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on 7th June 1307. By his dying wish the inscription | the rising ground on his right the enemy's advance was “Edwardus Primus, Scotorum Malleus, Pactum Serva” His troops were in four divisions; his brother comwas put on his tomb. In a moment all was changed. manded the right, Randolph the centre, Douglas the left. Instead of being opposed to the greatest, Bruce now had as Bruce with the reserve planted his standard at the Bore his antagonist the feeblest of the Plantagenets. Quitting Stone, whence there is the best view of the field.

His Rathlin (after a short stay in Arran), Bruce had before camp-followers on the Gillies' Hill appeared over its crest Edward's death attempted to take Turnberry and Ayr, at the critical moment which comes in all battles. The but had failed, though he defeated Pembroke at Loudoun plain on the right of the marshes was prepared with pits Hill. No sooner was his father dead than Edward II. and spikes. But what more than any other point of recalled his banished favourite Gaveston. After wasting strategy made the fight famous was that the Scots fought the critical moment of the war in the diversions of a on foot in battalions with their spears outwards, in a ciryouthful court, the new king made an inglorious march cular formation serving the same purpose as the modern to Cumnock and back without striking a blow, and then square. A momentary success of the English archers returned south to celebrate his marriage with Isabella of was quickly reversed by a flank movement of Sir Robert France, leaving the war to a succession of generals. Bruce, Keith. The Scottish bowmen followed up his advantage, with the insight of military genius, seized his opportunity and the fight became general; the English horse, crowded Leaving Edward, now his only brother in blood and into too narrow a space, were met by the steady resistalmost his equal in arms, in Galloway, he suddenly trans ance of the Scottish pikemen, who knew Bruce told them ferred his own operations to Aberdeenshire. In the end truly that they fought for their country, their wives, their of 1307 and again in May 1308 he overran Buchan, children, and all that freemen hold dear. The English where at Inverury on 22 Jay he defeated its earl, one rear was unable to come up in the narrow space or got of his chief Scottish opponents. Then crossing to Argyll entangled in the broken ranks of the van. The first rehe surprised Lord Lorn in the Pass of Brander and took pulse soon passed into a rout, and from a rout into a Dunstaffnaye. In 1309 a truce, scarcely kept, was effected headlong flight, in which Edward himself barely escaped. by the pope and Philip of France, and in 1310, in a general Like Courtrai and Morgarten, Bannockburn marked the council at Dundee, the clergy of Scotland—all the bishops momentous change from mediæval to modern warfare. being present-recognized Bruce as king. The support The armed knights gave place to the common soldiers given him by the national church in spite of his excom led by skilful generals as the arbiters of the destiny of munication must have been of great importance in that nations. In the career of Bruce it was the turning-point. age, and was probably due to the example of Lamberton. The enthusiasm of the nation he had saved forgot his The next three years were signalized by the reduction one late adhesion to the popular cause, and at the parliament by one of the strony places the English still held,—Lin- of Ayr on 25th April 1315 the succession was settled by lithgow in the end of 1310, Dumbarton in October 1311, a unanimous voice on him, and, failing males of his body, Perth hy Bruce himself in January 1312. Encouraged on his brother Edward and his heirs male, failing whom by these successes, he made a raid into the north of England, on his daughter Marjory and her heirs, if she married with and on his return reduced Butel (in Galloway), Dumfries, his consent. Soon after she married Walter the Steward. and Dalswinton, and threatened Berwick. In March 1313 The last part of Bruce's life, from 1315 to 1329, began Sir James Douglas surprised Roxburgh, and Randolph with an attempt which was the most striking testimony surprised Berwick. In Nay Bruce was again in England, that could have been given to the effect of Bannockburn, and, though he failed to take Carlisle, he subdued the Isle and which, had it succeeded, might have altered the future of lan. Edward Bruce about the same time took Ruther- of the British Isles. This was no less than the rising of glen and laid siege to Stirling, whose governor, Vowbray, the whole Celtic race, who had felt the galling yoke of agreed to capitulate if not relieved before 24th June 1314. | Edward I. and envied the freedom the Scots had won. Bruce's rapidity of movement was one cause of his success. In 1315 Edward Bruce crossed to Ireland on the invitaHis sieges, the most difficult part of mediaval warfare, tion of the natives, and in the following year the Welsh though won sometimes by stratagem, prove that he and became his allies. In autumn Robert came to his brother, his followers had benefited from their early training in the and they together traversed Ireland to Limerick. Dublin wars of Elward I. We know that he had been specially was saved by its inhabitants committing it to the flames, employed by that king to prepare the siege-train for his and, though nineteen victories were won, of which that attack on Stirling. By the close of 1313 Berwick and at Slane in Louth by Robert was counted the chief, the Stirling alone remained English. Edward II. felt that if success was too rapid to be permanent. The brothers Scotland was not to be lost a great effort must be made. retreated to Ulster, and, Robert having left Ireland to With the whole available feudal levy of England, a con protect his own borders, Edward was defeated and killed tingent from Ireland, and recruits even out of jails—for at Dundalk in October 1318. On his return Bruce admurderers were pardoned on condition of joining the army dressed himself to the siege of Berwick, a standing menace —he advanced from Berwick to Falkirk, which he reached to Scotland. While preparing for it two cardinals arrived on 22d June. After a preliminary skirmish on Sunday in England with a mission from Pope John XXII. to effect the 23d, in which Bruce distinguished himself by a per a truce, or, failing that, to renew the excommunication of sonal combat with Henry de Bohun, whoin he felled by Bruce. The cardinals did not trust themselves across a single blow of his axe, the battle of Bannockburn was the border; their messengers, however, were courteously fought on Monday the 24th; and the complete rout of received by Bruce, but with a firm refusal to admit the the English determined the independence of Scotland and bulls into his kingdom because not addressed to him as confirmed the title of Bruce. The details of the day, king. Another attempt by Newton, guardian of the Friars memorable in the history of war as well as of Scotland, Minor at Berwick, had a more ignominious result. Bruce have been singularly well preserved, and redound to the admitted Newton to his presence at Aldcamus, where he credit of Bruce, who had studied in the school of Wallace might see the works for the siege going on by night and as well as in that of Edward I. Ho had chosen and day, and was informed that Bruce would not receive the knew his ground, the New Park between St Ninian's bulls until his title was acknowledged and he had taken and the Bannock, a petty burn, yet sufficient to produce Berwick. On his return Newton was waylaid and his marshes dangerous to heavily-armed horsemen, while from papers seized, not without suspicion of Bruce's connivance.

