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ndly to Sweden, he was forced by circumstances to Prussia occupied the fourth place in point of military e up arms against it. In September 1713 Stettin was power. The king himself took the greatest interest in the tured by the allies and handed over to the custody of management of his army, in which the discipline was of ederick William, who paid the expenses of the siege and the strictest; and he carried the habits of the military lertook to retain possession of the town until the end martinet into all departments of the administration. His the war. But Charles XII. refused to recognize this untiring industry occupied itself with the minutest details angement and returned from his exile in Turkey to of government, and his downright blunt character showed nand the immediate restitution of the town. With this there to greater advantage than in diplomatic circles. mand the Prussian monarch naturally declined to comply, His chief innovation was the abolition of the distinction less the money he had advanced was reimbursed, and the between the military and civil funds, and the assignment shot was the outbreak of the only war in which Frederick of the entire financial management of the country to a illiam ever engaged. The struggle was of short dura- general directory of finance, war, and domains. Hitherto n and was practically ended in 1715 by the capture of the proceeds of the excise and contribution had been paid ralsund by the united Prussians, Saxons, and Danes into the military chest, while those of the royal monopolies der the command of the king of Prussia. The Swedes and domains belonged to the civil service, deficiencies in re driven from Pomerania, and at the peace of 1720 one department being made good by the surplus of the ederick William received the greater part of Vorpom- other. Now, however, the directory was instructed to pay ern, including the important seaport of Stettin. Sweden for everything out of a common fund, and so to regulate w disappeared from the ranks of the great powers, and the expenditure that there should invariably be a surplus ussia was left without a rival in northern Germany. at the end of the year. As the army absorbed five-sevenths A detailed history of Frederick William's reign would of the revenue, the civil administration had to be conducted ecessitate the recital of a long and tedious series of with the greatest economy. The king himself set the explomatic proceedings, centring in the question of the ample of the frugality which he expected from his officials, ccession to the duchies of Jülich and Berg. In 1725 we and contented himself with a civil list of 52,000 thalers nd the king trusting for support to an alliance with (£7800). The domains were now managed so as to yield ngland, while the queen has set her heart on a double a greater income than ever before, and important reforms arriage between her eldest son and daughter and an were made in the system of taxation. By the substitution nglish princess and prince. The treaty of Wusterhausen of a payment in money for the obsolete military tenure etween Austria and Prussia was concluded in the follow- the nobles were deprived of their practical exemption ng year, and was confirmed with some modifications by from taxation, and they were also required to pay taxes he treaty of Berlin in 1728. Frederick William engaged for all the peasant holdings they had absorbed. Attempts o recognize the Pragmatic Sanction, while the emperor on were made to better the condition of the peasants, and is side undertook to support Prussia's claims to Jülich the worst features of villainaye were abolished in the nd Berg. The policy of the latter, however, was far from crown domains. The military system of cantonment, traightforward, as he had already entered into a similar according to which cach regiment was allotted a district ompact with the count palatine of Sulzbach, the rival in which to recruit, was of constitutional as well as laimant to the succession, who was a Roman Catholic and military importance, since it brought the peasants into herefore a more sympathetic ally. Frederick William's (irect contact with the royal officials. The collection of ntervention in the matter of the succession to the throne the taxes of the peasantry was removed from the hands of of Poland, rendered vacant by the death of Augustus II. the landowners. The duties of the state officials were n 1733, proved barren of advantage to Prussia and failed laid down with great detail, and their performance was o secure the hoped-for reversion of the duchy of Cour- cxacted with great severity. Official corruption was and. A Prussian contingent took part none the less in punished with extreme rigour. Justice seems to have he ensuing war between Austria and France, but Iustria been administered in an upright if somewhat Draconian concluded peace in 1735 without consulting her ally. In manner, though the frequent and often arbitrary inflic1737 the king was resolute enough to withstand the tion of the penalty of death by the king strikes us with pressure brought to bear upon him by England, France, astonishment. The agricultural and inclustrial interests Holland, and Austria in order to induce him to submit to of the country were fostered with great zeal. The most their settlement of the Jülich-Berg question; and in 1739, important industrial undertaking was the introduction of convinced at last of the confirmed duplicity of the emperor, the manufacture of woollen cloth, the royal factory at he turned to his hereditary enemy for help and concluded Berlin supplying uniforms for the entire army. The coma defensive alliance with France. This action may be mercial regulations, conceived in a spirit of rigid prolooked upon as marking the end of that phase in the rela- tection, were less successful. In the ecclesiastical sphere tions of the houses of Hapsburg and Hohenzollern in the king was able to secure toleration for the Protestants which the latter regarded the former with simple loyalty in other parts of Germany loy reprisals on his own Roman as its natural suzerain; the rivalry between Austria and ('atholic suljects, and he also gave welcome to numerous Prussia had begun, and for the rest of the century formed Protestant refugees, including 18,000 exiled peasants from the pivot on which the politics of Europe mainly turned. Salzburg. For art, science, and the higher culture he had Frederick William died in 1740, conscious of his diplo- no respect, but he has the credit of founding the commonmatic failures, but confident that his son would repair school system of Prussia and of making clementary educa

