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Bargello. The general effect of the whole can best be seen are perfect models of plastic art, and are quite free from the at the South Kensington Museum, where a complete cast over-elaboration and too pictorial style of Ghiberti. Fig. is fixed to the wall. The same museum possesses a study 1 shows one of the panels. A terra-cotta relief at Berlin in gesso duro for one of the panels, which appears to be and another in the South Kensington Museum are probably the original sketch by Luca's own hand.

original studies by Luca for two of the panels of the doctors. In May 1437 Luca received a commission from the The most important existing work in marble by Luca signoria of Florence to execute five reliefs for the north (executed in 1457-58)3 is the tomb of Benozzo Federighi, side of the campanile, to complete the series begun by bishop of Fiesole, originally placed in the church of S. Giotto and Andrea Pisano. These panels are so much in Pancrazio at Florence, but now in S. Francesco di Paola on the earlier style of Giotto that we must conclude that he the Bello Sguardo road outside the city. A very beautiful had left drawings from which Luca worked. They have effigy of the bishop in a restful pose lies on a sarcophagus representative figures chosen to typify grammar, logic, sculptured with graceful reliefs of angels holding a wreath, philosophy, music, and geometry,—the last represented which contains the inscription. Above are three-quarterby Euclid and Ptolemy.1 In 1438 Luca received an order length figures of Christ between St John and the Virgin, for two marble altars for chapels in the cathedral, a third delicately carved in low relief. The whole is surrounded being ordered from Donatello. The reliefs from one of by a rectangular frame formed of painted majolica tiles of Luca's—St Peter's Deliverance from Prison and his Cruci- the most exquisite beauty, far surpassing any other existfixion—are now in the Bargello. It is probable that these ing work of the same sort. On each tile is painted, with altars were never finished. A tabernacle for the host, enamel pigments, a bunch of flowers and fruit in brilliant made by Luca in 1442, is now at Peretola in the church realistic colours, the loveliness of which is very hard to of S. Maria. A document in the archives of S. Maria describe The perfect mean between truth to nature and Nuova at Florence shows that he received for this 700 decorative treatment has never been more thoroughly florins 1 lira 16 soldi (about £1400 of modern money). obtained than in these wonderful tile pictures, each of In 1437 Donatello received a commission to cast a bronze which is worthy of the most careful study; and they are door for one of the sacristies of the cathedral; but, as also of special interest as being among the earliest exhe delayed to execute this order, the work was handed amples of Italian majolica. Though the bunch of flowers over to Luca on 28th February 1446, with Michelozzo and on each is painted on one slab, the ground of each tile Maso di Bartolomeo as his assistants. Part of this wonder- is formed of separate pieces, fitted together like a kind ful door was cast in 1448, and the last two panels were of mosaic, probably because the pigment of the ground finished by Luca in 1467, with bronze which was supplied required a different degree of beat in firing from that to him by Verrocchio.2 The door is divided into ten needed for the enamel painting of the centre. The few square panels

, with small heads in the style of Ghiberti other works of this class which exist do not approach the projecting from the framing. The two top subjects are beauty of this early essay in majolica painting, on which the Madonna and Child and the Baptist, next come the Luca evidently put forth his utmost skill and patience. four Evangelists, and below are the four Latin Doctors, In the latter part of his life Luca was mainly occupied

with the production of terra -cotta reliefs covered with enamel,—a process which he improved upon, but did not invent, as Vasari asserts. The secret of this

process was to cover the clay relief with an enamel formed of the ordinary ingredients of glass (marzacotto) made an opaque white by oxide of tin,-a method practised with great success in the 13th century in Persia * (see POTTERY, vol. xix. pp. 620, 628). Though Luca was not the inventor of the process, yet his genius so improved and extended its application that it is not unnaturally known now as Della Robbia ware; it must, however, be remembered that by far the majority of these reliefs which in Italy and elsewhere are ascribed to Luca are really the work of some of the younger members of the family. Comparatively few exist which can with certainty be ascribed to Luca himself. Among the earliest of these are medallions of the four Evangelists in the vault of Brunelleschi's l'azzi chapel in S. Croce. These fine reliefs are coloured with various metallic oxides in different shades of blue, green, purple, yellow, and black.

