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the north from Carthage to the neighbourhood of the straits. The to north, so as to divide that great region into two distinct portions
erroneous position assigned to the foriner city has been already which he termed Scythia intra Imaum and Scythia extra Imaum,
adverted to, and, being supposed to rest upon astronomical observa- | corresponding in some degree with those recognized in modern
tion, doubtless deterinined that of all the north coast of Africa. maps as Independent and Chinese Tartary. The Imaus of Ptolemy
The result was that he assigned to the width of the Mediterranean corresponds clearly to the range known in modern days as the Bolor
from Massilia to the opposite point of the African coast an extent or Pamir, which has only been fully explored in quite recent times.
of more than 11° of latitude, while it does not really exceed 61°. It was, however, enormously misplaced, being transferred to 140° E.

At the same time he was still more at a loss in respect of longi- long., or 80° east of Alexandria, the real interval between the two
tudes, for which he had absolutely no trustworthy observations to being little more than 10°.
guide him ; but he nevertheless managed to arrive at a result con It is in respect of the southern shores of Asia that Ptolemy's
siderably nearer the truth than had been attained by previous geo- geography is especially faulty, and his errors are here the more
graphers, all of whom had greatly exaggerated the length of the unfortunate as they were associated with greatly increased know-
Înland Sea. Their calculations, like those of Marinus and Ptolemy, ledge in a general way of the regions in question. For more than
could only be founded on the imperfect estimates of mariners; but a century before his time, indeed, the commercial relations between
unfortunately Ptolemy, in translating the conclusions thus arrived | Alexandria, as the great emporium of the Roman empire, and
at into a scientific form, vitiated all his results by his erroneous India had assumed å far more important character than at any
system of graduation, and, while the calculation of Marinus gave a former period, and the natural consequence was a greatly increased
distance of 24,800 stadia as the length of the Mediterranean from geographical knowledge of the Indian peninsula. The little tract
the straits to the Gulf of Issus, this was converted by Ptolemy in called the Periplus of the Erythræan Sca, about 80 A.D., contains
preparing his tables to an interval of 62°, or just about 20° beyond sailing directions for merchants to the western ports of that
the truth. Even after correcting the error due to his erroneous country, from the mouth of the Indus to the coast of Malabar,
computation of 500 stadia to a degree, there remains an excess of and correctly indicates that the coast from Barygaza southwards
nearly 500 geographical miles, which was doubtless owing to the had a general direction from north to south as far as the extremity
exaggerated estimates of distances almost always made by navi of the peninsula (Cape Comorin). We are utterly ignorant of the
gators who had no real means of measuring them.

reasons which induced Marinus, followed in this instance as in so
Another unfortunate error which disfigured the eastern portion many others by Ptolemy, to depart from this correct view, ard,
of his map of the Mediterranean was the position assigned to By- while giving to the coast of India, from the mouths of the Indus
zantium, which Ptolemy (misled in this instance by the authority to those of the Ganges, an undue extension in longitude, to curtail
of Hipparchus) placed in the same latitude with Massilia (43° 5'), its extension towards the south to such an amount as to place Cape
thus carrying it up more than 2° above its true position. This had Cory (the southernmost point of the peninsula) only 1° of latitude
the inevitable effect of transferring the whole of the Euxine Sea- south of Barygaza, the real intervals being more than 800 geo-
with the general form and dimensions of which he was fairly well graphical miles, or, according to Ptolemy's system of graduation,
acquainted—too far to the north by the same amount; but in addi 16° of latitude ! This enormous error, which has the effect of dis-
tion to this he enormously exaggerated the extent of the Palus torting the whole appearance of the south coast of Asia, is associated
Mæotis (the Sea of Azoff), which he at the same time represented with another equally extraordinary, but of an opposite tendency,
as having its direction from south to north, so that by the com in regard to the neighbouring island of Taprobane or Ceylon, the
bined effect of these two errors he carried up its northern extremity dimensions of which had been exaggerated by most of the earlier
(with the mouth of the Tanais and the city of that name) as high Greek geographers; but to such an extent was this carried by
as 54° 30', or on the true parallel of the south shore of the Baltic. Ptolemy as to extend it through not less than 15° of latitude and
Yet, while he fell into this strange misconception with regard to 12° of Iongitude, so as to make it about fourteen times as large
the great river which was universally considered by the ancients as as the reality, and bring down its southern extremity more than 2°
the boundary between Europe and Asia, he was the first writer of to the south of the equator.
antiquity who showed a clear conception of the true relations be We have much less reason to be surprised at finding similar
tween the Tanais and the Rha or Volga, which he correctly described distortions in respect to the regions beyond the Ganges, concern.
as flowing into the Caspian Sea. With respect to this last also he ing which he is our only ancient authority. During the interval
was the first geographer after the time of Alexander to return to the which elapsed between the date of the Periplus and that of
correct view (already found in Herodotus) that it was an inland Marinus it is certain that some adventurous Greek mariners had
sea, without any communication with the Northern Ocean. not only crossed the great Gangetic Gulf and visited the land on

