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Encyclopædia Britannica.-Vol. XX.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS.

PRUSSIA J. F. VUIRIEAD.

TRUSSIC ACID. Prof. W. DITTMAR.

FYNNE. S. RAWSON GARDINER, LL.D.,

an OSMOND AIRY.

PSALUS, I'rof. W. ROBERTSON SHTII,

LL.D.

I'SKOFF. P. A. K ROPOTKINE.

PSYCHOLOGY. JAMES WARD.

PTERODACTYLE. E. T. NEWTON,

ITOLEJIY. Prof. G. JOHNSTON ALLMAN,

LL.D., and E. H. BUNBURY.

PUBLIC HEALTH. JWES WILLIAMS,

B.C.L.

PUFENDORF. Prof. ERNEST Nys.

L'ULTENEY. W. P. COURTNEY.

PUNCHNELLO. R. MORTIMERWHEELER.

PUNJAB. Gen. R. MACLAGAN, R. E.

PURCELL. W. S. ROCKSTRO.

PUSEY. Rev. EDWIN HATCH, D.D.

PYM. S. RAWSON GARDINER, LL.D.

PYRAMID. W. M. F. PETRIE.

PYRENEES. GEORGE G. CHISHOLM.

PYROMETER. W. N. SIIAW,

PYROTECINY. ORME MIASSON, M.D.,

D.Sc.

PYTIIAGORAS-

PHILOSOPHY. Prof. ANDREW SETI.

GEOMETRY. Prof. G. J. ALLMAN, LL.D.

PYTIIEAS. E. H. BUNBURY.

QUAIL. Prof. ALFRED NEWTON.

QUAKERS. Rt. Hon. Sir EDWARD FRY.

QUARANTINE. Chas. CREIGHTON, M.D.

QUATERNIONS. Prof. P. G. TAT.

QUEBEC. GEORGE STEWART, Ju.

QUEENSLAND. JAMES BONWICK.

QUESNAY. J. K. INGRAM, LL.D.

QUEVEDO. A. MOREL-FATIO.

QUININE. E. M. HOLMES.

QUINTILIAN. J. S. REID, D. Litt.

RABBI. S. N. SCHILLER-SZINESSY, Ph.D.

RABELAIS. GEORGE SAINTSBUILY.

RADIES. GEORGE FLEMING, LL.D.

RACINE. GEORGE SAINTSBURY.

RACKETS. H. F. WILKINSON.

RADIATION. Prof. P. G. TAIT.

RAILWAY D. KINNEAR CLARK, C. E. ;

Prof. A. T. HADLEY; A. M. WELLING-

TON, C. E.; and S. WRIGHT DUNNING.

RAJPUTANA. W. T. RONSON.

RALEIGH, S. RAWSON GARDINER.

RAPHAEL. J. HENRY MIDDLETON,

RATIONALISM. Rev. J. F. SMITH.

RAVENNA. TUOMAS HODGKIN.

RAY. ALBERT GÜNTHER, M.D., Ph.D.

RAY, JOHN. Prof. D'ARCY W. THOMP-

SON.

READE. Prof. W. MINTO.

REAL ESTATE, JAMES WILLIAMS.

RECORDS. A. C. EWALD.

RED SEA. H. R. MILL.

REFORMATION. J. BASS MULLINGER.

REFORMATORY. J. E. DAVIS.

REGISTRATION. JAMES WILLIAMS and

J. E. DAVIS,

REID. Prof. ANDREW SETII.

REISKE. Prof. JUL. WELLHAUSEN, Ph.D.

RELICS. Rev. J. G. CAZENOVE, D.D.

RELIGIONS. Prof. C. P. TIELE.

REMBRANDT. J. F. WHITE.

RENAISSANCE. J. A. SYMONDS.

RENI. W. M. ROSSETTI.

RENNELL. Col. YULE, C. B.

REPORTING. CHARLES COOPER.

REPRODUCTION-

ANIMAL. PATRICK GEDDES.

VEGETABLE. SYDNEY HOWARD VINES.

REPTILES. ALBERT GÜNTIER, M.D.,

Ph.D., and ST GEORGE MIVART, M.D.,

Ph. D.

RESPIRATION. Prof. ARTHUR GAMGEE.

RÉUNION. H. A. WEDSTER.

REUTER JAMES SIME.

REVELATION, BOOK OF. Prof. ADOLF

HARNACK,

REYNOLDS. JOIN M. GRAY.