tion compulsory. If the external history of Frederick William's reign is After the accession of Frederick the (ireat (1740-1786) Frölurick not especially glorious, and if in diplomacy he was worsteil the external history of Prussia coincides to such an extent 11. by the emperor, the country at least enjoyed the benefits with that of the German empire that it has already been of a twenty-five years' peace and those of a well-meaning, treated with considerable detail in the article GERMANY though somewhat too patriarchal, government. During (vol. x. PP. 30:3-4 ; see also FREDERICK II.). The outlino this reign the revenues of Prussia were doubled, and the of Frederick's foreign policy was probalily determined in king left at his death a well-filled treasury and an army some degree by the events of the later years of his father's of 85,000 men. Though not ranking higher than twelfth reign, and Austrian duplicity in the matter of Julich gave among the European states in extent and population, I him a colourable pretext for his hostile attitude in reviving

II. – 2

his errors.

the long dormant claims of Prussia to the Silesian duchies. | all the ruined villages had been rebuilt; the ground was Within a year of his accession he had embarked on the again under cultivation; order had been restored; the first Silesian War, and this was closely followed by the vacant offices had been filled ; and the debased currency second, which ended in 1745, leaving Frederick in undis- had been called in. Throughout the kingdom agriculture puted possession of almost the whole of Silesia, with the was encouraged by the drainage of marshy districts; infrontier that still exists. East Friesland, the Prussian claim dustry was extended by the introduction of new manuto which dated from the time of the Great Elector, was factures, by bounties, and by monopolies; and commerce absorbed in 1744 on the death without issue of the last was fostered by a series of well-meant, if economically duke. The two Silesian wars completely exhausted the unsound, measures of protection. Frederick’s methods of stores left by Frederick William, both of grenadiers and administration did not greatly differ from those of his prethalers, and Frederick gladly welcomed the interval of decessor, though the unrelenting severity of Frederick peace to amass new treasures and allow his subjects time | William was relaxed and the peculiarities of his system to recover from their exertions. The measures he took | toned down. Frederick’s industry and activity were as were so successful that when the Seven Years' War broke great as those of his father, his insight keener, and his out in 1756 he had an army of 150,000 men at his com views more liberal. His rule was quite as personal and mand, representing about one-seventh of the available male absolute, and the despotism was altered only in so far as population of his little kingdom. He had also a fund of the character of the despot was different. His own personal eleven million thalers in his treasury, though this would supervision extended to every department, and his idea of have gone but a small way in defraying the expenses of his position and duties made him his own first minister the protracted struggle had he not been assisted by the in the widest and most exacting sense of the term. He subsidies of England and able to make the fertile plains endeavoured to spare his subjects as far as was compatible of Saxony his chief basis of supply. The succession of with the immense army he maintained, and sought to raise brilliant campaigns in which Frederick maintained himself the necessary revenues rather by improving the resources against a coalition embracing nearly the whole of Europe of the country than by additional taxation. He kept the has been narrated in the article AUSTRIA (vol. iii.p. 127 81.). charges of the civil administration down to the lowest point As Macaulay points out in a somewhat highly-coloured consistent with efficiency, and the court establishment was passage, Frederick ruled over a population of less than very economical, though it avoided the extreme of shabbifive million souls, while his adversaries could draw their ness witnessed under Frederick William. His efforts to armies from a joint population of a hundred millions. improve the administration and the bureaucracy were unThe disproportion in wealth was at least as great. Nor ceasing, and he succeeded in training a body of admirable was the small size of Frederick's land made up for by public servants. One of his most sweeping reforms was in its strong patriotism and loyalty ; on the contrary, the the department of law, where, with the able aid of Cocceji, affections of his subjects had been partially alienated by he carried out a complete revolution both in procedure and the severity of his rule and the weight of taxation. personnel. The expenses of justice were greatly lightened, Prussia had no strong natural bulwarks on its frontiers, and no suit was allowed to drag on for more than a year. but lay exposed to every foe. Yet Frederick's brilliant A complete divorce was effected between the departments military genius was able to counteract all these dis- of justice and provincial administration, a change that