In March 1318 first the town and then the castle of gious feeling, which had not been absent even during the Berwick capitulated, and Bruce wasted the English border struggles of manhood, deepened in old age, and took the as far as Ripon. In December he held a parliament at form the piety of the times prescribed. He made careful Scone, where he displayed the same wisdom as a legislator provision for his funeral, his tomh, and masses for his soul. which he had shown as a general. The death of his He procured from the pope a bull authorizing his confessor brother and his daughter rendered a resettlement of the to absolve him even at the moment of death. He died crown advisable, which was made in the same order as from leprosy, contracted in the hardships of carlier life, on before, with a provision as to the regency in case of a 7th June 1329, and was buried at Dunfermline beside his minor heir in favour of Randolph, and failing him Douglas. second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, whom he had married The defence of the country was next cared for by regula- about 1304, and who bore him late his only son, David, tions for the arming of the whole nation, down to every who succeeded him. Of two surviving daughters, Matilda one who owned the value of a cow,—a measure far in ad- married Thomas Ysaak, a simple esquire, and Margaret vance of the old feudal levy. Exports during war and of became the wife of William, carl of Sutherland. Marjory, arms at any time were prohibited. Internal justice was an only child by his first wife, Isabella of Var, had preregulated, and it was declared that it was to be done to deceased him. Several children not born in weillock have poor and rich alike. Leasing-making-a Scottish terin for been traced in the records, but none of them became in seditions languaye—was to be sternly punished. The nobles any way famous. were exhorted not to oppress the commons. Reforms were In fulfilment of a yow to visit the lIoly Sepulchre, which he also made in the tedious technicalities of the feudal law. coull not accomplish in person, Bruce requested Douglas to carry In 1319 an attempt to recover Berwick was repelled by ing in Spain against the Moors, and the heart of Bruc, recovered

his heart there, but his faithful follower perished on the way, fightWalter the Steward, and Bruce took occasion of a visit to by Sir William Keith, found its resting place at Melrose. When compliment his son-in-law and raise the walls 10 feet. his corpse was disinterrol in 1819 the breast-bone was found several Ilis position was now so strong that foreign states began

