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after the Hebrew in 403.


wide sweep, based on the vision of Deutero-Isaiah. All | burnt-offering the following weekly cycle of psalms, -(1) xxiv., (2) these marks carry us down for this as for the other collec xlviii., (3) lxxxii., (4) xciv., (5) lxxxi., (6) xciii., (Sabbath) xcii., tions of the Elohistic Psalter to the time when passive

as in the title. Many other details are given in the treatise Sõférīm,

but these for the most part refer primarily to the synagogue service obedience to the Achæmenians was interrupted. Several after the destruction of the temple. For details on the liturgical points indicate that the collection was not originally formed use of the Psalter in Christendom the reader may refer to Smith's as part of the temple liturgy. The title, as preserved

Dict. Chr. Ant., s.v. “Psalmody.”

Ancient Versions.-A. The oldest version, the LXX., follows a text generally in the subscription to Ps. lxxii. 20, was not “Psalms”

closely corresponding to the Massoretic Hebrew, the main variations being in but “Prayers of David.” Again, while the Levitical the titles and in the addition (lacking in some MSS.) of an apocryphal psalm

escribed to David when he fought with Goliath. Pss. ix. and x. are rightly psalms were sung in the name of righteous Israel, of which, taken as one psalm, but conversely Ps. cxlvii. is divided into two. The LXX. according to the theory of the second temple, the priestly

text has many “daughters," of which may be noticed (a) the Memphitic (ed.

Lagarde, 1875); (v) the old Latin, which as revised by Jerome in 383 after the and Levitical circles were the special holy representatives,

current Greek text forins the Psalteriun Roman um, long read in the Roman

Church and still user in St Peter's ; (c) various Arabic versions, including that these Davidic psalms contain touching expressions of con printed in the polyglotts of Le Jay and Walton, and two others of the four extrition and confession (li., lxv.). And, while there are hibited together in Lagardle's Psalterium, Iob, Proverbia, Arubice, 1870; on the

relations and history of these versions, see G. Hoffmann, in Jenuer Literaturz., direct references to the temple service, these are often 1876, art. 539; the fourth of Lagarde's versions is from the Peshito. made from the standpoint, not of the ministers of the

Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with

the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, 3 was further the mother temple, but of the laity who come up to join in the solemn (11) of the Poultorium Gallicanum,—that is, of Jerome's second revision of the feasts or appear before the altar to fulfil their vows (Pss. Gaul anl ultimately was taken into the Vulgate (c) of the Syro-Lexaplar ver

Psalter (383) by the aiil of the Ilexaplar text; this edition became current in liv. 6, 1v. 14, lxiii., lxvi. 13, &c.). Moreover, the didactic

sion (published by Buyati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian

Ms. by Ceriani, Milan, 1871). B. The Christian Aramaic version or Peshito element so prominent in the Levitical psalms is not found (I"slītā)is largely influenced by the LXX.; compare Baethgen, l'ntersuchungen here.

ilure die' Psalmen nurch der Beschit, Kiel, 1878 (unfinished). This version has

peculiar titles taken from Eusebius anel Theodore of Mopsuestia (see Nestle, Such is the fragmentary and conjectural outline which in Thrul. Literatura., 1876, p. 28:3). C. The Jewish Aramaic version or Targum

is probably a late work. The most convenient edition is in Lagarde, Hagiogruphu it seems possible to supply of the history of the two Davidic Chulilaide, 1573. I). The best of all the old versions is that made by Jerome collections, from which it appears that the name of David

It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency

the oll versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read which they bear is at least so far appropriate as it inarks the l-ms in the version of the "Great Bible" printed in their Prayer Book. the generally non-clerical origin of these poems. But the

This important version was first published in a good text by Layarue, Psal

terium inuiti II. britis Ilieronymi, Leipsic, 1874. positive origin of this title must be sought in another Fireqeticol Ilorks. - While some works of patristic writers are still of value for direction and in connexion with book i. From the days the Psalms by ancient and medixval Christian writers is as a whole such as to

text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of of Amos, and in full accordance with the older history,

throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on

the sense of a lort which most of them knew only through translations. the name of David had been connected with musical skill the Psalms as for the other books of the Old Testament the scholars of the and even the invention of musical instruments (.Amos vi. priemaileerival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation 5). In the days of Nehemiah, though we do not hear of the Middle Ages. In the latter class Kimhi stands pre-eminent; to the editions

of his commentary on the Psalms enumerated in the article Kimu must now psalms of David, 1 we do learn that instruments of the be added the admirable elition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy (Cambridge, 1883), consingers were designated as Davidic, and the epithet “man taining unfortunately only the first book of his longer cominentary. Among the

Works of olier Christian scholars since the revival of letters, the cominentary of God” (Neh. xii. 36) probably implies that agreeably of Calvin (1987)—tull of religious insight and sound thought and the laborious with this David was already regarded as having furnished

work of M. Geier (1668, 1051 et sapius) may still be consulted with advantage,

but for most purposes Rosenmüller's Scholia in Pås. (2d ed., 1821-22) supersedes psalmis as well as instruments. But it was because the the necessity of frequent reference to the predecessors of that industrious com

piler. Of more recent works the freshest and most indispensable are Ewald's, temple music was ascribed to him that the oldest liturgy in the first two half volumes of his lichtır des ult. 12. Bundles (leil., Göttingen, came to be known in its totality as “Psalms of David,"