advantages and carry on the contest in spite of all odds. greatly strengthened the position of the private citizen in Prussia Though without gain in extent or population, Prussia any contest with the officials of Government. One of the under

emerged from the war as an undoubted power of the first | king's first acts was to abolish legal torture, and he rarely Frederick II.

rank, and henceforth completely eclipsed Saxony, Bavaria, sanctioned capital punishment except in cases of murder.
and Hanover, while it was plain that Austria would no The application of the privilegium de non appellando (1746)
longer stand without a rival for the hegemony of the Ger- freed Prussia from all relations with the imperial courts
man empire. The glorious victories over the French and and paved the way for a codification of the common law
Russians also awakened a spirit of German patriotism that of the land, which was begun under Frederick but not
had hitherto been almost unknown. But the price paid completed till the end of the century. In matters of reli-
for these results was enormous. Of the 850,000 soldiers gion Frederick not only exercised the greatest toleration,
who, as is estimated, perished during the war about remarking that each of his subjects might go to heaven
180,000 fell in the service of Prussia, and the gross popu- after his own fashion, but distinctly disclaimed the con-
lation of the kingdom had decreased in seven years to the nexion of the state with any one confession. Equal liberty
extent of half a million souls. The misery and poverty was granted in speaking and writing. Though his finances
indirectly attendant on the war were incalculable. Numer- did not allow him to do much directly for education, his
ous Prussian towns and villages were destroyed or made example and his patronage of men of letters exercised a
tenantless ; large tracts were left uncultivated for want of most salutary effect. The old system of rigid social privi-
labourers; and famine reigned to such an extent that even lege was, however, still maintained, and unsurmountable
the seed-corn was converted into bread. The development barriers separated the noble from the citizen and the
of the country was thrown back for many years, which citizen from the peasant. The position of the last was
were almost a repetition of the period succeeding the very deplorable ; villainage still to a great extent existed,
Thirty Years' War. But, while nearly a century elapsed and the mental attitude of the rural population was servile
before the traces of that struggle disappeared, Frederick, in the extreme. The paramount defect of Frederick's ad-
who showed himself great in peace as in war, repaired most ministration, as future events proved, was the neglect of
of the ravages of the Seven Years' War in a tenth of the any effort to encourage independence and power of self-
time. By great dexterity in the management of his finances government among the people. Every measure emanated
he had kept clear of debt, and was soon able to advance from the king himself, and the country learned to rely on
large sums to the most impoverished districts. Foreign him alone for help in every emergency. Public opinion
colonists were invited to repeople the deserted villages ; on political matters could not be said to exist; and the
taxes were in several instances remitted for a series of provincial diets met simply to receive the instructions of
years; the horses of the army were employed in farm the royal agents.
labour; and individual effort in every department was 1 One illustration of this is afforded by the fact that the private
liberally supported by the Government. By 1770 nearly | soldiers felt no resentment at being struck by their officers,

the gap


In 1772 Prussia and Austria, in order to prevent an rather than strengthened by the hordes of disaffected Polish
overweening growth of Russia, joined in the first partition recruits; the treasury was exhausted and a large debt in-
of Poland. Frederick's share consisted of West Prussia curred; the newly-awakened feeling of German patriotism
and the Netze district, a most welcome addition, filling up had died away, especially among the upper classes.