With regard to the north of Europe his views were still very the opposite side, to which they gave the name of the Golden vague and imperfect. He had indeed considerably more acquaint- Chersonese, but they had pushed their explorations considerably ance with the British Islands than any previous geographer, and farther to the east, as far as Cattigara. It was not to be expected even showed a tolerably accurate knowledge of some portions of that these commercial ventures should have brought back any their shores. But his map was, in this instance, disfigured by two accurate geographical information, and accordingly we find the conunfortunate errors,—the one, that he placed Ireland (which he calls ception entertained by Ptolemy of these newly discovered regions Ivernia) altogether too far to the north, so that its southernmost to be very different from the reality. Not only had the distances, portion was brought actually to a latitude beyond that of North as was usually the case with ancient navigators in remote quarters, Wales; the other, which was probably connected with it, that the been greatly exaggerated, but the want of accurate observations whole of Scotland is twisted round, so as to bring its general exten of bearings was peculiarly unfortunate in a case where the real sion into a direction from west to cast, instead of from south to features of the coast and the adjoining islands were so intricate north, and place the northern extremity of the island on the saine and exceptional. A glance at the map appended to the article parallel with the promontory of Galloway. He appears to have MAP (vol. xv. Plate VII.) will at once show the entire discrepaney been embarrassed in this part of his map by his having adopted between the configuration of this part of Asia as conceived by the conclusion of Marinus-based upon what arguments we know Ptolemy and its true formation. Yet with the materials at his not—that Thule was situated in 63°, while at the same time he command we can hardly wonder at lis not having arrived at a regarded it, in conformity with the received view of all carlier

nearer approximation to the truth. The most unfortunate error geographers, as the most northern of all known lands. In accord was his idea that after passing the Great Gulf, which lay beyond ance with this same assumption Ptolemy supposed the northern the Golden Chersonese, the coast trended away to the south, coast of Germany, which he believed to be the southern shore of the instead of towards the north, and he thus placed Cattigara (which (reat Ocean, to have a general direction from west to cast, while was probably one of the ports in the south of China) not less he placed it not very far from the true position of that of the Baltic, than 8° south of the equator. It is probable that in this instanco of the existence of which as an inland sea he was wholly ignorant, he was misled by his own theoretical conelusions, and carrie l as well as of the vast peninsula of Scandinavia beyond it, and only this remotest part of the Asiatic continent so far to the south inserted the name of Scandia as that of an island of inconsiderable with the view of connecting it with his assumed eastward prodimensions. At the same time he supposed the coast of Sarmatia longation of that of Africa. from the Vistula castwarıls to trend away to the north as far as Notwithstanding this last theoretical assumption Ptolemy's map the parallel of Thule ; nor did he conceive this as an actual limit, of Africa presents a marked improvement upon those of Eratobut believed the Unknown Land to extend indefinitely in this sthenes and Strabo. But his knowledge of the west coast, which (lirection, as also to the north of Asiatic Scythia.