1806; Eur. tr., 1.0), and Olshausen's (1833). To these may be alldel (excluding

general commentaries on the Old Testament) the two acute but wayward comand the same name was extended to the lay collection of mentaries of Hlitzia (1836, 1803-05), that of Delitzsch (1859-60, then in shorter

form in several editions since 1807; Eng. tr., 1871), and that of Hupfeld (2d ed. * Prayers of David,” while the psalms whose origin was

liy Riehm, 1507, ? vols.). The last-named work, though lacking in original known because they had always been temple psalms were power and clearness of judgment, is extremely convenient and useful, and has

hal an influences perhaps disproportionate to its real e vertical merits. The simply named from the Levitical choirs, or at a later date question of the text was first properly raised by Olshausen, and has since had no title.

received special attention from, among others, Lagarde (Pro plutie Chulil., 1872,

P. xlvi. 87.), Dyserinck (in the scholia” to his Dutch translation of the Psalms, Jusioul Erccution and Place of the Psalms in the Temple Servicc. Theol. Tipischr., 1978, p. 279 sq.), and Bickell (('urmina 1. T. metrice, &c., – The musical notes found in the titles of the psalms and occasion

Innsbruck, 1842), whose critical services are not to be judged merely by the

measure of assent which his metrical theories may command. In English we ally also in the text (Selalı, Higgaion) are so obscure that it seems have, among others, the useful work of Perowne (5th ed., 1833), that of Lowe unnecessary to enter here upon the various conjectures that have and Jennings (led., 1835), and the valuable translation of Cheyne (1994). The been made about them. The clearest point is that a number of

mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent

commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises the psalms were set to melodlies named after songs, and that one

on individual psalms and special critical questions. For the latter Kuenen's of these songs, beginning naun-bx (Al-taschith in E. V., Ps. Ivii. Ondersoek, vol. iii., is, up to its date (1805), the most complete, and the new Sq.), may be probably identified with the vintage song, Isa. lxv. .

edition now in preparation will doubtless prove the standard work of reference.

As regards the lates and historical interpretation of the Psalms, all older disThe temple music was therefore apparently based on popular cussions, even those of Ewalı, are in great measure antiquated by recent promelodies. A gool deal is said about the musical services of the gress in Pentateuch criticism and the history of the canon, ani an entirely Levites in Chronicles, both in the account given of David's ordi

fresh treatment of the Psalter by a suber critical commentator is urgently needed.

(W. R. S.) nances and in the descriptions of particular festival occasions.

PSALTERY, For the mediæval instrument of this But unfortunately it has not been found possible to get from these accounts any clear picture of the ritual or any certainty as to the

name (“sautrie ” or

or "cembalo "), see PIANOFORTE (vol. technical terms used. By the time of the Septuagint these terms xix. p. 65). The IIebrew 52, rendered faltýpor, é váßla, were no longer understool ; it is not quite clear whether even the Yadpós (Ps. lxxi. 22), kibúpu (Ps. lxxxi. 2), öpyarov (Am. The music of the temple attracted the attention of Theophrastins the A. y. (also “lute” in the Prayer-Book version of the

V. 233, vi. 5), in the LXX., and “psaltery” or “viol” in (ap. Porph., De Abst., ii. 26), who was perhaps the first of the Greeks to make observations on the Jews. His description of the Psalms), appears to have been a small stringed instrument, temple ritual is not strictly accurate, but he speaks of the wor

harp or lyre, the strings of which were touched with the shippers as passing the night in gazing at the stars and calling on the later ritual

, are well fitted to illustrate the original liturgical 3), that the kirúpu (1199) had ten strings and was struck words, if they do not exactly fit anything in player's fingers. The statement of Josephus (v1nt., vii

, 12, use of l’ss. viii., cxxxiv. Some of the Jewish traditions as to the with the plectrum, while the váßla had twelvo and was that the Mishna (Tâmid) assigns to the service of the continual played with the hand, is the earliest definition having any

authority to be met with of these obscure instruments. 1 1.c., not in the parts of the book of Neheniiah which are by The kivípa, if not a smaller lyre with tighter strings reNehemiah himself.

2 Compare the similar way of citing melodies with the prep. 'al or See Fielil, Origenis IIcrapla, where the fragments of these ver'al ķīlā, &c., in Syriac (Land, Anecd., iv. ; Ephr. Syr., IIymni, ed. sions are collected. That of Symmachus is esteemed the best. Lainy).

* This word reappears iu the g?mbo of Dan. iii. 5, &c.