between the great mass of his territories and the Frederick William III. (1797-1810) possessed many Frederick isolated district of East Prussia. It had also this advan- virtues that did him credit in his private capacity, but he William tage over later acquisitions at Poland's expense, that it lacked the vigour that was at this juncture imperatively was a thoroughly German land, having formed part of the required froin a ruler of Prussia, while he was unfortucolonizations of the Teutonic Order. In 1778 Prussia nately surrounded by counsellors who had as little concepfound herself once more in opposition to Austria on the tion as himself of Prussia's proper rôle. He continued to question of the Bavarian succession, but the war that adhere closely to a policy of timid neutrality and seemed ensued was almost entirely nominal, and the difficulty was content to let Prussia slip back into the position of a adjusted without much bloodshed. The same question second-rate state, the attitude of which in the great Euroelicited the last action of importance in which Frederick pean struggle could be of no special importance. Not even engaged, -the formation of a "Fürstenbund," or league of the high-handed occupation of Hanover by the French in German princes under Prussian supremacy, to resist the 1803 could arouse him; and the last shred of self-respect encroachments of Austria. The importance of this union seemed to have been parted with in 1805 when Prussia was soon obscured by the momentous events of the French consented to receive Ilanover, the property of its ally Revolution, but it was a significant foreshadowing of the England, from the hands of France. The formation of duel of Austria and Prussia for the pre-eminence in Ger- the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806 and the intelligence many. Frederick died on 17th August 1786, having in that France had agreed to restore Ilanover to England at creased his territories to an area of 75,000 square miles, last convinced Frederick William of what he had to fear with a population of five and a half millions. The revenue from Napoleon; while Napoleon on his side, being now also had immensely increased and now amounted to about free of his other antayonists, was only too glad of an twenty million thalers annually, of which, however, thirteen opportunity to destroy his tool

. Prussiă declared war on were spent on the army. The treasury contained a fund of 9th October 1806; and the short campaign that ensued

sixty million thalers, and the land was free of debt. showed that the army of Frederick the (reat had lost its Erenlerick A continuation of the personal despotism under which virtue, and that Prussia, single-handed, was no match William Prussia had now existed for seventy years, as well as of its for the great French commander

. On 14th October the disproportionate influence in Europe, would have required a Prussian armies were overthrown at Jena and luerstült

, ruler with soinething of the iron will and ability of Frederick and a total collapse set in. Disgraceful capitulations of the Great. I'nfortunately Frederick's nephew and sne troops and fortresses without a struggle followed one ressor, Frederick William II. (1786-1797), had neither the another in rapid succession; the court fled to East Prussia; energy nor the insight that his position demanded. He and Napoleon entered Berlin in triumph. It the peace was too undecided to grasp the opportunity of adding to of Tilsit (9th July 1807) Frederick William lost half his Prussia's power by adhering to the vigorous external policy kingdom, including all that had been acynired at the of his predecessor, nor did he on the other hand make any second and third jartitions of Poland and the whole of attempt to meet the growing discontent of his subjects the territory to the west of the Elbe. An enormous war under their heavy burdens by putting himself at the head inclemnity was also demanded, and the Prussian fortresses of an internal movement of liberal reform. The rule of were occupied by the French until this should be pail. al solutism continued, though the power now lay more in Prussia now paid heavily for its pat remissness and the hands of a "camarilla" or cabinet than in those of the rained the camp of humiliation to the trees. monarch ; and the statesmen who now came to the front The next half-clozen years form a period of the greatest were singularly short-sighted and inefficient. The freedom significance in the history of Iris-, embracing, as they of religion and the press left by Frederick the Great was do, the turning point in the moral regeneration of the abrognted in 1788 by royal ordinance. In 1787 the army country. The disia-ters of 1806 elicited a strong spirit of engaged in an expensive and useless campaign against devotel patriotism, whieh was tanned by the exertions of Holland. The abandonment of Frederick's policy was the “ Towendbund," or League of Virtue', and by the writshown in a tendency to follow the lead of Austria, which, ings of men like Fichte ani Arult. This was accompanied culminated in an alliance with that power against revoli-i ly a wonderinl relation of vitality and recuperative tionary France. But in 1795 Prussia, suspicious of the power. The credit of the reformation belongs mainly to Stain's Polish plans of Russia and Justria, concluded the separate the great mini-tur Stein, and in the second place to the 109-11:9 peace of Basel, almost the only redeeming feature of chancellor Harolenbure. The condition on which Stein which was the stipulation that all north German states based liis acceptance of office wait-li of immune import