RHETORIC. Prof. R. C. JEBB, LL.D.

RHEUMATISM. J. O. AFFLECK, M. D.

RHINE. J. F. MUIRIEAD.

RHINOCEROS. W. H. FLOWER, LL.D.

RHODE ISLAND. W. E. FORSTER.

'

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

PRU-P RU

RUDENTIUS, AURELIUS CLEMENS, a Christian verse- in the Hôtel de Landry (now Rothschild), his ceiling paint

writer, apparently a native of Spain, who flourished ing of Truth and Wisdom for Versailles (Louvre), and of «luring the latter balf of the 4th century and in the begin. Diana and Jupiter for the Gallery of Antiquities in the ning of the 5th. According to the meagre and vague auto- Louvre. In 1808 he exhibited Crime pursued by Vengebiographical notices given by himself in the preface to his ance and Justice (Louvre, engraved by Royer), which had poems he was born in the year 318, and, after receiving a been commissioned for the assize courts, and Psyche carried liberal education, practised at the bar and subsequently off by Zephyrs (engraved by Massard). These two remarkbeli judicial office in two important cities. At the time able compositions brought Prud'hon the Legion of Honour; of the publication of his poems in 405 he held from the bis merit was widely recognized ; he received innumerable emperor a high military appointment at court. Of his orders, and in 1816 entered the Institute. Easy as to subsequent history nothing is known.

fortune, and consoled for the misery of his marriage by His extant works, besides the preface already referred to and an the devoted care of his excellent and charming pupil, epilogue, are the following :-(1) Cathemerinon Liber, a series of Mademoiselle Vayer, Prud'hon's situation seemed enviable; twelve hymns (kad nuepivÛv iuvûv) in various metres to be repeated but Mademoiselle Vayer's tragical suicide on 26th May or sung at particular periods of the day or seasons of the year ; (2) Anotheosis, a poeni of 1035 hexameter verses on the divinity of

1821 brought ruin to his home, and two years later (16th Christ ; (3) Homartigenia (967 hexameter verses) on the origin of February 1823) Prud'hon followed her to the grave. The evil and sin ; (+) Psychomurchia, or the conflict between virtue and

classic revival which set in towards the close of the 18th vice for the soul (915 hexameter verses) ; (5) Contra Symmachum, two books, of 658 and 1131 hexameter verses respectively, directed century, and of which Louis David was the academic chief, aquinst the petition of Symmachus to the emperor for the restora

found in Prud'hon an interpreter whose gists of grace and tion of the altır and statue of Victory which Gratianu had cast naiveté tempered by seriousness atoned by the personal Howa; (6) Peristeplanon Liber, fourteen poems in various metres, charm which they imparted to all he did for the want of in honour of certain saints who had won the crown of martyrdom severity and correctness in his execution. Mademoiselle and graphic, ary generally consilered to show Prudentius at his Mayer (1778-1821) was his ablest pupil. Her Abanbest ; () Diptychon or Dittochwon, a series of forty-nine hexameter doned Mother and Happy Mother are in the Louvre. tvtrastielis on various events and characters mentioned in Scripture. Voiart, Notice historique de la vie et autres de P. Prud'hon ; The editio princips appeared at Deventer in 1172 ; among modern Arch, de l'art français ; Qu. de Quincy, Discours prononcé sur lu clitions may be named those of Faustus Arevalus (2 vols., Rome,

tombe de Prud'hon, Fcv. 1823 ; Eugène Delacroix, Rev. des Deux 1788-89), Olbarius (Tübingen, 1915), and Dressel (Leipsie, 1860). Mondes, 1846 ; Charles Blanc, Ilist. des peintres français.

PRUDHON, PIERRE (1758-1823), French painter, born PRUSSIA (Ger., Preussen ; Lat., Borussia), a kingdom Plate I. at Cluny on the Ith of April 1758, was the third son of a of northern Europe and by far the most important memmason. The monks of the abbey undertook his education. ber of the German empire, occupies almost the whole of The paintings which decorated the monastery excited his northern Germany, between 5° 52' and 22° 53' E. long. emulation, and by the aid of Moreau, bishop of Mâcon, he and 19° 7' and 55° 53' N. lat. It now forms a tolerably was placed with Devosges, director of the art school at compact mass of territory, with its longest axis from soutliDijon. In 1778 Prud'hon went to Paris armed with a west to north-east ; but within the limits just indicated lie letter to Wille, the celebrated engraver, and three years the “enclaves" Oldenburg, Mecklenburg, Brunswick, and later he obtained the triennial prize of the states of other small German states, while beyond them it possesses Burgundy, which enabled him to go to Rome, where he Hohenzollern, in the south of Würtemberg, and other became intimate with Canova. He returned to Paris in “exclaves” of minor importance. On the N. Prussia is !187, and led for some time a precarious existence, paint bounded by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic; on ing portraits and making designs for booksellers. The the E. by Russia and Poland; on the S. by Austrian illustrations which he executed for the Daphnis and Chloe Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia, Saxony, the Thuringian states, published by Didot brought him into notice, and his Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt, the Rhenish Palatinate, anil reputation was extended by the success of his decorations Lorraine; and on the W. by Luxemburg, Belgium, and