It has often been asserted that the very polychromatic reliefs belong to Andrea or his sons, and that Luca's were all in pure white; this, however, is not the case : colours were used more freely by Luca than by his successors.

A relief in the South Kensington

Museum furnishes a striking example and is of especial Fig. 1. — Bronze relief of one of the Latin Doctors, from the sacristy value from its great size, and also because its date is door in the cathedral of Florence, by Luca.

known. This is an enormous medallion containing the cach subject with attendant angels. The whole is modelled arms of René of Anjou and other heraldic devices; it is with the most perfect grace and dignified simplicity; the

Gaye, Carteggio Inedito, i. p. 183. heads throughout are full of life, and the treatment of the 4 It is described by Theophilus, Diversarum Artium Schedula (11th drapery in broad simple folds is worthy of a Greek sculptor century)

, and by Pietro del Bono in his Margarita preciosa (1330). of the best period of Hellenic art. These exquisite reliefs

An example earlier than any of Luca's exists at Florence over the door

of S. Egidio (in S. Maria Nuora). It is a relief of the Coronation of the Vasari is not quite right in his account of these reliefs : he speaks Virgin esecuted by Lorenzo de' Bicci in 1424 ; see Milanesi, Archivio of Euclid and Ptolemy as being in different panels.

Storico Italiano, 1860, pp. 182-183. Contemporary writers call this * See Cavallucci, S. Maria del Fiore, pt. ii. p. 137.

enamelled clay "terra inretriata."



surrounded by a splendidly modelled wreath of fruit and on the face and hands (nude parts) of his figures, especiflowers, especially apples, lemons, oranges, and fir cones, ally in those cases where he had treated the heads in a all of which are brilliantly coloured. This medallion was realistic manner; as, for example, in the noble tympanum set up on the facade of the Pazzi Palace to commemorate relief of the meeting of St Domenic and St Francis in the René's visit to Florence in 1442. Another early relief by loggia of the Florentine hospital of S. Paolo,—& design Luca, also highly polychromatic, is that of the Ascension in suggested by a fresco of Fra Angelico's in the cloister the tympanum of one of the sacristy doors in the cathedral

, of St Mark's. One of the most remarkable works by executed between 1446 and 1450, as is recorded in a Andrea is the series of medallions with reliefs of Infants document published by Rumohr (Italien. Forsch., ii, pp. in white on a blue ground set on the front of the found364-365). Other existing works of Luca in Florence are ling hospital at Florence. These lovely child-figures are the tympanum reliefs of the Madonna between two Angels modelled with wonderful skill and variety, no two being in the Via dell'Agnolo, a work of exquisite beauty, and alike. Andrea produced, for guilds and private persons, a another over the door of S. Pierino del Mercato Vecchio. , large number of reliefs of the Madonna and Child varied The only existing statues by Luca are two lovely enamelled with much invention, and all of extreme beauty of pose figures of Kneeling Angels holding candlesticks, now in and sweetness of expression. These are frequently framed the canons' sacristy. A very fine work by Luca, executed with realistic and yet very decorative garlands of fruit and between 1449 and 1452, is the tympanum relief of the flowers, all painted with enamel colours, while the main Madonna and four Monastic Saints over the door of S. relief is left white. Fig. 2 shows a good example of these Domenico at Urbino.2 Luca also made the four coloured medallions of the Virtues set in the vault over the tomb of the young cardinal-prince of Portugal in a side chapel of S. Miniato in Florence (sec ROSSELLINO). By Luca also are reliefs of the Madonna and various medallions outside Or San Michele. One of his chief decorative works which no longer exists was a small library or study

ОДОДОЛООДОХОДООДОЛОЛ for Piero de' Medici, wholly lined with painted majolica plaques and reliefs.3 The South Kensington Museum possesses twelve circular plaques of majolica ware painted in blue and white with the Occupations of the Months; these have been attributed to Luca, but have no resemblance to any known works of his. Their provenance is unknown.