we'yond certain line of demarcation should participate ance: he insisted that the item of governing throngh in its benefits, This practically divided (iermany into irresponsible cabinet commeillers

, which had gradually betwo camps and inflicted a severe blow on the imperial come «n-tomars; should ceases and that the responsible *v*tem. The indifference with which Prussia relinquished ministers of departments should be at one the contidential to France German lands on the left bank of the Rhine, advisers and the Neentive a onts of this kiny. Stein's compared with her cagerness to increase her Slavonie terri- vlesigns and willen catened to the patalli-liment of a tories on the cast, was certainly one of the great blunders regular system of parliamentary and dewal government like cof the reign. Prussia's share in the second and third that of England, Pulit hoe land not an opportunity to do partitions of Poland (1793 and 1795) nearly doubled her much more than loin the work. His dict of 1807 extent, but adled little or nothing to her real power. The abolishel serfolom and obliterateal the legal distinction of twelve years following the peace of Bazel form one of clases by establishing freedom of change in land and the most sombre perients of the history of Prussia. Her free choice of ownpation. The sturorlung " of 1903 prestige was lost hy her persistent and ill-timed neutrality in the struggle with France ; the old virtues of economy burxher," and "?-111" la:..I amb 32275* *.» t51.tly obeli

i Provinus to his measure the 1

101.l. onder, and justice disappeared from the bureaucracy: the anl no trar-ition of properes is fri m 0.2 lato atit! -* army was gradually losing its excellence and was weakened I was jusuzlilo.

reformed the municipalities and granted them important | marked by much material and social progress, was in the rights of self-government. His administrative reforms political sphere a period of the most deplorable reaction. amounted to a complete reconstruction of the ministerial | At first the king seemed disposed to fulfil his promise of departments and the machinery of provincial government, 1815 and grant the country a constitution, but ultimately and practically established the system now in force. In both he and his minister Hardenberg suffered themselves 1810 Hardenberg, with a precipitancy which Stein would to be dragged in the wake of the retrogressive policy of scarcely have approved, continued the reform in the con Metternich. The only concession made to the popular dition of the peasants by making them absolute owners of demand was the utterly inadequate patent of 1823, appointpart of their holdings, the landlords obtaining the rest as ing triennial provincial diets with a merely consultative an indemnity for their lost dues.1 The revolution thus function. The king also allowed himself to be alarmed effected in Prussia has been aptly compared in its results by the ultra-liberal movement at the universities, and to the great revolution in France; but, while there the joined in the notorious Carlsbad decrees (1819) and in reforms were exacted by a people in arms, here they were the senseless prosecutions of demagogues that formed the rather forced upon the people by the crown. The army sequel. Many of Prussia's noblest and most patriotic sons was also reorganized by Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, while now suffered unmerited punishment, and the Government the condition imposed by Napoleon that it should not showed a total incapacity to understand the real state of exceed 42,000 men was practically evaded by replacing affairs. Respect for the aged king, however, prevented each body of men by another as soon as it was fairly versed an outburst during his reign. After 1830 Prussia began in military exercises. The educational reforms of William to shake herself clear of the Austrian leading-strings, and von Humboldt established the school system of Prussia on the establishment of the “ Zollverein,” or customs union of its present basis, and the university of Berlin was founded the German states under Prussian supremacy, was a decided in 1809.

step towards a policy of independence. In ecclesiastical Frederick William hesitated to take part in the Austrian matters this reign is memorable for the union forced by sing of 1809, but his opportunity came in 1813, when the crown upon the Lutherans and Calvinists, and for the

reon fled from Russia, denuded of his troops. General preliminary symptoms of the “Culturkampf.”