to aılmit of the removal of the heart, thus confirming the story preto testify their respect. Bruges and Tyres rejectca a sorrel in the verses of Barlours

the carliest Scottish poem, written in the reign of Bruce's grandson, request of Edward to cut off the Scottish trade with

the copious traditions which clustered round his memory. It is i Flanders, The pope, who had excommunicated Bruce, panevyrie ; but history has not refused to accept it asa genuine was addressed liy the parliament of Arbroath in 1320 in 1'presentation of the character of the great kins, in spirit, if not i! a letter which compared Bruce to a Joshua or Judas very detail. Its dominant noto is freedom-the liberty of the Maccabæus, who haci wrought the salvation of his people. It is the same note which Tacitus embolical in the speech of

nation from foreign bondage, and of the individual from oppression. and declared they fought " not for glory, truth, or honour, Galgaus at the dawn of Scottish history. Often in it has bren but for that liberty which no virtuous man will survive. hearil before anil since in the course of history, sellom his it hal Moved by this language and conscious of the weakness

a mor illustrious champion than Robert the Binen,

.E. M.) of Elwaril, the pope exhorted him to make peace with ROBERT, the name of two dukes of Normandy. See Scotland, and three years later Randolph at last procured NORMANDY, vol. xvii. 1. 5-12 for ROBERT I. (11. 103.7) and the recognition of Bruce as king from the papal see by p. 51.1 for ROBERT II. (l. 1131): see also ENGLANT), vol. promising aid in a crusale. In 1326 the French king viii. 301. made a similar acknowledgment by the treaty of ('orbeil. ROBERT, HUBERT (1753-1NON), born at laris in 1753, Meantime hostilities more or less constant continued with deserves to be remembered not so much for his skill as a England, but, though in 13.2.2 Edward made an incursion painter as for the liveliness and point with which he treated as far as Elinburgh, the fatal internal weakness of his the suljerts de painted. The contra-t between the ruins government prevented his gaining any real success. Some of ancient Rome and the life of his time excited lii: keenest of his chief nobles --Lancaster in 13:21 and Sir Andrew interest; and, although he had started for Italy on his own I lartel in 132") --entered into correspondence with the responsibility, the credit he there acquired procured him Seots, and, though Martela's treason was detected and the protection of the minister Marimy anil an official punished by his death, Edward was forced to make a

allowance. His incessant activity as an artist, his daring treaty for a long truco of thirteen years at Newcastle on | character, his many aventures, attracted general-ympathy 30th May, which Bruce ratitical at Berwick. The intrigue and admiration. In the fourth canto of his li Imujintin of the queen with Roger Mortimer led to the end of the Delille celebrateel Robert's miraculous apie when lost in ignominions reign by Elward's deposition and murder in the cataroms : later in life, when imprimeuring the 1:3:27; and one of the first acts of the new reign, after a Terror and marked for the guillotine, liya listal acrisont narrow escape of the young king from capture by Randolpoli, another clied in his place and Robert livved. The quantity was the treaty of York, ratified at Northampton in April of his work is immeur; the 10111r alone contains minn 1:32$, by which it was agreeal that "Scotlanı, accoriling paintings by liis bannel and specimen ar fretly to l... to its ancient bounds in the days of lexander II 1., -houli met with in provin: il 11???!|!113 and private collection, remain to Robert, king of Scots, and his heirs free and . In pite of a cortin unturalness in ieturils which was civiles from England, without any subjection, servitude, I wanting to his presion luni, all Rort work has claim or demand whatsoever." Johanna, Eilwaril's sister, , More or less of that sell churros ulioh j'intitied t1:.. was to be given in marriame to Davidl, the intant son of taste of Voltaire ulien lie lurted liim to paint the elecoisBrune, and the ceremony was celebrated at Berwick on tions of his there at findex. 1... rt fi!, truck l. 12th July

lopolexy, on 11th April 1-09 Hilirubiinin li-lun: The chief anthor of Scottish independence larly survived lud inte till the li-t minit. II. in 11': 'l -ll his work. His list wars had been punt chietly at the travel by two Lilili, with when lo fusil vi of carins on the vile, which he acquired in 132, Sanlin the end of 1'rlarin hy : the conduct of war, as well as the negotiations for "oder, in Italy lis Wirk ld wo 1.... ?) ', ; :'::!! To jsoudigerade hoy hullen liit to the young leaders Randolph and Deals (htlin, Li 1:41, L. 11.11.11 whong trainin' Weds one of Bruce's services to his childry: Siiii!li

