oil of bitter almonds.

of the Himalayas, chiefly in hilly districts, where it has greater

facilities for constructing the holes and dens in which it lives; but Peach kernels are properly the source of ratafia, but any also in the north of India in alluvial plains, where the banks of of the other substances yielding bitter almond oil is used. large rivers afford equally suitable localities wherein to make its The name “ ratafia” is also applied in France to a variety lair. It is stated to live usually in pairs, and to eat rats, birds

, of liquors, and from Dantzic a special liqueur is sent out

frogs, white ants, and various insects, and in the north of India it

is accused of digging out dead bodies, and is popularly known as under the name of “ratafia” (see vol. xiv. p. 686). the grave-ligger. It doubtless also, like its Cape congener, occa

RATEL. The animals known as Ratels or Honey- sionally partakes of honey. It is often very destructive to poultry, badgers are small clumsy-looking creatures of about the and I have known of several having been trapped and killed whilst size and appearance of the true badgers, and belong to the committing such depredations in Central India and in the northern

Circars. În confinement the Indian badger is quiet and will parsamo natural group of the Carnivoru, namely, the subfamily take of vegetable food, fruits, rice, &c." .

(0. T.) Melina of the large family Mustelidx, which contains the

RATHENOW, a small town of Prussia in the province otters, badgers, stoats, weasels, &c. (sce MAMMALIA, vol.

of Brandenburg, lies on the right bank of the Havel, xv. 1. 440). Of the ratels two species are generally | 44 miles to the west of Berlin. It is known for its recognized, viz., the Indian Ratel (Wellivora indica), a

“Rathenow stones," i.e., bricks made of the clay of the Havel, and for its spectacles and optical instruments, which are exported to various parts of the world. It contains no buildings of note. The population in 1880 was 11,394, including 174 Roman Catholics and 68 Jews.

Rathenow has enjoyed the privileges of a town since 1217. In 1394 it was taken and partly destroyed by the archbishop of Magdeburg. During the Thirty Years War it was repeatedly Occupied by the opposing troops, and in 1675_ it was cleverly snatched from the Swedish garrison by the Great Elector.

RATIBOR (Polish Raciborz), a town of Prussian Silesia in the department of Oppeln, is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Oder at the point where the river becomes navigable, about 12 miles from the Austrian frontier. The most prominent buildings are the handsome courthouse by Schinkel and the Modern Gothic church ; on the right bank of the Oder is the old château of the dukes of Ratibor. The town is the seat of a diversified industry, the chief products of which are machinery and railway gear, iron wares, tobacco and cigars, paper, sugar, furniture, and glass. Trade is carried on in these articles and in agricultural produce, and hemp and vegetables are largely grown in the environs. The population in 1880

was 18,373, or, including the immediately adjacent villages, African Ratel (Jellivora ratel).

27,100, five-sixths of whom are Roman Catholics. In

the town itself, where there are only about 2500 Poles, native of all the peninsula of India, and the African (III. German is chiefly spoken, but Polish and Czechish dialects ratel), which ranges er the whole of the African continent

are predominant in the neighbourhood. -although by some authors the West African race is con Ratibor, which received municipal privileges at the close of the sidered to represent a third distinct species, which has 13th century, was formerly the capital of an independent duchy,

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