commander of the corps that Prussia had been obliged Frederick William IV. (1840-1861), a man of character Frederick contribute to the French expedition, anticipated the and intelligence, began his reign promisingly by an amnesty


IV. formal declaration of war by joining the Russians with for political offenders and by well-meant concessions to the his troops on his own responsibility (30th December 1812). dissatisfied Ultramontanes; but it soon became evident On the outbreak of the war the people rose en masse and that he held too exalted an idea of the divine right of with the utmost enthusiasm. The regular army was sup- kings willingly to grant such a constitution as was required. ported by hosts of "Landwehr,” or militia, eager to share Then followed the contest between the crown and the in the emancipation of their country. A treaty of alliance people, the various steps of which have been chronicled in between Russia and Prussia was concluded at Kalisch, and the article GERMANY. At last the king had to give way Austria, after some hesitation, also joined the league and grant a constitution based upon democratic principles, against Napoleon. In the struggle that followed (see and substituting a representative parliament for the old AUSTRIA, vol. iii. pp. 134-135) Prussia played one of the Prussian system of estates. This constitution was promost prominent parts, and her general Blücher ranks high mulgated on 31st January 1850, and Prussia therewith among the heroes of the war. Between 1813 and the formally entered the ranks of modern and constitutional battle of Waterloo Prussia lost 1-10,000 men, and strained states. But in the following years the king maintained her financial resources to the utmost. As compensation as reactionary a policy as was in any way compatible with she received at the congress of Vienna the northern half the constitution, receiving his chief support in this line of of Saxony, her old possessions to the west of the Elbe, action from the Prussian“Junkerthum,” or squirearchy. In Swedish Pomerania, the duchies of Berg and Jülich, and external polities the chief feature of the reign is Prussia's other districts in Westphalia and on the Rhine. The neglect of the opportunity to take up a strong position as acquisitions of the last partition of Poland, with the excep- the political and military leader of northern and central tion of the grand-duchy of Posen, were resigned to Russia, Germany: the king refused the imperial crown offered to Friesland went to Hanover, and Bavaria was allowed to him by the Frankfort Parliament in 1849, and allowed retain Baireuth and Ansbach, which had come into her Prussia to play a subordinate rôle at Olmütz in the folhands in 1806. This rearrangement of the map did not lowing year. Towards the close of his life the Prussian wholly restore Prussia to its former extent, as its area was Government was distrusted at home and discredited abroad. now only 108,000 square miles compared with 122,000 In 1858 William, prince of Prussia, became regent in Villiam square miles at the beginning of 1806, but the substitu- consequence of the mental illness of his brother, and in 1, tion of German for Slavonic territory and the shifting of | 1861 he succeeded to the throne as William I. His accesthe centre of gravity towards the west more than made up sion was hailed as likely to increase both the liberalism of for any slight loss in mere size. Hanover still formed à Prussia's internal institutions and the vigour of its external huge wedge splitting Prussia completely in two, and the policy; and the second at least of these expectations was western frontier was very ragged. Prussia's position re not disappointed. But at an early period of his reign quired caution, but forced upon it a national German the king became involved in a constitutional dispute with policy, and the situation of the new lands was vastly more the House of Representatives, which declined to grant effectual in determining the future leader of Germany than the supplies necessary for an extensive system of military was Austria's aggrandizement in Italy. The work of incor- reorganization. Bismarck, who became prime minister in porating the new provinces was accomplished with as little 1862, refused to allow the crown to be hampered by parliafriction as possible, and the Prussian statesmen had the mentary restrictions and raised the funds required in defigood sense to leave the Rhenish districts in the full enjoy ance of the attitude of the lower house. This internal ment of the institutions they had been used to under the conflict may have had its influence in forcing upon the French régime.

ministry the necessity of a strong foreign policy, especially The remainder of Frederick William III.'s reign, though in its dealings with Austria, though the party of reform 1 The patrimonial jurisdiction of the landowners was not taken believed that the hegemony of Germany might have been away till 1848.

secured by Prussia without war if she had simply placed

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tion of Silesia at the close of ile first Silesian War.