1.7... Eser active, he employeel himself in the marrones poble de

..:.:.::. .::'; of repairing the castle and improving its in all ROBERT, LITLI 1741-19:37. I'r rhuintir. Surns, in shipbouilling on the i'lvile, and in the below Wit 1l at (l... Ir du til Vi...!: in swirlarni of the royal virtues of bopitality and charity. Tra 13: M.18 17.1.1. IR linistit with tl 1 :

1.

graver Girardet at the age of sixteen for Paris. He was to 160) an account of the battle of Evesham.

The narraon the eve of obtaining the great prize for engraving when tion implies that the writer was living at that time (1265), the events of 1815 blasted his hopes, for Neufchâtel was for he describes the dark and dismal weather that pre restored to Prussia and Robert was struck off the list of vailed on the day of the battle, adding, “This isci Roberd, competitors as a foreigner. Having fortunately whilst That verst this boc made,”—a passage, however, which continuing his studies under Girardet never ceased to may possibly have reference not to the versifier but to the frequent the studio of David, he now determined to be original compiler of the Chronicle. The period at which come a painter, and only returned to his native country the Chronicle was composed was evidently late in the 13th when his master himself was exiled. At Neufchâtel he or early in the 14th century, as it contains a reference to had the good fortune to attract the notice of Roullet de the canonization of St Louis, king of France, which took Mezerac, who enabled him by a timely loan to proceed to place on 11th August 1297. From an historical point of Rome. At Rome Robert soon struck the vein of subject view, however, the Chronicle is of but little value. The destined to render his talent celebrated. In depicting the internal evidence shows it to have been a translation from customs and life of the people, of southern Italy especially, the French and the original in turn to have been a mere he showed peculiar feeling for the historical characteristics compilation. The narrative commences with a description of their race. All his work of this class was distinguished of Britain, taken from Henry of Huntingdon; the material by an individual style: the actors bore themselves with an is next derived mainly from Geoffrey of Monmouth, and air of distinction and something of gravity which witnessed then, again, from William of Malmesbury, special informato their ancient lineage, and the rhythmical play of line tion being supplied, here and there, from Henry of Huntwhich characterized all these compositions had a peculiar ingdon, Ailred of Rievaulx, and the Annals of Winchester. affinity to the nature of the types which figured in them. On the other hand, the value of the Chronicle as an illustration The charm of choice in these types, the beauty of this play of the versification and language of the period is considerable

. As

a writer of Euglish verse Robert comes first in order, being prior of line, and the plastic restraint and measure which also

to both Robert of Brunne and Laurence Minot, and he has accordmarked Robert's treatment of his favourite subjects were ingly been styled the Ennius of English literature. His diction, the points to which he owed the wide recognition of his again, affords many interesting points of comparison with that talent, for his command of his own powers was anything known as Old English on the one hand and the language of

In his verses we first but ready and his difficulty in bringing out what he desired find the term "Saxons” used in opposition to Normans (Hearne, to produce shackled him, and especially so because paint. 1. 363), although “ English " is the term by which, throughout ing requires a sure and ready hand if its means are to be the Chronicle, the original population is more generally designated. used with brilliant effect. After executing many detached Of the English tongue itself, however, he says (ib., p. 125) that studies of Italian life Robert conceived the idea of paint of the most noteworthy peculiarities of his diction will be found

“pe Saxones speche it was, and porw hem ycome yt ys.” Many ing four great works which should represent at one and pointed out in Mr. Kingdon Oliphant's Old and Middle English, th, same time the four seasons in Italy and the four lead-1'p. 430-439. ing races of its people. In the Return from the Fête of Other compositions attributed to Robert of Gloucester are—& the Madonna dell'Arco (Louvre) lie depicted the Neapol- also in verse (MS. Tanner, 17), a Life of St Bridget (MIS. C.C.C.