In 1471 Luca was elected president of the Florentine artists' guild, but he refused this great honour on account of his age and infirmity. It shows, however, the very high estimation in which he was held by his contemporaries. He died on 20th February 1482, Icaving his property to his nephews Andrea and Simone. His chief pupil was his nephew Andrea, and probably also Agostino di Ďuccio, who executed many pieces of sculpture at Rimini, and the graceful but mannered marble reliefs of angels on the façade of S. Bernardino at Perugia.5 Vasari calls this Agostino Luca's brother, but he was not related to him at all.

II. ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA (1435-1525), the nephew and pupil of Luca, carried on the production of the enamelled reliefs on a much larger scale than his uncle had ever done; he also extended its application to various architectural uses, such as friezes and to the making of lavabos (lavatories), fountains, and large retables. The result of this was that, though the finest reliefs from the workshop of Andrea were but little if at all inferior to those from the hand of Luca, yet some of them, turned

Fig. 2.-Enamelled clay relief of Virgin and Child, by Andrea. out by pupils and assistants, reaclied only a lower stand- smaller works. The hospital of S. Paolo, near S. Maria ard of merit. Only one work in marble by Andrea is Novella, has also a number of fine medallions with reliefs known, namely, an altar in S. Maria delle Grazie near

of saints, two of Christ Healing the Sick, and two fine Arezzo, mentioned by Vasari (ed. Milanesi, ii. p. 179), and portraits, under which are white plaques inscribed-dall' still well preserved.

año 1451 all' año 1495"; the first of these dates is the One variety of method was introduced by Andrea in year when the hospital was rebuilt owing to a papal brief his enamelled work; sometimes he omitted the enamel sent to the archbishop of Florence. Arezzo possesses a

number of fine enamelled works by Andrea and bis sons 1 The South Kensington Museum possesses what seem to be fine

a retable in the cathedral with God holding the Crucified replicas of these statues. ? The document in which the order for this and the price paid for

Christ, surrounded by angels, and below, kneeling figures it are recorded is published by Yriarte, Gaz. d. Beaux Arts, xxiv, p. 143. of S. Donato and S. Bernardino; also in the cathedral is

3 It is fully described by Filarete in his Tratlato dell' Architectura, a fine relief of the Madonna and Child with four saints at written in 1464, and therefore was finished before that date ; see also the sides. In S. Maria in Grado is a very noble retable Vasari, ed. Milanesi, Florence, 1880, i. p. 174, 4 His will, dated 19th February 1471, is published by Gaye, Cart.

with angels holding a crown over a standing figure of the Ined., i. p. 185.

Madonna; a number of small figures of worshippers take 5 In the works of Perkins and others on Italian sculpture these refuge in the folds of the Virgin's mantle, a favourite Perugian reliefs are wrongly stated to be of enamelled clay.

motive for sculpture dedicated by guilds or other corporate

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bodies. Perhaps the finest collection of works of this class | relief of the Madonna between two Adoring Angels (see fig. is at La Verna, not far from Arezzo (see Vasari, ed. 3). Long coloured garlands of fruit and flowers are held Milanesi, ii. p. 179). The best of these, three large retables with representations of the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, and the Madonna giving her Girdle to St Thomas, are probably the work of Andrea himself, the others being by his sons. In 1489 Andrea made a beautiful relief of the Virgin and two Angels, now over the archive room door in the Florentine Opera del Duomo; for this he was paid twenty gold florins (see Cavallucci, S. Maria del Fiore). In the same year he modelled the fine tympanum relief over a door of Prato cathedral, with a half-length figure of the Madonna between St Stephen and St Lawrence, surrounded by a frame of angels' heads.