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herself at the head of the liberal movement. Prussia's | and in the Prussian landtag. In spite of the continued neutral attitude in the Austro-Italian War was the first existence of the special law passed against the socialists, sign of the coming storm; and then followed the Schleswig- which has been prolonged from time to time, their numbers Holstein episode, culminating in the war of 1866 (see have grown steadily, and in the autumnal election of 1884 AUSTRIA), the successful issue of which expelled Austria they returned no fewer than twenty-four of their candidates from Germany and left its rival in undisputed possession. to the reichstay, polling 550,000 votes, or about ten per The territorial acquisitions which Prussia now made, con cent. of the total number recorded. Their success was sisting of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Nassau, Frankfort, especially marked in Berlin, where they returned two and Schleswig-Holstein, increased its extent by about a members and polled 70,000 votes. The same election was fifth and for the first time gave a satisfactory rounding-off

' also remarkable for the diminution of the German Liberalto its form. The Prussian landtag, carried away by success, ist» (Deutsch-Freisinnig), a party formed by the fusion of granted Bismarck, by a large majority, the indemnity he the Progressists and Secessionists. had the grace to ask for in regard to his previous unconsti Perhaps the most significant event in the recent history tutional proceedings in the financial dispute.

of (iermany has been her entrance into the ranks of the The war of 1866 gave the deathblow to the Germanic colonial powers by the annexation in 1884 of several disConfederation of 1815, and in its place appeared the North tricts on the west coast of Africa, and among the islands (Herman Confederation under the lead of Prinssia. The of the Pacific Ocean. In this step Prince Bismarck has transformation was completed five years later, after the revived a policy that has slumbered since the time of the successful war with France, when the south German states Great Elector (see ]). 8), but there seems little reason to also joined the union and the king of Prussia became the doubt that this new scheme of colonization will prove of Ciernan emperor. The united Germany that Frederick more permanent importance than that of the 17th century. the Great had sought in the Fürstenbund, that Frederick Williain III, had tried to organize in 1806 in opposition

930. Foundation of the North Mark, the nucleus of Brazylenburs 1134. to the ('onfederation of the Rhine, that Frederick William Albert the Bear is in tested with the North Mark, and founis the Asian

line of margraves. 12.30-9. Conquest of Prussin by the Teutonica IV. had hoped to achieve in 1850, was at length an

1921-16. Margrates of the Bavarian line. 13.30. Brandenburg deur
accomplished fact. In entering this union Prissia may in cognized as an electorate, 1:37:- 1113, Luxemburs line of electors

Frederick of Ilobenzollern becomes clector of Brandenburs. 1539.
a sense be said to have abdicated her position as a great tion proclaimed by Joachim 11. 10ls. Duely of Prussia indierite liye

Jolun Sigismund. 16-40. Accession of Frederick William, the Great Elector. power in favour of Ciermany, but her influence within the

1685. Brandenburu-Prussia recens Farther Pomerania, Magdeburg, Ilalbes. empire, practically comprising that of all the small north tult, and Minden at the peace of Westphali. 16:17. Independence of themely

of Prussiil recognized. 107.. Victory over the swertes aut Fehrbullm. 1701. German states, is so overwhelming that her identity is not Elector Frueriek assumes the title of " kus of Prussia," 1720. Acquisition likely crer to be wholly lost. Any measure increasing the

1710. Adresjon of Frederick the Greut. 171:. 1oqnisi. power of the empire at the expense of the individual states War. 1756.63. Seven Years Wir; principal notories: Praille' (61May 1707),

Rossbach (5th November 17:17), Leutheri (5011 December 1707), Li17 (150 is tantamount to an increase of the power of Prussia.

Wynst 1760), and Toru (November 1700); principal detoat:: Kolin (l-th Since the Franco-Gjerman War the history of Prussia June 1737), Ilochkirch (11th October 1756), Kunerscout (19th August 1779).