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quiring a plectrum, may, as some suppose, have been a PSKOFF, a government of the lake-region of northkind of guitar, rather a tamboura, the most extensively west Russia, which extends from Lake Peipus to the source known Eastern stringed instrument, which, in principle of the Dwina, having St Petersburg on the N., Novgorod, is found represented in the oldest Egyptian monuments. Tver, and Sinolensk on the E., Vitebsk on the S., and The paucity of strings in the latter is, however, against Livonia on the W. It has an area of 16,678 square miles, this attribution. Nothing being more variable than the In the south-east it extends partly over the Alaun heights number of strings attached to the various stringed instru a broad ridge 800 to 1000 feet above the sea, deeply inments at different times and in different places, eight, nine, dented with numerous valleys and ravines, thickly covered or ten strings to the Kivúpa, or ten (see Ps. xxxiii. 2, cxliv. with forests, and dotted with small lakes and ponds. In 9, Heb.) or twelve to the váßla, are probably immaterial the district of Toropets these heights take the name of variations. The musical instruments of the Bible are the Vorobiory Hills; extending westwards into Vitebsk, they most difficult subject in musical archæology, about which send to the north a series of irregular ranges, separated by the translators of the A.V. or the Prayer-Book Psalms did broad valleys, which occupy the north-western parts of not trouble themselves, but named the instruments from Pskoff and give rise to the rivers flowing into Lakes Peipus those in use around them.

and Ilmeñ. A depression 120 miles long and 35 miles PSAMMETICHUS. See EGYPT, vol. vii. p. 713. broad, watered by the Lovat and Polist, occupies the interPSELLUS, the name of several Byzantine writers, of val between the two hilly tracts; it is covered throughout whom the following were the most important.

with forests and thickly studied with marshes overgrown 1. MICHAEL PSELLUS the elder, a native of Andros and with rank vegetation, the only tracts suitable for human a pupil of Photius. He flourished in the second half of occupation beiny narrow isolated strips of land on the the 9th century, and strove to stem the rising tide of bar- banks of rivers, or between the marshes, and no communibarism by his devotion to letters and philosophy. His cation is possible except along the watercourses. study of the Alexandrine theology, as well as of profane marshy tracts, which extend westwards into Vitebsk and literature, brought him under the suspicions of the ortho- north-eastwards towards St Petersburg, were even more clox, and a former pupil of his, by name Constantine, impassable ten centuries ago, and, encircling the old accused him in an elegiac poem of having abandoned Russian city of Pskoff, formed its best protection against (Christianity. In order to perfect his knowlulye of Christ- the repeated attacks of its neighbours. ian doctrine, Psellus had recourse to the instructions of With the exception of the south-castern corner, where Photius, and then replied to his adversary in a long iambic Carboniferous rocks make their appearance, nearly the poem, in which he maintained his orthodoxy. It has been whole of the government consists of Devonian deposits conjectured by Allatius, Cave, and others that some of of great thickness, — the Old Red Sandstone, with subthe books commonly attributed to the younger Psellus ordinate layers of various sandstones, and clays containing are the works of the elder, e.y., the Dialogue on Operations brown iron ore; and the White Limestone, which contains of Demons, and the short treatises on the l'irtues of Stonex layers of dolomite, marls, clays with deposits of gypsum, and On Demons. Their reasons, however, resting on the and white sandstone, which is extensively quarried for inferiority of literary style and mode of treatment, are building purposes. Is recurs the fauna the Devonian inconclusive.

deposits of Pskotr are intermediate between those of 9. MILEL CONSTANTINE Psellus the younger was Belgiun, the Eiful, and I'oland and those of mildle Ru-sin. born at Constantinople in 1020, of a consular and patrician The whole is covered with very thick sheets of boulder family. He studieil at Athens, and by his talents and clay and bears unmistakable traces of glacial action; the vast industry madlo himself master of all the learning of bottom moraine of the Scandinavian and l'innish ice--heet the age, including theology, law, physics, mathematics, formerly extended over the whole of this region, which philosophy, and liistory. At Constantinople he taught often takes the shape of ridly's (hemes or vskers), the 17 per philosophy, rhetoric, and clialectic with the greatest sue-parts consisting of (ilacial sans and post-Cilacial clays, ceny, and was honoured with the title of " Prince of sands, and peat-bous. The soil is thus not only intirtile l'hilosophers" by the emperors, who sometimes sought on the whole

, but also bully ruineol, on account of the his alvire and employed his services. But in 1078, when impermeable nature of the bouiller clay and the frequent his pupil, the emperor Michael Ducas, was deposed, l’sellus vecurrence of rajons having no distinct outlets to hared liis downfall, being compelled ly the new emperor, the rivers. Only those parts of the territory which are Vicephorus Dietanias, to retire to a monastery. On his covered with thicker strata of 1*--(iluviul demits are arcusion to the empire in 1081 Alexius ('omnents de suitable for agri umur'. prived Prillis of his title of “ Prince of Philosophers" and The rivers are numerolls and lots to the murate innsperruil it to his less talented rival John the Italian. basins-- to Likes leiplan I-koilt!... rivers in the northllo appwars to larve been still alive in 110.5 and perhaps west, to Lake Ulmen those in ile michelle, un to that of in 1110.

the Dwina the rivers in the south-i-t. Tot nuls oplin ka, wlular Viry numerous, many have not yet loon of small streamus pour into Liike lakoff, the chief link

l. Este of those which have been printed there is no come pul.po rition. Of lus published works we may mention, hin the lilikaya, which tows from sout! tworth and receives u 11. in 11. prosi: por Mithmolis Disiplin.1, 1.2.