In 1491 Andrea was still working at Prato, where many of his best reliefs still exist. One of his finest works is a large retable at Volterra in the church of S. Girolamo, dated 1501; it represents the Last Judgment, and is remarkable for the fine modelling of the figures, especially that of the archangel Michael, and a nude kneeling figure of a youth who has just risen from his tomb. Other late works of known date are a Resurrection of Christ, made in 1501 for S. Frediano at Florence (the lower half of this only exists, in the court of the Casa Mozzi), and a medallion of the Virgin in Glory, surrounded by angels, made

Fig. 3.—Relief of Madonna and Angels in the tympanum of the in 1505 for Pistoia cathedral.1 Andrea's last known relief

lavabo (S. Maria Novella, Florence), by Giovanni. is a Nativity, made in 1515 for S. Maria in Pian di Mignone at Florence.?

by nude boys reclining on the top of the arch. All this III., IV. Five of Andrea's seven sons worked with their part is of enamelled clay, but the basin of the fountain is father, and after his death carried on the Robbia fabrique; habit of signing his work, but Giovanni often did so,

of white marble, Neither Luca nor Andrea was in the the dates of their birth are shown in the table on p. above. Early in life two of them came under the influ- usually adding the date, probably because other potters cnce of Savonarola, and took monastic orders at his Domi- | had begun to imitate the Robbia ware.5 nican convent; these were MARCO, who adopted the name

Giovanni lacked the original talent of Luca and Andrea, of Fra Luca, and Paolo, called Fra Ambrogio. One relief and so he not only copied their work but cren reproduced by the latter, a Nativity with four life-sized figures of in clay the marble sculpture of Pollaiuolo, Da Settignano, rather poor work, is in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli in Verrocchio, and others. A relief by him, evidently taken the Sienese convent of S. Spirito; a MS. in the convent

from Mino da Fiesole, exists in the Palazzo Castracane archives records that it was made in 1504.

Staccoli. Among the very numerous other works of GioV. The chief existing work known to be by the second

vanni are the large retable in the Castellani chapel of S. son Luca is the very rich and beautiful tile pavement in Croce, a relief in the wall of a convent in the Via Nazionale the uppermost story of Raphael's loggie at the Vatican, at Florence, and two reliefs in the Bargello dated 1521

and 1522. finely designed and painted in harmonious majolica colours.

The latter is a many-coloured relief of the This was made by Luca at Raphael's request and under his Nativity, and was taken from the church of S. Girolamo supervision in 1518.3 It is still in very fine preservation. in Florence; it is a too pictorial work, marred by the uso

of VI. GIOVANNI DELLA ROBBIA (1469-1529 ?) during a

many different planes. Its predella has a small relief great part of his life worked as assistant to his father, of the Adoration of the Magi, and is inscribed “Hoc opus

fecit Joanes Andree de Robia, ac posuit hoc in tempore Andrea, and in many cases the enamelled sculpture of the two cannot be distinguished. Some of Giovanni's independ- of S. Silvestro is a relief in Giovanni's later and poorer

die ultima lulii ano. Dñi. MDXVTI." At Pisa in the church ent works are of great merit, especially the earlier ones; during the latter part of his life his reliefs deteriorated in

manner dated 1520; it is a Madonna surrounded by style, owing mainly to the universal decadence of the time. argels, with saints below -- the whole overcrowded wità A very large number of pieces of Robbia ware which are

figures and ornaments. Giovanni's largest and perhaps attributed to Andrea, and even to the elder Luca, were

finest work is the polychromatic frieze on the outside of really by the hand of Giovanni. One of his finest works, the Del Ceppo Hospital at Pistoia, for which he received

various sums of money between 1525 and 1529, as is quite equal in beauty to anything of his father's, from whom the design of the figures was probably taken, is the washing recorded in documents which still exist among the archives fountain in the sacristy of S. Maria Novella at Florence, Works of Mercy, forming a continuous band of sculpture