race.

the Netherlands. With the exception of the sea on the Elbe on the west to the Oder and the Vistula on the east north and the mountain-barrier on the south-east, the is a question mainly of antiquarian interest and one upon frontiers are political rather than geographical, a fact that which authorities are not wholly agreed. In the openhas always been characteristic of Prussia's limits and that ing centuries of the Christian era we find it occupied by has had considerable influence in determining its history. Slavonic tribes, whose boundaries reach even to the west The Prussian monarchy, with an area of 134,490 square of the Elbe, and the conquest and absorption of these by miles, comprises nearly two-thirds of the entire extent of the growing German power form the subject of the early the German empire. Its kernel is the Mark of Branden- history of Brandenburg. Hand in hand with the territorial burg, round which the rest of the state has been built up extension of the Germans went the spread of Christianity, gradually, not without costly and exhausting wars. The which, indeed, often preceded the arms of the conquering territory ruled over by the first Hohenzollern elector

The Slavs to the east of the Elbe were left un(1415-40) did not exceed 11,400 square miles, an area molested down to the foundation of the German monarchy, that had been quadrupled before the death of the first king established by the successors of Charlemagne about the in 1713. Frederick the Great left behind him a realm of middle of the 9th century. Then ensued the period of 75,000 square miles, and the following two monarchs, by formation of the German "marks” or marches, which served their Polish and Westphalian acquisitions, brought it to a at once as bulwarks against the encroachments of external size not far short of its present extent (122,000 square enemies and as nuclei of further conquest. The North Estabmiles in 1803). After the disastrous war of 1806 Prussia Mark of Saxony, corresponding roughly to the northern lishment shrank to something smaller than the kingdom of Frederick part of the present province of Saxony, to the

west of the of the the Great (61,000 square miles), and the readjustment Elbe, was established by the emperor Henry I. about the Mark , of Europe in 1815 still left it short by 14,000 square year 930, and formed the beginning of the Prussian state. miles of its extent in 1803. Fully one-fifth of its present The same energetic monarch extended his career of conarea is due to the war of 1866, which added Hanover, quest considerably to the east of the Elbe, obtaining more Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Nassau, Schleswig-Holstein, and the or less firm possession of Priegnitz, Ruppin, and the district city of Frankfort-on-the-Main to the Prussian dominions. round the sources of the Havel, and even carried his

arms to the banks of the Oder. His son Otho I. (936HISTORY.

973) followed in his father's footsteps and founded the The claims which Prussian history makes upon our bishoprics of Havelberg and Brandenburg, the latter taking attention are based neither upon venerable antiquity nor its name from the important Wendish fortress of Branupon uniformity of origin. The territorial and political nibor. Towards the end of the 10th century, however, development of the country has taken place wholly within the Wendish flood again swept over the whole territory the last thousand years; and the materials out of which it to the east of the Elbe, and the Germans were confined to has been built up—marquisates and duchies, ecclesiastical the original limits of the North Mark. Christianity was principalities and free imperial cities—are of the most