1:12Merous wributaries, which are 11:01 for 11. ralis, 1. 1.....19. lpscorollirom, it will, pullished:11 a wiile region being the limonuint into anomation with Vinge in 10... and sveral times tiprintul, is at lil in 1.5. Lake Peipolls and then with the Virovit The Pilikilide w1h the nurse of Syllora l'impresa 17; 1. '; 116.5 which is now hire for only 2.3 mile from Like din.15. piliehuid in Grook liy Illus at Vonne in 150:3 ; ields 1, in intaluje verse', cited with a latin tuulation and

Iskuff was formerly per. The Lansler, ... Fran l'ho filofus, l'aris, 1632; A11,11..! 1..

ins to the 11-ilo la Mlmesi, i te Lul naviculil, a la .'.8,, 27. in iulize sorar, pulilisheol by Arunis:ut Ron lively trati is carried out on lih; while th... Dwi... 7.air. Winsorintail. Bl. 1511:15: II ireneas raunir'u'l'

for 100 miles on the londers of the Phil. 1114 lit or wilin Calming I wroflare d: rovnann sinlomusl, translated into litin

it, and in 1-ilos porttills tindr. These artistess pliini Manlluns anil publishelat laris in 1:77: 1 lilin

14, published in cipuek anel Latin at Toulouse in 1913 por: than sin lah. in Pili wiha talar of 3:1 Hry ban! Mert PSELLIN alwre!

miles. The liriin Tok Photl, while in jo miliona PSEUDONYMOUS LITERATURE.

Sce Biblio- anul 1:3 lur.., the cover 310.491.1 remike having a copil R.APHY, vol. iii. pp. 657-638.

of from 3 to 18 firt: it is conie's ted livi chunned, 10 miles

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long and 3 to 10 wide, with Lake Peipus. Its islands, or gardening; the remainder are engaged in loading and numbering nearly fifty, have an aggregate population of unloading merchandise on the Velikaya and at the rail2000 persons. The marshes on the banks of the Polist way station, in combing flax, fishing, and domestic trades. are nearly 1250 square miles in extent; one in the neigh- The manufactures are unimportant. Since the completion bourhood of Lake Dviniye is 27 miles long and 17 broad, of the St Petersburg and Warsaw railway the trade of and another on the Toropa extends for 17 miles, while Pskoff has increased. In 1880 the exports reached 99,000 many elongated marshes, 15, 20, and 30 miles long and cwts. on the Velikaya and 463,000 cwts. by rail; the from 2 to 3 broad, run parallel to one another in the imports were 125,700 cwts. on the Velikaya and 591,600 broad depression of the Lovat. Forests occupy nearly cwts. by rail. Pškoff has regular steam communication one-half (about 45 per cent.) of the entire area, and in with Dorpat. The population in 1882 was 21,170 (15,086 some districts (Cholm, Toropets, Porkhoff) as much as two- in 1866). thirds of the surface. Large pine forests are met with in IIistory.-Pskoff, formerly the sister republic of Novgorod, and the north ; in other parts the birch and aspen prevail ; one of the oldest cities of Russia, maintained its independence and but almost one-quarter of the forest area is covered with its free institutions until the 16th century, being thus the last low brushwood.

to be brought under the rule of Moscow. Its annals, unquestion

ably the fullest and liveliest of any in Russia, affirm that it already The climate is very moist and changeable. The average temper- existed in the time of Rurik ; and Nestor mentions under the year ature is 41° Fahr. (17°•1 in January and 64° -8 in July).

914 that Igor's wife, Olga, was brought from Pleskoff (i.c., Pskoff). The population of the government, which was 895,710 in 1881 It was quite natural that a Russian fortified town should rise at (718,910 in 1863), consists almost exclusively of Great Russians, the entrance of the Velikaya valley within the earliest period of the there being only 8000 Esthonians in the district of Pskoff), about Russian colonization of that region; the river had from a remote 500 Letts, and less than 1500 Jews. Many German traders live at antiquity been a channel for the trade of the south with the north Pskoff. The Russians and the greater part of the Esthonians Baltic coast. Pskoff being an important strategic point, its posbelong to the Greek Church, or are Nonconformists (upwards of session was obstinately disputed between the Russians and the 12,000 in 1866, according to oflicial figures). Of the total number Germans and Lithuanians, and throughout the 11th and 12th of inhabitants only 58,900 live in towns, the remainder being centuries numerous battles were fought. At that time the place distributed over 110 fewer than 15,000 small villages.