of the hospital. The subjects of this frieze are the Seven made in 1497.4 It is a large arched recess with a view

in high relief, well modelled and designed in a very broad of the seashore, not very decorative in style, painted on majolica tiles at the back. There are also two very beauti- sculpturesque way, but a little injured perhaps by the ful painted majolica panels of fruit-trees let into the lower crudeness of some of its colouring. Six of these reliefs part. In the tympanum of the arch is a very lovely white are by Giovanni, namely, Clothing the Naked, Washing

the Feet of Pilgrims, Visiting the Sick, Visiting Prisoners, Sue Gualandi, Memorie risquardanti le Belle Arti, Bologna, 1845, Burying the Dead, and Feeding the lungty. The seventh, vi. pp. 33-35, whera original documents are printeil recording the dates and prices paiul for these and other works of Andrea.

5 Examples of these imitations are a retable in S. Lucchese near * See a document printed by Milanesi in his Vasari, ii. p. 180. Poggibonsi dated 1514, another of the Madonna and Saints at Monte 3 It is illustrated by Gruner, Fresco Decorations of Italy, London, San Savino of 1525, and a third in the Capuchin church of Arceria 1854, pl. iv. ; see also Müntz, Raphaël, sa l'ie, &c., Paris, 1881, p. near Sinigaglia; they are all inferior to the best works of the Robbia 452, note i., and Vasari, ed. Milanesi, ii, p. 182.

* See a document printed by Milanesi in his lasari, ii. f. 193. 6 The hospital itself was begun in 1514,


Giving Drink to the Thirsty, was made by Filippo Pala-grandfather, the sixth Robert de Bruce, claimed the crown dini of Pistoia in 1585; this last is of terra-cotta, not of Scotland as son of Isabella, second daughter of David, enamelled, but simply painted with oil colours. Giovanni earl of Huntingdon; but Baliol, grandson of Margaret, the also executed the medallions in the spandrels of the arches eldest daughter, was preferred by the commissioners of under this frieze, with reliefs of the Annunciation, the Edward I. The birthplace of the Bruce--perhaps TurnVisitation, and the Coronation of the Virgin.

berry, his mother's castle, on the coast of Ayr—is not cerA large octagonal font of enamelled clay, with pilasters tainly known. His youth is said by an English chronicle at the angles and panels between them with scenes from to have been passed at the court of Edward I. At an the life of the Baptist, in the church of S. Leonardo at age when the mind is quick to receive the impressions Cerreto Guidi, is a work of the school of Giovanni ; the which give the bent to life he must have watched the proreliefs are pictorial in style and coarse in execution. Gio- gress of the great suit for the crown of Scotland. Its vanni's chief pupil was a man named Santi, who was at issue in favour of Baliol led to the resignation of Annanfirst apprenticed to Buglioni,1 and when the latter died in dale by Bruce the competitor to his son, the Bruce's father, 1521 he went into Giovanni's bottega. His work is very who, either then or after the death of the aged competitor inferior to that of his master.

in 1295, assumed the title of lord of Annandale. Two VII. GIROLAMO DELLA ROBBIA (1488-1566), another of years before he had resigned, on the death of his wife, the Andrea's

's sons, was an architect and a sculptor in marble earldom of Carrick to Robert the Bruce, who presented and bronze as well as in enamelled clay. During the first the deed of resignation to Baliol at Stirling on 3d August part of his life he, like his brothers, worked with his father, 1293, and offered the homage which his father, like bis but in 1528 he went to France and spent nearly forty grandfather, was unwilling to render. Feudal law required years in the service of the French royal family. Francis that the king should take sasine of the earldom before I. employed him to build a palace in the Bois de Boulogne regranting it and receiving the homage, and the sheriff of called the Château de Madrid. This was a large well- Ayr was directed to take it on Baliol's behalf. As the designed building, four stories high, two of them having disputes between Edward and Baliol, which ended in Baliol open loggie in the Italian fashion. Girolamo decorated it losing the kingdom, commenced in this year it is doubtful richly with terra-cotta medallions, friezes, and other archi- whether Bruce ever rendered homage; but he is henceforth tectural features. For this purpose he set up kilns at known as earl of Carrick, though in a few instances this Suresnes. Though the palace itself has been destroyed, title is still given to his father. Both father and son sided drawings of it exist.