1772. First partition of Poll1 ; nequition of West I'russia has been for the outside world practically i lentical with

178. Serrnil smrtition of Poland; acquisition of South Prusia. that of Germany and has centred in the figure of Prince

17:15. Third partion of Prin; tion of New Eat I'lsia; Lace of

Basrl, providin' for Prus-inertality in the struale with France,
Bismarck. The policy of the imperial chancellor and War declared against Napoleon; detents of Jena !! Allerstart : l'r-'2

Control by the Freneli.
Prussian premier is essentially antocratic in its nature,

kingilom. 1905. Beginning of Steill's constitutional reformis. 1913. Will not and seems to have for its keynote the necessity of main lileri110n; battle of Lepsie (loth to 1:11. October). 1911-13. (onarios

l'emma ; l'russia tolaluilitated::tablishment of the Grenadio Controle nation. taining at any price a strong central (overnment to cope 1313. Battle of Waterloo. 7). l'rollmulation of the Pruss olisittall. with external imergencies. He identifies himself with

Isniti. War wil 111-111; but! lo of finire. (: 1

July): Action of 11111001rr, Selili - 19 - Holstein, alul lectorul liv; 10 party, but generally manages by timely concessions to

1970-71. War with l'hor.

1571. The king of l'ill!!! Kino (010).
furun suel temporary parliamentary combinations as are
nerex try to carry the measures he has most at heart. On

the other hand, he does not hesitate freely to call into

I'huisine Furla, Filli thon-tilthis of lr 11-12 long to the Physim Tepuisition the royal veto on resolutions of parliament of north Europa in plein and marl, wally Janartezimas features. which he does not approve. His reversion to a strong Toulin.l. Th. main is much wider on the... "bete ouly the protectionist policy, which became markeol in 1879, the Mern margin of Princ. is nominon-. on the inst, date to which the history is brought down in the article

when the flooriin hill-approprl to within lo-s than 100 miles

of the wel. I line lawn from Dus.leloul thuong Halle to Berlu GERMANY, has so far proved permanent, and numerous woulil, monylily speaking, liviele the flat pant of the country from protective measures have been pas-cd, though his favourite the hills init In the South; Prisja in parteal from wheme of a Giovernment monopoly of tobacco has been

111-tria a obrir los tlm. Silloin, liil Drain it thi

Villor of the Oiler and in the tourist north-list. obrisively rejected both by the imperial and the Prussian i Thishin in the B -111,1!1!!!", with the light Mountain chambers

. Is a pendant to these mcasures may be men in !!!": 2 bet11 uually in the tivneul the laws intended to improve the position of the litis ul Lumiti. T., | : i ... on Working classes, most of which are inspired by a spirit of 'rin, flow to ...

To 11: siltl uti! 11.11. state serialism. The alienation of the National Liberals, the Irvi in tiondir indireto till

: 2011orn perut th... Thulin, invasioneel by the change in Bismarck's economie pulier: Fort, which is also pe found the multh wont let the has compulled him to seek his later majorities in a com-lil! :) do 11:00-11Fulet. To colitu bination of Conservatives and Ultramontanes, the benefits in Rot!, TP. of which has been mainly raped by the latter. On the ac

on the lit: lum :): Platok 711, Eit l. n. 1.! : il... Tunus, tlor. Irfriswill, au pl. Sulaud. B:

11), los; ession of Pope Leo XII. some conciliatory advances were Penila and al into pow. 1.10. Dogan) 0.1% mule by Rome and Prussia : in 1851 liplomatic relations Rh....Triai on the were repreneul with the Vatican, and several important "T: R. T;S: - "Family mersions were made by a measure passer in 1883.

1.1.4.ins, Lilli lian thi Joke Alni-.

plot 17. Mills of Tom' 1:Siwi!' fol.110-11. T., t... May luws have not been repealed, but they have latterly hill of t... Sman 1 : :!,11!.:!'(°13'..ili •»***!;..: 1!.. leen put in forre with much less stringeney, and a great many of the vacant bishoprics and pastorates have been at

1 T... chistos'1.2018 ! ! :;

I will wider GYIS) :'. lui""TS. least temporarily filled. The Ultramentanca continue t.

The Ultramontanes continue to lose nuse thout: 1.51 is! Produtos :: 25. Fr 1.5 ...'".' form one of the largest " fractions" both in the reich-tay the traies !!!".-- ??.•

1792. War with


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1507. Proof Til it and disuellement of t..

1504. War with Denmark.

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