had its own independent institutions ; but, attacked as it was from Notwithstanding the infertility of the soil the chief occupation the west, it became in the 12th century a prigorod” of the Nov. is agriculture—rye, oats, barley, and potatoes being grown every-gorod republic, —that is (so far as can be judged from the incomwhere ; but though corn is exported by the larger landowners to plete testimony of historical documents), a city having its own free the average annual amount of nearly 1,600,000 bushels the amount institutions, but included in certain respects within the jurisimported is much greater (9,600,000 bushels). The annual export | diction of the metropolis, and compelled in time of war to march of flax is estimated at 530,000'cwts., Pskoff, Ostrots, Opotchka, against the common enemy: Pskoil had, however, its own prince Porkhoff, and Soltsy being important centres for the trace. The defensor municipii); and in the second half of the 13th century average annual crops during 1870-77 were 28,972,800 bushels of Prince (Timotheus) Dovmont fortified it so strongly, and was so corn andl 5,981,000 hushels of potatoes. The limited area of pasture successful in repelling its enemies, that the town acquired much lands is unfavourable for cattle-breeding, and in 1881 there were only importance and asserted its independence of Novgorod, with which 171,000 horses, 304,000 head of cattle, and 166,000 sheep'; inur in 13-18 it concluded a treaty wherein the two republies were recog. rains are very frequent Fishing is a considerable source of wealth nized as cquals. The institutions of Pskoff resembled those of on the shores of the larger lakes, small salted or frozen fish (snyetki) Novgorod ; it, in its turn, had several prigorods, and its rule exbeing annually exported to the value of £25,000 or £35,000. The tended over the territory which now forms the districts of Pskoti, timber tradle is steadily increasing, the exports being estimatel at Ostroff, Opotelka, and Gloff. Within this territory the "yyetche present at nearly £50,000 ; wood for fuel is, however, at the same or “forun ” of Pskofl was sovereign, the vyetches of the subordinate time imported from the government of St Petersburg. The popull towns being supreme in their own municipal affairs. The city of lation engage also in the preparation of lime, in stone-quarrying, in Pskoff was divided into several sections or “kontsy,” according the transport of merchandise, and in some domestic trades. The to the prevalent occupations of the inhabitants, and the kontsy manufactures are insignificant; their aggregate production in 1879 were divided into “ulitsy” (streets), which enjoyed extensive reached £518,800, and gave occupation to only 2350 persons. The powers of self-government. The vyetche was supreme in all affairs total amount of merchandise loaded and discharged on the rivers of general interest, as well as a supreme court of justice, and the within the government in 1880 was 1,761,000 cwts.

princes were elected by it; these last had to defend the city and Pskoff is divided into eight districts, the chief towns of which levied the taxes, which were assessed by twelve citizens, who comare—Pskoff (21,170 inhabitants), Cholin (5550), Novorjeff (1915), bined to some extent the functions of judges with those of a jury. Opotchka (1075), Ostroff (4200), Porkhoff (3925), Toropiets (5760), Pskoff differed widely, however, from Novgorod in the more demoVelikiya Luki (6600). Alexandrovskii Posad (29:20) and Soltsycratic character of its institutions; and, while the latter con(5825, an important shipping place on the Sheloñ river) have also stantly showed a tendency to become an oligarchy of the wealthier municipal institutions.

merchants, the former figured as a republic where the influence of

the poorer classes prevailed. Its trading associations, supported PSKOFF, capital of the above government, is pictur- by those of the labourers, checked the influence of the wealthier esquely situated on both banks of the broad Velikaya river, merchants

. 9 miles from Lake Pskoff and 171 miles by rail south-west

This struggle (of which the annals give a lively picture) conof St Petersburg. The chief part of the town, with its in armed riots. Notwithstanding these contliets Pskoff

' was a very

tinued throughout the 14th and 15th centuries, resulting sometimes kremlin on a hill and several suburbs, occupies the right wealthy city. Its strong walls, whose ruins are still to be seen, its bank of the river, to which the ruins of its old walls forty-two large and wealthy churches

, built during this period, as also descend ; the Zapskovic, consisting of several suburbs, its numerous monasteries and its extensive trade, bear testimony stretches along the same bank of the Velikaya below its The « dyetinets” or fort, enclosed by a stone wall erected by Dovconfluence with the Pskova; and the Zavelitchie occupies mont, stood on a hill between the Pskova and the Velikaya, having the left bank of the Velikaya, -all three keeping their within its walls the cathedral of the Holy Trinity. Another stone old historical names. The cathedral in the kremlin has wall enclosed the commercial part, the Kromy (kremlin) or middlo

town. been four times rebuilt since the 12th century and contains

In 1465 the suburb Polonische became so prosperous that

it also was enclosed by a wall, and included within the circuit of the some very old shrines, as also the graves of the bishops of

town proper. Even the Zapskovie was enclosed by a wooden palisade Pskoff and of several princes, including those of Dovmont in the 15th century and later on by a stone wali: while the Zaveand Vsevolod. The church of Dmitrii Solunskii also dates litchie was a busy centre of foreign trade. As early as the 13th originally from the 12th century; there are others belong- between Novgorod and Riga. A century later it entered the

century Pskoff had become an important station for the trade ing to the 14th and 15th. The Spaso-Mirojskii monastery, Hanseatic League. Its merchants and trading associations hail founded in 1156, has many remarkable antiquities. The factories at Narva, Revel, Riga, and exported flax, corn, tallow, ruins of numerous rich and populous monasteries in or skins, tar, pitch, honey, and timber for shipbuilding, which were near the town attest its former wealth and greatness. The transported or shipped via Lake Peipus, the Narova, and the

Embach to the ports on the Baltic and on the Gulf of Finland. present town is ill built, chiefly of wood, and shows traces Silks, woollen stuils, and all kinds of manufactured wares were of decay. Many of the inhabitants live by agriculture brought back in exchange and sold throughout northern Russia.