with Edward against Baliol. Towards the end of 1292 The best collections of Robbia ware are in the Florentine Bargello the elder Robert had a safe-conduct from Edward to visit and Accademia, the South Kensington Museum (the finest out of Italy), the Louvre, the Cluny, and the Berlin Duseums. Many of Norway, the widower of Margaret of Scotland, --a fact

Norway with a daughter, Isabella, who married Erik, king fine specimens exist in Paris in the private collections of M. Alphonse de Rothschild, M. Gavel, and M. Dreyfus. The greater part of marking the high standing of the family of Bruce. On the Robbia work still remains in the churches and other buildings 20th April 1294 the younger Robert, earl of Carrick, bad of Italy, especially in Florence, Fiesole, Arezzo, La Verna, Volterra,

a similar safe-conduct or permission to visit Ireland till Barga, Montepulciano, Lucca, Pistoia, Prato, and Siena. The best accounts of the Della Robbia family are those given by De Jouy,

Michaelmas and a year following, and a further mark of Les Della Robbia, Paris, 1855 ; Bode, Die Künstle vilie Delta Edward's favour by a respite for the same period of all Robbia, Leipsic, 1878; and Cavallucci and Molinier, Les Della debts due by him to the exchequer. His father

, having Robbia, Paris, 1884, an ably-written and well-illustrated work.

done homage to Edward, was entrusted in October 1295 See also Vasari, ed. Milanesi, Florence, 1880, ii. p. 167 sq., and various works on Italian sculpture.

(J. H. M.)

with the custody of the castle of Carlisle by a patent in ROBERT I., king of France, son and successor of Hugh

which he is styled lord of Annandale; and Baliol retaliated Capet, was born at Orleans in 971 and died at Melun in by seizing Annandale, which he conferred on John Comyn,

earl of Buchan. 1031. See FRANCE, vol. ix. p. 536. He is sometimes

On 28th August 1296 Robert de Bruce cited as Robert II., Robert I. being then taken to mean

" le vieil” and Robert de Bruce “ le jeune," earl of Carrick, Robert, duke of France (ob. 923),

the second son of Robert Hemingford), in breach of this oath, renewed at Carlisle

swore fealty to Edward at Berwick; but (according to “the Strong” (ob. 866); comp. FRANCE, vol. ix. p. 535. ROBERT, called The BRUCE 4 (1274-1329), king of

on the Gospels and the sword of Thomas a Becket, the Scotland, was the son of the seventh Robert de Bruce, young earl joined Wallace, who had raised the standard lord of Annandale in his own right and earl of Carrick in

of Scottish independence in the name of Baliol after that right of his wife Marjory, daughter of Neil, second earl, weak king had himself surrendered his kingdom to and thus was of mingled Norman 5 and Celtic blood. His Edward. Urgent 'letters were sent ordering Bruce to sup

port Warenne, Edward's general, in the summer of 1297; i Benedetto Buglioni (1461-1521) appears to have produced ena- but, instead of complying, he, along with the bishop of melled ware independently of the Robbia family. In 1484 he made Glasgow and the steward of Scotland, laid waste the lands a relief of the Harrowing of Hell for the Servite monks at Florence; see Baldinieci, Notizie de Professori del Disegno, Milan, 1811, vi. p. 18.

of those who adhered to Edward. On 7th July Percy 2 The Sèvres Museum possesses some fragments of these decorations.

forced Bruce and his friends to make terms by the treaty 3 Sce Laborde, Chateau de Madrid, Paris, 1853, and Comptes des called the Capitulation of Irvine. The Scottish lords were Batiments du Roi, Paris, 1877-80, in which a full account is given of

not to serve beyond the sea against their will and were Girolamo's work in connexion with this palace.