care of the most rooted out and the bishop of Brandenburg reduced to an heterogeneous description. The history of Prussia acquires episcopus in partibus. The history of the next century and its primary significance from the fact that this state was a half is simply a record of a series of desultory struggles the instrument by which the political regeneration of between the margraves of the North Mark and the encomGermany was ultimately effected from within, and the passing Wends, in which the Germans did no more than unity and coherence of the narrative are best observed hold their own on the left bank of the Elbe. when we consider it as a record of the training that fitted Things begin to grow a little clearer in 1134, when the Albert the country for this task. This rôle was forced upon emperor Lothair rewarded the services of Albert the the Bear. Prussia rather by the exigencies of its geographical position Bear, a member of the house of Anhalt and one of the than by its title to be racially the most representative most powerful princes of the empire, by investing him German state. The people who have established the power with the North Mark. Albert seems to have been a man of Germany cannot rank in purity of Teutonic blood with of great vigour and considerable administrative talent, the inhabitants of the central, western, and southern parts , and by a mixture of hard fighting and skilful policy he exof the empire. The conquest of the Slavonic regions that tended his power over the long-lost territories of Priegnitz, form so great a part of modern Prussia did not occur Ruppin, the Havelland, and the Zauche. He also shifte without a considerable intermingling of race, and Prussia the centre of power to the marshy district last-mentioned may perhaps be added to the list of great nations that and changed his title to margrave of Brandenburg. The seem to owe their pre-eminence to the happy blending of North Mark henceforth began to be known as the Altmark, their composite parts. It is perhaps also worthy of remark or Old Mark, while the territory round Brandenburg that this state, like its great rival, was developed from was for a short time called the New Mark, but more pera marchland of the German empire, -Prussia arising from manently the Mittelmark, or Middle Mark. The soil of the North Mark erected against the Wends, and Austria Albert's new possessions was for the most part poor and from the East Mark erected against the Hungarians. unpromising, but he peopled it with industrious colonists

In tracing the early development of Prussia three main from Holland and elsewhere, and began that system of currents have to be noticed, even in a short sketch like the painstaking husbandry and drainage which has gradually present, which do not completely unite until the beginning converted the sandy plains and marshes of Brandenburg of the 17th century; indeed many writers begin the history into agricultural land of comparative fertility. The clergy of modern Prussia with the accession of the Great Elector were among his most able assistants in reclaiming waste in 1640. We have (1) the history of the Mark of Bran- land and spreading cultivation, and through them Christdenburg, the true political kernel of the modern state; ianity was firmly established among the conquered and (2) the history of the district of Preussen or Prussia, Germanized Slavs. Albert's descendants, generally known Ascanian which gave name and regal title to the monarchy; and as the Ascanian line from the Latinized form of the name line. (3) the history of the family of Hohenzollern, from which of their ancestral castle of Aschersleben, ruled in Brandensprang the line of vigorous rulers who practically deter- burg for nearly two hundred years; but none of them seem mined the fortunes of the country.

to have been on a par with him in energy or ability. On Mark of Brandenburg.Whether Teutons or Slavs were the whole, however, they were able to continue in the course the earlier inhabitants of the district extending from the marked out by him, and, in spite of the pernicious practice

[graphic]

Taves.

of dividing the territory among the various scions of the ruler to checkmate any attempt on the part of the Polishreigning house, the Mark grew steadily in size and import- Lithuanian power, which had just overthrown the Teutonic ance. Before the end of the 12th century the margrave was Order (see p. 6), to push forward the Slavonic settlements created arch-chamberlain of the German empire, an office to their old frontier on the Eibe. At first Frederick was that eventually brought in its train the privilege of belong. merely appointed administrator of Brandenburg; but in ing to the electoral college. Berlin became a fortified post 1415 he was declared the actual feudal superior of the of the margraves in 1240 and soon began to take the place land, and two years later formally installed as elector. of Brandenburg as the political centre of the margraviate. The Brandenburg to which Frederick succeeded was con- Internal Under Waldemar, who succeeded in 1309, the scattered siderably smaller than it had been in the best days of the con

dition of possessions of the house were again gathered into one hand. Ascanians, consisting merely of the Altmark, Priegnitz,

BrandenHis sway extended over the Altmark; Priegnitz, or the the Mittelmark, part of the Ukermark, and the territory of burg, Vormark; the Middle Mark, now extending to the Oder; Sternberg. Including his family possessions of Ansbach 11th to the lands of Krossen and Sternberg beyond the Oder; and Baireuth, he ruled over a territory of about 11,400 14th centhe Ukermark, to the north ; Upper and Lower Lusatia; square miles in extent. The internal condition of Branden- tury. and part of Pomerania, with a feudal superiority over the burg had declined as much as its territorial extension had rest. No other German prince of the time had a more ex- decreased. The central power had become weakened and tensive territory or one less exposed to imperial interference. the whole inner organization relaxed, while the electorate