Nevertheless, the continuous struggle between the "black" and gard to trade, but the struggle between rich and poor was aggravated "white" people (the patricians and the plebeians) offered many by the interveution of foreigners. The “lutschiye ludi” (Wealthier opportunities to Moscow for interference in the internal affairs of merchants) prohibited the malomotchnyie" (porer nierchants) Pskoff, especially with regard to the election of the princes, which from entering into direct traile relations with foreigners, and comwas often the occasion of severe conflicts. In 1399 the prince of pelled them to sell their wares to themselves or to become their Moscow arrogated the privilege of confirming the elected prince of agents. These disputes furnished Moscow at the end of the 17th Pskoff in his rights; and though, fifty years later, Pskoff and Nov: century with a pretext for alvolishing the last vestiges of self-governgorod concluded several defensive treaties against Moscow the fall ment at Pskoff, and for placing all affairs of local administration in of both republics was inevitable, the poorer classes continuing to the hands of the Moscow waywodes. Thenceforward l'skofl fell scek at Moscow a protection against the oppression of the richer into rapid decay. It became a stronghold of Russia against Poland citizens. After the fall of Novgorod (1475) Pskoff could no longer and was besieged for seven months by Stephan Bathory during the maintain its independence, and in 1510 it was taken by Vasilii Livonian War, and later on by Gustavus Adolphus. Under Peter I. Joannovitch. The vyetche was abolished and its bell taken away, it became a fortified camp), and its walls were protected by earthand a waywode was nominated by Moscow to govern the city. works. But it never recovered its former importance, and is now Moscow merchants were settled at Pskoff, and put in possession of one of the poorer cities of the empire.

(P. A. K.) the fortunes of the former citizens. The conquered territory still maintained to some extent its self-government, especially with re

PSYCHE. See Curid.

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The Standpoint of Psychology.

basis” of this inner sense; and, if self-consciousness alone is tempoIN the several natural sciences the scope and subject- rarily in abeyanee and a man merely “beside himself,” such state of

delirium has little analogy to the functional blindness or deafness discussion on this score is called for. It is easy to dis To the conception of an internal perception or observation the tinguish the facts dealt with in a treatise on light from preceding objections do not necessarily anuly,—that is to say, this those that belong to one on sound; and even when the conception may be so defined that they need not. need arises to compare the results of two such sciences proportion as we cscape the charge of assuming a spucial sense

which furnishes the material for such perception or observation, as in the case, say, of light and electricity—there is still in that same proportion are we compelled to seek for some other no difficulty,—apart, of course, from any which the im- modo of distinguishing its subject-matter. For, so far as the mere perfect state of the sciences themselves may occasion. mental activity of perceiving or observing is concerned, it is not Theoretically, a standpoint is attainable from which this casy to see any

easy to see any essential difference in the process whether what

is observed be psychical or physical. It is quite true that the comparison can be made, in so far, say, as the facts of so-called psychological observation is more chillicult, because the hoth sciences can be expressed in terms of matter and facts observed are often less definite and less persistent, and admit motion. But with psychology, however much it is freed less of actual isolation than physical facts do ; but the process of from metaphysics, all this is different. It is indeed ordi- recognizing similarities or differences

, the dangers of mal-observa

tion or non-observation, are not materially altered on that account. narily assumed that its subject-matter can be at once It

It may be further allowed that there is one clifficulty pueruliarly defined: “It is what you can perceive by consciousness felt in psychological observation, the one most inaccurately exor reflexion or the internal sense,” says one, “just as the pressed by saying that here the observer and the observed are one. subject matter of optics is what you can perceive by obvious fact that our powers of attention are limited, so that we sight.” Or, "psychology is the science of the phenomena cannot alter the distribution of attention at any moment without of mind," we are told again, "and is thus marked off from altering the contents of consciousness at that moment. coordthe physical sciences, which treat only of the phenomena ingly, where there are 10 other ways of surmounting this difficulty, of matter." But, whereas nothing is simpler than to dis the psychological observer mut either trust to reportations at

a later time, or he inust squire the power of taking momentary tinguish between seeing and hearing, or between the glances at the psychological asperts of the phase of consciousness phenomena of heat and the phenomena of gravitation, a in question. In this one with any aptitude for such studies very little reflexion may convince us that we cannot in can do with so slight a diversion of attention as not to disturb the same fashion distinguish internal from external sense,

very seriously either the given state or that which immediately

succeeds it.
or make clear to ourselves what we mean by phenomena by physical observers in certain spreial canis

, a5, ..., in observing

But vry similar difficulties have to le similarly met of mind as distinct from phenomena of matter.