4 For ROBERT II. (1316-1390) and ROBERT III. (d. 1406) of pardoned for their recent violence, while in return they Scotland, see SCOTLAND.

owned allegiance to Edward. The bishop of Glasgow, the The first Robert de Bruce, a follower of William the Conqueror, steward, and Sir Alexander Lindesay became sureties for was rewarded by the gift of many manors, chiefly in Yorkshire, of Bruce until he delivered his daughter Marjory as a hostage. which Skelton was the principal. His son, the second Robert, received

Wallace almost alone maintained the struggle for freedom from David I., his comrade at the court of Henry I., a grant of the lordship of Annandale, and his grandson, the third Robert, siding which the nobles as well as Baliol had given up, and Bruce with David against Stephen at the battle of the Standard, became a


no part in the honour of Stirling Bridge or the reverse Scottish instead of an English baron. The fourth Robert married of Falkirk, where in the following year Edward in person Isobel, natural daughter of William the Lion, and their son, the fifth Robert, married Isabella, second daughter of David, earl of Hunting; into exile.

recovered what his generals had lost and drove Wallace

Shortly afterwards Bruce appears again to the ambition to gain a crown,-—an object not beyond the ambition of have sided with his countrymen ; Annandale was wasted a powerful noble in feudal times.

and Lochmaben taken by Clifford, while Bruce (according



to Hemingford), "when he heard of the king's coming, policy of clemency to all who did not dispute his authority. fled from his face and burnt the castle of Ayr which he A parliament in London (16th September), to which held.” Yet, when Edward was forced by home affairs to Scottish representatives were summoned, agreed to an quit Scotland, Annandale and certain earldoms, including ordinance for the government of Scotland, which, though Carrick, were excepted from the districts he assigned to on the model of those for Wales and Ireland, treating his followers,—Bruce and the other earls being treated as Scotland as a third subject province under an English waverers whose allegiance might still be retained. In lieutenant, John de Bretagne, was in other respects not 1299 a regency was appointed in Scotland in name of

Bruce is reputed to have been one of the advisers Baliol, and a letter of Baliol mentions Robert Bruce, lord who assisted in framing it; but a provision that his castle of Carrick, as regent, along with William of Lamberton, of Kildrummy was to be placed in charge of a person for bishop of St Andrews, and John Comyn the younger, -- whom he should answer shows that Edward not without a strange combination, Lamberton the friend of Wallace, reason suspected his fidelity. Challenged by the king Comyn the enemy of Bruce, and Bruce a regent in name with the bond between him and Lamberton (according to of Baliol. Comyn in his own interest as Baliol's heir was one account discovered by the treachery of John Comyn, the active regent; the insertion of the name of Bruce was with whom a similar engagement had been made or an attempt to secure his co-operation. For the next four attempted), Bruce secretly quitted London, and on 10th years he kept studiously in the background waiting his February 1306 met by appointment, in the church of the time. A statement of Langtoft that he was at the parlia- Friars Minor at Dumfries, Comyn, whom he slew at the ment of Lincoln in 1301, when the English barons repudi- high altar for refusing to join in his plans. So much is ated the claim of the pope to the suzerainty of Scotland, certain, though the precise incidents of the interview were is not to be credited, though his father may have been variously told. It was not their first encounter, for a letter there. In the campaign of 1304, when Edward renewed of 1299 to Edward from Scotland describes Comyn as his attempt on Scotland and reduced Stirling, Bruce sup- having seized Bruce by the throat at a meeting at Peebles, ported the English king, who in one of his letters to him when they were with difficulty reconciled by the joint says, “If you complete that which you have begun we regency. shall hold the war ended by your deed and all the land of The bond with Lamberton was now sealed by blood and Scotland gained.” But, while apparently aiding Edward, the confederates lost no time in putting it into execution. Bruce had taken a step which bound him to the patriotic Within little more than six weeks Bruce, collecting his