Life of St Alban in verse (MS. Ashmole, 43), a Life of St Patrick, itans and the spring. This picture, exhibited at the Salon Camb., 145), and a Life of St Alphege (MS. Cott. Julius, D. ix.). of 1827, achieved undoubted success and was bought for The only complete edition of the Chronicle is that edited by Thomas Hearne

(Oxford, 1724), 2 vols. 8vo, partly from the Harleian MS. 201, and partly from the Luxembourg by Charles I.; but the work which ap the Cottonian MS. Calig. A. xi., and reprinted at London in 1810, 2 vols. Svo. peared in 1831 the Summer Reapers arriving in the This, however, is extremely defective, Hearne's collation of the important

MS. in the library of the college of Arms being very imperfect. For further Pontine Varshes (Louvre), which became the property of information see Hardy's Descriptive Catulogue of MSS., fii. 181-189, i. 25, 68, Louis Philippe — established the artist's reputation, an'

ROBERT GUISCARD (c. 1015-1085), duke of Apulia Robert found himself with all his hopes of honour fulfilled

and Calabria, sixth of the twelve sons of Tancred de and reckoned as one of the leading masters of his day. Florence and her autumn vineyards should now have Hauteville

, was born at Hauteville near Coutances in furnished him with his third subject. He attempted to followed into Apulia his three elder brothers William Bras

Normandy about the year 1015. At an early age he beyin it, but, unable to conquer his unhappy passion for de-fer, Drogo, and Humphrey, who had established a footPrincess Charlotte Napoleon (then mourning the violent death of her husband, Robert's devoted friend), he threw ing there as military adventurers; and in 1053 he took a up his work and went to Venice, where he began and the defeat and captivity of Pope Leo IX. On the death

prominent part in the battle of Civitella, which resulted in carried through the fourth of the series, the Fishers of of Humphrey in 1057 Robert, who already had earned the Adriatic. This work was not equal to the Reapers. the sobriquet of “Guiscard” (“Sagacious” or “Cunning”), Worn by the vicissitudes of painful feeling and bitterly succeeded to the chief command of the Norman troops

, discourayed, Robert committed suicide before his easel

, and, already designated by them duke of Apulia and 20th March 1835, on the tenth anniversary of the melan. Calabria, was confirmed in that title in 1059 by Pope choly suicide of a brother to whom he had been much Nicholas II., who at the same time named him gonfalonier attached.

of the church. For the next one-and-twenty years he See Villot, Voticc des Tablcau du Louvre; C. Blanc, Hist. des Printres; Feuillet do Conches, Correspondance de L. L. Robert ; Roger, in warlike operations against the Greeks and

was continually engaged, along with his youngest brother Julius Meyer, Gesch. mod. fr. Nulerci. ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER, an English antiquary and

Saracens in the south of the Italian peninsula and in historical writer

, who lived in the second half of the 13th Sicily, the principal events being the capture of Bari in century, was a monk of the abbey at Gloucester, and is 1070, that of Palermo in the following year, and that of supposed by Hearne, the editor of his Chronicle, to have Salerno in 1077. In 1081 he felt himself strong enough been sent to preside over the foundation at Oxford (after ostensibly on behalf of the deposed emperor Michael

to carry his arms abroad against Alexius Comnenus, wards Worcester College), where the younger members of

Ducas, the father-in-law of his daughter. The defeat of the abbey were partly educated. This, however, is mere

Alexius under the walls of Durazzo in October 1081 was conjecture. The evidence which establishes his claim to be the author of the Chronicle (by which he is best known) followed by the capture of that place in February 1082, is also extremely slight. In the Harleian MS. 201 (from 1 There were others known by the same name ; see Hearne, Pref., which Hearne printed his edition) there occurs (fol. 159b | p. 58.

iii, 623.

and by a victorious march towards Constantinople. But | Land and Syria, 1842-49. In 1851, and again in 1853, before Robert had reached the capital he was summoned Roberts visited Italy, painting the Ducal Palace, Venice, back by Gregory VII., his suzerain, to rescue him from bought by Lord Londesborough, the interior of the Basithe emperor Henry IV., by whom he was being besieged lica of St Peter's, Rome, Christmas Day, 1853, and Rome in Rome. After capturing and sacking the city in May from the Convent of St Onofrio, presented to the Royal 1084 and conducting Gregory to a place of safety in Scottish Academy. His last volume of illustrations, Italy, Salerno, Guiscard resumed his operations against Alexius, Classical, Historical, and Picturesque, was published in defeating the united Greek and Venetian fleets, and raising 1859. He also executed, by command of the queen, a the siege of Corfu in November 1084. While still engaged picture of the opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851, in active warfare he died of pestilence at Cephalonia on a laborious and rather uncongenial task. In 1839 he was 17th July 1085. He was succeeded in the dukedom by elected an associate, and in 1841 a full member of the his younger son Roger Bursa, whose son William died Royal Academy; and in 1858 he was presented with the without issue in 1127. Guiscard's eldest son was Marc freedom of the city of Edinburgh. The last years of his BOIEMOND (7.v.).