and registering the phenomena of solar ca lipse; and similar aptiLet us begin with the supposed differentia of internal and es. tules in the distribution of attention have to required, say, by 31.1. ternal; and tirst of all what are we to understand by an innera tempore orators or skilful surcons. Just as little then, as there 11 winse! To every sense there corresponds a sense-organ; the several anything that we can with propriety call :111 inner sense, just konses are distinct an independent, so that no one sense can ailel

so litile can we find in the 2.20 pass of inter prderption any satisto or elter the materials of another; and carh is sui generis as factory characteristic of the subject-matris of books. The minis quality:—he possession of fire senses, c.9., furnishing no question still is: What is it that is provime or obisnul and the Lata as to the character of a possible sixth. Moreover, s'Ilse-im readliest answer of course is: Intirnir?"! as li-iingui-led prwions are jussively received and occur in the first instance with from external, wlit takes place in tlir mim siziunt froin what out reaanl to the feeling or volition of the recipient and without ! takes place without ans manner of relation to the contents of consciousness" at the This anser, it must at omal...l. i innate for 120-4 momrnt. Vor such a deskription will apply but very partially to purposes, and in 41:2t deal of scrlon pollo.........k 11:2-len the so-called "internal sense." We can imagine consciousness done without ! Piralling it in y! still. B:11 ilolizing in bors without self-innsriousness, still more without introspection, much tween interurland esternorpuriner is not edit!

un lieu as we can imagine sight without taste or smell. But this does not from the stoint of 1.11.057, t.1:1-4 !!! : thin 011fwt. entitle un to swak of self-consciousness as a sense. For we do not : 1ion tliis standpoint it all blatul...!!! 1 in: 1:14. or... his means of it passively receive impressions differing froin all not extrusi 1!. is 10 1,1!. My been the poriou« presentations, as the sensations of colour for one couched intend 21the frl: Wls, 10 storil,!, -1_11. Isilir !ull of differ from all he has experienceal lw fore: the new furiis consist the bly, wiili ulijil the sulojra ofur 21. 11:...1: 1 in rother in the prognition of certain relations among pre-existing this sone the plllll of 0 totis 1:... Tira1!.;114 111, forsentations, ir, are due to our mental activity and not to a in the same w 1-2 of :)... Toril, l. in of IM? ! ,,, in sperial mande of what has been called our sensitivity. For when I-1.6., 0117 of tho: r;..! Wro 1:10 211", i riu i We taste we cannot hear that we taste, when we see we cannot smelluk of two think I linna inil.omn.1, the million in that were ; but when we taste we may lw conscious that we fastes list werk. 11:10. lit. ty in sili: 1.1.1 il: in when we hear we may be conscious that we hear. In this was all thing is "in liis 11:191" : !.:: ir in ;x). :-:-:i-!- it the objerts of the external senses ar recognized as having n't from something not in liis ini1., 1! : !1.11.: 119, mrlations by the miscalled "internal sense." Moreover, the fatsso. must imply ople of twenty-il:!1!11), ill. l. asortainmi arr perer independent of feeling and volition and of in 3. nally or postly in some other liv, . ..:-tuin lins the montents of conscionsness at the time, as true ansitions are. slone con il fil, that it ilir tirn 11. : !!lm Also if we consult the physiologist we learn that there is no evidence print at isl. Vii, it :in of any organ or "centre" that could be regarded as the "physiial ani not-in mn-t looth apjoly to the dog col!, weiler pace,

time, presentation (or non-presentation) to a given subject, and means “whatsoever is the object of the understanding
so forth, we still find psychologists more or less consciously con when a man thinks” (i.e., is conscious), and having, as it
fused between“internal,” meaning “ presented” in the psychological
sense, and “ external,” meaning not“ not-presented” but corporcal were, shut himself within such a circle of ideas he finds
or oftener extra-corporeal. But (2), when used to distinguish himself powerless to explain his knowledge of a world that
between presentations (soine of which, or some relations of which is independent of it; but he is able to give a very good
with respect to others, are called “ internal,” and others or other account of some of these ideas themselves. He cannot
relations, “external”), these terms are at all events accurate; only justify his belief

justify his belief in the world of things whence certain of
then they cease to mark off the psychological from the extra-
psychological, inasmuch as psychology has to analyse this distinc- his simple ideas “were conveyed” any more than Robinson
tion and to exhibit the steps by which it has come about. But Crusoe could have explored the continents whose products
we have still to examine whether the distinction of phenomena of were drifted to his desert island, though he might perhaps
Matter anıl phenomena of Vind furnishes a better dividing line

survey the island itself well enough. Berkeley accordthan the distinction of internal and external. Mental A phenomenon, as commonly understood, is what is manifest, ingly, as Professor Fraser happily puts it, abolished Locke's and

sensible, evident, the implication being that there are eyes to see hypothetical outer circle. Thereby he made the psychomaterial. cars to hear, and so fortli,—in other worls, that there is presenta logical standpoint clearer than ever-hence the truth of

tion to a subject; and wherever there is presentation to a subject Hume's remark, that Berkeley's arguments "admit of no
it will be allowed that we are in the domain of psychology. But in
talking of physical phenomena we; in a way, abstract from this fact