On 11th June, a month before the fall of Stirling, adherents in the south-west, passed from Lochmaben to he met Lamberton at Cambuskenneth and entered into a Glasgow and thence to Scone, where he was crowned by secret bond by which they were to support each other the bishop of St Andrews on 25th March, the bishops against all adversaries and undertake nothing without of Glasgow and Moray, with the carls of Lennox, Athole, consulting together. The death of his father in this year and Errol, being present. Two days later Isabella, countess may have determined his course and led bim to prefer the of Buchan, claimed the right of her family the Macduffs, chance of the Scottish crown to his English estates and earls of Fife, to place the Scottish king on his throne, and the friendship of Edward.

the ceremony was repeated with an addition flattering to This determination closes the first chapter of his life; the Celtic race. Though a king, Bruce had not yet a kingthe second, from 1304 to 1314, is occupied by his contest dom, and his efforts to obtain it were till the death of for the kingdom, which was really won at Bannockburn, Edward I. disastrous failures. In June he was defeated though disputed till the treaty of Northampton in 1328; at Metliven by Pembroke, and on 11th August he was surthe last, from 1314 to his death in 1329, was the period of prised in Strathsillan, where he had taken refuge, by Lord the establishment of his government and dynasty by an Lorn. The ladies of lis family were sent to Kildrummy administration as skilful as his generalship. It is to the in January, and Bruce, almost without a follower, fled to second of these that historians, attracted by its brilliancy Rathlin, an island off Antrim (Ireland). Edward, though even amongst the many romances of history and its suffering from his last illness, came to the north in the importance to Scottish history, have directed most of their following spring. On his way he granted the Scottish attention, and it is during it that his personal character, estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers, tried by adversity and prosperity, gradually unfolds itself. Annandale falling to the earl of Hereford. At Carlisle But all three periods require to be kept in view to form a there was published a bul excommunicating Bruce, along just estimate of Bruce. That which terminated in 1304, with another absolving Edward from the oath he had though unfortunately few characteristics, personal or indi- taken to observe Magna Charta and the other charters on vidual, have been preserved, shows him by his conduct to which the English constitution rests. Elizabeth the wife, have been the normal Scottish noble of the time. A con- Marjory the daughter, Christina the sister of Bruce, were flict of interest and of bias led to contradictory action, captured in a sanctuary at Tain and sent prisoners to and this contlict was increased in his case by his father's England. The countess of Luchan was confined in a cage residence in England, his own upbringing at the English at Berwick and another of Bruce's sisters, Mary, in a cage court, his family feud with Baliol and the Comyns, and at Roxburgh. The bishops of St Andrews and Glasgow the jealousy common to his class of Wallace, the mere and the abbot of Scone were suspended from their beneknight, who had rallied the commons against the invader fices and sent as prisoners to the south of England. Vigel and taught the nobles what was required in a leader of Bruce, his youngest brother, was beheaded at Derwick, the people. The merit of Bruce is that he did not despise Christopher Seton, his brother-in-law, at Dumfries. The the lesson. Prompted alike by patriotism and ambition, earl of Athole was sent to London and hanged on a gallows at the prime of manhood he chose the cause of national 30 feet higher than the pole on which the head of Wallace independence with all its perils, and stood by it with a

still stood. Two other brothers of Bruce, Thomas and constaney which never wavered until he secured its triumph. Alexander (dean of Glasgow), met the same fate at Carlisle. Though it is crowded with incidents, the main facts in the There were many minor victims, but the chronicler of central decade of Bruce's life may be rapidly told. The Lanercost notes that the number of those who wished fall of Stirling was followed by the capture and execution Bruce to be confirmed in the kingdom increased daily. of Wallace at London on 21th August 1305. Edward While thus wreaking his vengeance Edward himself was hoped still to conciliate the nobles and gain Scotland by a summoned by death at Durgh-on-the-Sands, on the Solway,


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