With Waldemar's death in 1319 the Ascanian line be had also lost most of the advantages that once favourably came extinct and a period of anarchy began, which lasted distinguished it from other imperial fiefs. Under the first for a century and brought the once flourishing country margraves the official side of their position had been proto the verge of annihilation. Its neighbours took advan- minent, and it was not forgotten that technically they tage of its masterless condition to help themselves to the were little more than the representatives of the emperor. outlying portions of its territory, and its resources were In the 13th century this feeling began to disappear, and

further wasted by intestine conflicts. In 1320 the emperor Brandenburg enjoyed an independent importance and avarian Louis the Bavarian took possession of the Mark as a lapsed carried out an independent policy in a way not paralleled

fief, and conferred it upon his son Louis, at that time a in any other German mark. The emperor was still, of mere child. But this connexion with the imperial house course, the suzerain of the country, but his relations with proved more of a curse than of a blessing: the younger it had so little influence on the course of its development Louis turned out a very incompetent ruler, and Branden- that they may be practically ignored. Within the Mark burg became involved in the evils brought upon the the power of the margraves was at first almost unlimited. Bavarian house by its conflict with the pope. To crown This arose in part from the fact that few great nobles had all, a pretender to the name of Waldemar appeared, whose followed Albert the Bear in his crusade against the Wends, claims to Brandenburg were supported by the new emperor, and that consequently there were few large feudal manors Charles IV.; and in 1351 Louis, wearied of his profitless or lordships with their crowds of dependent vassals. The sovereignty, resigned the margraviate to his brothers, great bulk of the knights, the towns, and the rural comLouis the Roman and Otho. The first of these died in munes held their lands and derived their rights directly 1365, and Otho soon became embroiled with Charles IV. from the margraves, who thus stood in more or less imBut he was no match for the astute emperor, who in- mediate contact with all classes of their subjects. The vaded the Mark, and finally compelled the margrave to towns and villages were generally laid out by contractors

resign his territory for a sum of ready money and the locatores), not necessarily of noble birth, who were installed uxem- promise of an annuity. The ambition of Charles was as hereditary chief magistrates of the community and remurg directed towards the establishment of a great east German ceived numerous encouragements to reclaim waste lands.

monarchy, embracing Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, This mode of colonization was especially favourable to the and Brandenburg, and he had the sagacity to recognize peasantry, who seem in Brandenburg to have retained the the commercial importance of the last-named as offering disposal of their persons and property at a time when an outlet by the Baltic Sea. Charles, however, died in villainage or serfdom was the ordinary state of their class 1378, and with him perished his far-reaching plans. He in feudal Europe. The dues paid by these contractors in was succeeded in the electorate of Brandenburg—for as

return for their concessions formed the principal revenue of such it had been formally recognized in the Golden Bull the margraves. As the expenses of the latter increased, of 1356-by his second son Sigismund. This prince was chiefly in consequence of the calls of war, lavish donations too greatly hampered by his other schemes to bestow much to the clergy, and the attempt to maintain court establishattention on Brandenburg, and in 1388 his pecuniary ments for all the members of the reigning house, they were embarrassments were so great that he gave the electorate frequently driven to pawn these dues for sums of ready in pawn to his cousin Jobst or Jodocus of Moravia. The money. This gave the knights or barons an opportunity unfortunate country seemed now to have reached the lowest to buy out the village magistrates and replace them with point consistent with its further independent existence. creatures of their own; and the axe was laid at the root Jobst looked upon it merely as a source of income and of the freedom of the peasants when Louis the Bavarian made little or no attempt at government. Internal order formally recognized the patrimonial or manorial juriscompletely disappeared, and the nobles made war on each diction of the noblesse. Henceforth the power of the other or plundered the more peaceful citizens without let nobles steadily increased at the expense of the peasants, or hindrance. Powerful neighbours again took the op- who were gradually reduced to a state of feudal servitude. portunity of appropriating such parts of Brandenburg as Instead of communicating directly with the margrave lay most convenient to their own borders, and the final through his burgraves and vogts (bailiffs), the village comdissolution of the electorate seemed imminent. Jobst died munities came to be represented solely by the knights who in 1411; and Sigismund, who succeeded to the imperial had obtained feudal possession of their lands. Many of throne mainly through the help of Frederick VI., burgrave the towns followed in their wake. Others were enabled of Nuremberg, conferred the electorate of Brandenburg on to maintain their independence, and also made use of the this stout supporter, partly in gratitude for services rendered pecuniary needs of the margraves, until many of them and partly as a mortgage for money advanced. Sigismund practically became municipal republics. Their strength, also

may possibly have recognized in Frederick the fitting however, was perhaps more usefully shown in their ability

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