life were occupied with a series of views of London from ROBERTS, DAVID (1796-1864), landscape painter, was the Thames. He had executed six of these and was at born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh, on 24th October 1796. work upon a picture of St Paul's Cathedral, when on 25th At an early age he manifested a great love for art; but November 1864 he was seized with an attack of apoplexy his father, a shoemaker, wished him to follow the same and expired the same evening. trade. He was, however, apprenticed for seven years to The quality of Roberts's work is excecilingly cqual and uniform a painter and house-decorator; and during this time he during his whole career. The architecture, which is so prominent employed his evenings in the earnest study of art. For and an easy command of its salient points, but with little care for

a feature in his paintings, is introduced with great picturesqueness the next few years his time was divided between work the minutiie of detail. His art was conventional, essentially scenic as a house-painter and as a scene -painter, and he even and spectacular in character, showing effective composition and an appeared occasionally on the boards as an actor in panto- unerring instinct for broad goneral effect, but destitute of that close mimes. In 1820 he formed the acquaintance of Clarkson

adherence to nature, that delicacy and truth of tone and colour,

which are becoming increasingly characteristic of the procluctions Stanfield, then painting at the Pantheon, Edinburgh, by of the English s«hool. Something of the scene-muainter appars in whose advice and example he greatly profited and at whose all his works, and his certainty and spreid of escrution were unsuggestion he began his career as an exhibitor, sending three | doubtelly founded upon his early practice for the stage pictures in 1822 to the “Exhibition of Works by Living Ballantine, with itchings and peu-an«l-ink sketches by the artist, appeared in

A Life of Roberts, compiled from his journals and other sources by James Artists,” held in Edinburgh. In the same year he removed Elinburgh in 1sco. to London, where he worked for the ('obury Theatre, and ROBERTSON, FREDERICK WILLIAN (1816-1853), one was afterwards employed, along with Stantield, at Drury of the most brilliant and intluential preachers of modern Lane. In 18:1 he exhibited at the British Institution à times, was born in London, on 3d February 1816. The view of Dryburgh Abbey, and sent two works to the first first five years of his life were passed at Leith Fort, where exhibition of the Society of British Artists, which he had his father, a captain in the Royal Artillery, was then resijoined, and of which he was elected president in 1831. dent. The impressions marle upon the child in those early In the same autumn he visited Normandy, and the works years were never etfaced; the military Spirit entered into which were the results of this excursion began to lay the his blood, and throughout life he was characterized by the foundation of the artist's reputation,--one of them, a view qualities of the ideal sollier,—couraye, seli-devotion, sense of Rouen ('athedral, being sold for eighty guineas. By of duty, hatred of cruelty and meanness, chivalrous defence his scenes for an opera entitled The Serulio, executed of the weak. In 1821 ('aptain Robertson retired to two years later, he won much contemporary praise, and Beverley, where the boy was clucated first at home, then these, along with the scenery for a pantomime dealing with at the grammar-school. At the age of fourteen he spent the naval victory of Navarino, and two panoramas executed a year at Tours, from which he returned to Scotland and jointly by him and Stanfield, were among his last work for continued his education at the Edinburgh Academy and the theatres. In 1829 he exhibited his imposing subject university. His father, who had remarked and fostereil the Departure of the Israelites from Egypt, a commission his singular nobility of character, his passion for purity from Lord Northwick, in which the style of the painter and truthfulness, and his deepening religious feelings now first becomes clearly apparent; and three years afterwarıls proposed that he should choose the church as liis profeshe travelled in Spain, and passed over to Tangiers, return- sion, but received the decisive answer," Jnything but ing in the end of 1833 with a supply of effective sketches, that; I am not fit for it." At the age of eighteen he was which were speedily elaborated into attractive and popular accordingly articlul to a solicitor in Bury St Elmonds, paintings. His Interior of Seville (athedral was exhibited but the uncongenialanı seelentry employment lirwokerowni in the British Institution in 1831, anıl sole for £300; and his health in a year's times It was then rolved to yielel he executed a tine series of Spanish illustrations for the to his deep-rooted craving for a military carers: his name Lindsay Innwal of 1836, a publication to which he con was placed on the lint of the 3.1 Dracoons then serving tributed for four years; while in 1837 a selection of his in India, and for two yels he devoted him-oli with arilour Picturexure Slithes in Sprin was reproduerol his litho. to the work of preparing for the army. But, liya singular triphy, many of the subjects being carefully retoucheel conjuncture of circum-tances and at the sacrifice of his own on the stone by the artist's own hand.