answer”; at the same time the epistemological problem
of presentation. Though consciousness should cease, the physicist was as hopeless as before—hence again the truth of Hume’s
would consider the sum total of objects to remain the saine : the remark that those arguments "produced no conviction.”
orange would still be round, yellow, and fragrant as before. For Of all the facts with which he deals, the psychologist may
the physicist—whether aware of it or not-has taken up a position
which for the present may be described by saying that phenomenon truly say that their esse is percipi, inasmuch as all his facts
with him means appearance or manifestation, or—as we hacl better are facts of presentation, are ideas in Locke's sense, or
say-object, not for a concrete individual, but rather for what Kant objects which imply a subject. Before we became con-
cailed Bewusstsein überhaupt, or, as some render it, the objective scious there was no world for us; should our consciousness
consciousness, i.c., for an imaginary subject freed from all the
limitations of actual subjects save that of depending on “sensi-

cease, the world for us ceases too; had we been born blind, bility” for the material of experience. Ilowever, this is not all

, for, the world would for us have had no colour; if deaf, it as we shall see presently, the psychologist also occupies this posi- would have had no sounds; if idiotic, it would have had tion; at least if he does not, liis is not a true science. But further,

no meaning. Psychology, then, never transcends the the physicist leaves out of sight altogether the facts of attention, feeling, and so forth, all which actual presentation entails. From

limits of the individual; even the knowledge that there the psychological point of view, on the other hand, the removal of is a real world, as common-sense assumes, is, when psychothe subject removes not only all such facts as attention and feeling, logically regarded, an individual's knowledge, which had but all presentation or possibility of presentation whatever. Surely,

In then, to call a certain object , when we abstract from its presentation fact, for the psychologist it is not essentially knowledge,

a beginning and a growth, and can have an end. a material phenomenon, and to call the actual presentation of this object a mental phenomenon, is a clumsy and confusing way of

but presentations, partly possible, partly actual, in the representing the difference between the two points of view. For mind of A, B, or C; just as this page is for the printer the terms material” and “mental” seem to imply that the two essentially “copy,” and only for the reader essentially so-called phenomena have nothing in cominon, whereas the same

"discourse." But what the psychologist has to say about object is involved in both, while the term “phenomenon” implies that the point of view is in each case the same, when in truth knowledge is, of course, itself knowledge, i.e., assuming what is emphasized by the one the other ignores.

it to be correct; the knowledge about which he knows is, Stand. Paradoxical though it may be, we must then conclude however, for him not primarily knowledge, but "states of point of that psychology cannot be defined by reference to a special consciousness." psycho- subject matter as such concrete sciences, for example, as But now, though this Berkeleyan standpoint is the logy.

mineralogy and botany can; and, since it deals in some standpoint of psychology-as we find it occupied, say, by sort with the whole of experience, it is obviously not an J. S. Mill and Dr Bain-psychology is not pledged to the abstract science, in any ordinary sense of that term. To method employed by Berkeley and by Locke. Psychobe characterized at all, therefore, apart from metaphysical logy may be individualistic without being confined exassumptions, it must be characterized by the standpoint clusively to the introspective method. There is nothing from which this experience is viewed. It is by way of to hinder the psychologist from employing materials furexpressing this that widely different schools of psychology nished by his observations of other men, of infants, of the define it as subjective, all other positive sciences being lower animals, or of the insane ; nothing to hinder him distinguished as objective. But this seems scarcely more taking counsel with the philologist or even the physiologist, than a first approximation to the truth, and, as we have provided always he can show the psychological bearings of seen incidentally, is apt to be misleading. The distinction those facts which are not directly psychological. Nor, again, rather is that the standpoint of psychology is what is some are we bound, because we take the individualistic standtimes termed “individualistic,” that of the so-called object-point as psychologists, to accept the philosophical conclusciences being “universalistic,” both aliko being objective sions that have been reached from it, unless, indeed, we in the sense of being true for all, consisting of what Kant hold that it is the right point of view for philosophical would call judgments of experience. For psychology is speculation. A psychologist may be an idealist in Berkeley's not a biography in any sense, still less a biography cleal sense or in Fichte's, but he need not; he is just as free, if ing with idiosyncrasies, and in an idiom having an interest he see reason, to call himself, after IIamilton, a natural realand a meaning for one subject only, and incommunicable ist; only psychology will afford him no safe warrant for to any other. Locke; Berkeley, and Hume have been of the realism part of it. The standpoint of psychology, then, late severely handled because they regarded the critical is individualistic; by whatever methods, from whatever investigation of knowledge as a psychological problem, sources its facts are ascertained, they must—to have a and set to work to study the individual mind simply for psychological import- be regarded as having place in, or the sake of this problem. But none the less their stand as being part of, some one's consciousness. In this sense, point was the proper one for the science of psychology i.e., as presented to an individual, “the whole choir of itself; and, however surely their philosophy was fore- heaven and furniture of carth ” may belong to psychology, doomed to a collapse, there is no denying a steady psycho- but otherwise they are psychological nonentities. The logical advance as we pass from Locke to Hume and his problem of psychology, in dealing with this complex submodern representatives. By “idea” Locke tells us he Iject-matter, is in general—first, to ascertain its constituent

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