natural bent to his father's wi-hi, le matrimod at BrazeIn 1838 Roberts maile a long tour in the East, sailing 110) se colle, Oxford, ju-t tuo Werks before his commisup the Niles, visitiny Luxor and Kirnak, and afterwards !sion was put into his hands. Orfiril he did not find makins his way to the Holy Land. He thus accumulate wholly on this site :-cly et spirit, but lie a vast collection of sketches of a class of scenery which read harid, and, in linaitwritissid, " I..., Iristotle, 1:ad hitherto been hardly touched lay British artists, aiul Butler, Thueviliodes, S.11., Joniban Elinela, pois like which appealed to the public with all the charm of novelty. the iron atoms of the loco» in my mind consistitution." The next ten years of his life were mainly spent in elaborat- .It the same time con le a careil icly of the Bible, ing these materials. Many Fastern sulijects were painted, commitrine 10) 1114 more the entir. Vi Ti-amni lmth in and an extensive series of drawings was lithographed lis English and in Gronk. The Trwidian movemen: hal Louis Haghe in the superb work, Skrtches in the flyi 10 attraction for him, although he admired me ci its

now are.

leaders. He was at this time a moderate Calvinist in doc- | full, vivid, and penetrating mind. He was not, indeed, a scientific trine and enthusiastically evangelical. Ordained in July theologian ; but his insight into the principles of the spiritual life 1840 by the bishop of Winchester, he at once entered on

is unrivalled ; and for men approaching the truth from the same

side as himself he is an invaluable guide. His own lonely and inministerial work in that city, and during his ministry dependent struggle had taught him where foothold was secure, and there and under the influence of Martyn and Brainerd, had enabled him to throw light on many a forgotten stepping-stone whose lives he affectionately studied, he carried devotional of truth. As his biographer says, thousands have found in his asceticism to an injurious length, rising early, refraining sermons “a living source of impulse, a practical direction of thought, from meat, subduing his nature by self-imposed austerities, spiritual freedom.” In his hands spiritual facts assume an aspect

a key to many of the problems of theology, and above all a path to and binding himself to a system of prayer. In less than of reasonableness which is irresistible. Religion is felt to be no a year he was compelled to seek relaxation ; and going longer a mystery for the exercise of professional minds, nor an to Switzerland he there met and married Helen, third extravagance suitable for enthusiastic temperaments, but an essendaughter of Sir George William Denys, Bart. Early in

tial of life for all, and in line with the order of things in which we

For his sermons obtained their large circulation partly 1812, after a few months' rest, he accepted a curacy in because they were new in kind. They marked the transition from Cheltenham, which he retained for upwards of four years. the period in which religion was treated as a series of propositions “It was during this period that the basis of his theological

to that in which it is presented as an essence penetrating the whole science was entirely changed; his principles of thought which were persistently brought against him, though possibly not

of human life. The accusations of heretical and dangerous teaching attained, but not as yet systematized; his system of inter so malignant as he himself supposed, were certainly more mispreting the Bible reduced to order ; his whole view of the chievous than the teaching against which they were levelled. Few relation of God to man and man to God built up into a

men have ever more perfectly understood the spirit of Christ, and

few have so fully made that spirit their own. new temple on the ruins of the old.” The questioning

Robertson's literary remains include five volumes of sermons, spirit was first aroused in him by the disappointing fruit two volumes of expository lectures, on Genesis and on the Epistles of evangelical doctrine which he found in Cheltenham, as to the Corinthians, a volume of miscellaneous addresses, and a well as by intimacy with men of varied reading. But, if

Key to 'In MIcmoriam.' Robertson's Life has been written by
Stopford A. Brooke.

(M. D.) we are to judge from his own statement, the doubts which now actively assailed him had long been latent in his ROBERTSON, THOMAS WILLIAM (1829-1871), English mind: “a man who had read theological and philosophical dramatist, was born on 9th January 1829. As a dramatist controversy long before with painful interest-à man he had a brief but very brilliant career. It is not too who at different times had lived in the atmosphere of much to say that he was the most successful and distinthought in which Jonathan Edwards, Plato, Lucretius, guished writer of plays in his generation. The son of a Thomas Brown, Carlyle, Emerson, and Fichte lived—who provincial actor and manager, chief of a "circuit” that has steeped his soul and memory in Byron's strongest feel ranged from Bristol to Cambridge, Robertson was familiar ings—who has walked with Newman years ago to the with the stage from his childhood; but it was not till the brink of an awful precipice, and chosen rather to look last seven years of his life that he made his mark. He upon it calmly, and know the worst of the secrets of the was never, as he admitted himself, very successful as an darkness, than recoil with Newman, in fear and tender- actor. He tried his hand also at writing plays, and a ness, back to the infallibility of Romanism—such a man farcical comedy by him, A Night's Adventure, was produced is not likely to have been influenced by a few casual state- at the Olympic under Farren's management as early as ments of difficulties which he had read of a thousand | 1851. But this did not make good his footing, and he times before.” This was written from Heidelberg in remained for some years longer in the provinces, varying 1846. The crisis of his mental conflict had just been his work as an actor with miscellaneous contributions to passed in Tyrol, and he was now beginning to let his newspapers. In 1860 he went to London with the intencreed grow again from the one fixed point which nothing tion, it is said, of making his living by journalism and had availed to shift: “the one great certainty to which, light literature. He edited a mining journal and conin the midst of the darkest doubt, I never ceased to cling tributed to it a novel afterwards dramatized with the title —the entire symmetry and loveliness and the unequalled Shadow Tree Shaft. He wrote a farce entitled A Cantab, nobleness of the humanity of the Son of Man.” After this which was played at the Strand in 1861. Then, in 1864, mental revolution he felt unable to return to Cheltenham, came his first marked success, David Garrick, produced but after doing duty for two months at St Ebbe's, Oxford, at the Haymarket with Sothern in the principal character. he entered in August 1817 on his famous ministry at It was not, however, till the production of Society at the Trinity Chapel, Brighton. Here he stepped at once into Prince of Wales Theatre in 1865, under the management the foremost rank as a preacher. His church was thronged of Miss Marie Wilton, afterwards Mrs Bancroft, that the with thoughtful men of all classes in society and of all originality and cleverness of the dramatist were fully shades of religious belief, with those also who relished recognized. Play-writer and company were exactly suited brilliant and sometimes impassioned oratory, and with one to another; the plays and the acting together—the those who felt their need of sympathetic and helpful teach- small size of the playhouse being also in their favour-were ing. But his closing years were full of sadness. His sensi- at once recognized as a new thing, and, while some critics tive nature was subjected to extreme suffering, partly from sneered at the "cup-and-saucer comedy," voted it absurdly the misconstruction and hatred of the society in which he realistic, said there was nothing in it but commonplace lived, partly from his inability to accomplish the heavy life represented without a trace of Sheridanian wit and work of his position. He was crippled by incipient disease sparkle, all London flocked to the little house in Tottenof the brain, which at first inflicted unconquerable lassitude ham Street, and the stage was at once inundated with imiand depression, and latterly agonizing pain. On the 5th tations of the new style of acting and the new kind of play. June 1853 he preached for the last time; and on the 15th Robertson, although his health was already undermined, August of the same year, at the age of thirty-seven, he followed up Society in quick succession with the series of found relief in death.

characteristic plays which made the reputation of himself, The causes of his success as a preacher are obvious. His fine ap- the company, and the theatre. Ours was produced in pearance, his flexible and sympathetic voice, his manifest sincerity, 1866, Caste in 1867, Play in 1868, School in 1869, M.P. the perfect lucidity and artistic symmetry of his address, and the brilliance with which he illustrated his points would have attracted

in 1870. For twenty years there probably has not been hcarers even had he had little to say. But he had much to say. a week, hardly a night, in which some one of Robertson's No sermons were ever more compact. They were the utterance of a plays has not been produced somewhere in Great Britain,

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