he conceivel as having its direction nearly on a meridional line The enormous extent assigned by him to the latter region has from north to south, was very imperfect, and his latitudes utterly been already aclverted to ; but vague and erroneous as were his

Even in regard to the Fortunate Islands, the position views concerning it, it is certain that they show a much greater of which was so important to his system in connexion with his approximation to the truth than those of earlier geographers, who prime meridian, he was entirely misinformed as to their character possessed hardly a suspicion of the vast tracts in question, which and arrangement, and extended the group through a space of more stretch across Central Asia from the borders of Sarmatia to those than 5° of latitude, so as to bring down the most southerly of them of China. Ptolemy was also the first who hail anything like a to the real parallel of the Cape de Verd Islands, clear idea of the chain to which he gave the name of Imaus, and In regard to the mathematical construction, or, to use the correctly regarded as having a direction across Scythia from south modern phrase, the projection of his maps, not only was Ptolemy

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greatly in advance of all his predecessors, but his theoretical skill know not), to which nothing similar is found in any earlier writer. was altogether beyond the nature of the materials to which he L'nfortunately this new information was of so crude and vague a applied it. The methods by which he obviated the difficulty of character, anil is presenteil to us in so embarrassing a for, as to transferring the delineation of different countries from the spherical perplex rather than assist the geographical student, and the statesurface of the globe to the plane surface of an ordinary map differed ments of Ptolemy concerning the rivers Gir and Nigir, and the indeed but little from those in use at the present day, and the lakes and mountains with which they were connected, have exererrors arising from this cause (apart from those proluced by his cisel the ingenuity anıl bafiled the sagicity of successive generations fundamental error of graduation) were really of little consequence of geographers in modern times to interpret or explain them. It compared with the defective character of his information and the inay safely be said that they present no resemblance to the real want of anything approaching to a survey of the countries deline features of the country as known to us by modern explorations, ated. He himself was well aware of his deficiencies in this respect, and cannot be reconciled with them except by the most arbitrary and, while giving full directions for the scientific construction of a conjectures. general man, he contents himself for the special maps of different It is otherwise in the case of the Nile. To discover the source countries with the simple methol employcul by Marinus of drawing of that river had been long an object of curiosity both among the the parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude as straight lines, Grecksanıl Romans, and an expedition sent out for that purpose by assuming in each case the proportion between the two, as it really the emperor Nero hal unclouhteilly penetrated as far as the marshes stool with respect to some one parallel towards the inidille of the of the White Vile ; but we are wholly ignorant of the sources from mily

, and neglecting the inclination of the meridians to one another. whence Ptolemy derived his information. But his statement that Such a course, as he himself repeatedly affirms, will not make any the mighty river derived its waters from the confluence of two material difference within the limits of each special map:

streams, which took their rise in two lakes a little to the south of Ptolemy's geographical work was devoted almost exclusively to the equator, was undoubteilly a nearer approach to the truth than the mathematical branch of his subject, and its peculiar arrangu. any of the theories concocteil in modern times before the discovery ment, in which his results are presented in a tabular forın, instead in our own days of the two great lakes now known as the Victoria of being at oncu embolied in a map, was undoubtedly (lesigned to and Albert Nyanza. lle at the same time notires the other arm enable the geographical stulent to construct his maps for himself, of the river (the Blue Nile) under the name of the Astapus, which instead of depending upon those constructed really to his hand. he correctly describes as rising in another lake. In connexion with This purpose it has abundantly served, and there is little doubt this subject he introduces a range of mountains running from east that we owe to the peculiar form thus given to his results their to west, which he calls the Mountains of the Moon, and which have transmissiou in a comparatively perfect condition to the present provedl a sad stumbling-block to geographers in modern times, but day. Unfortunately the specious appearance of the results thus may now be safely aflirmeil to represent the real fart of the cristpresenterl to us has led to a very erroneous estimate of their accu ence of snow-covered mountains Kilimanjaro and Kenial in these huy, and it has been too often supposed that what was stated in so equatorial regions. sientitir a form mast necessarily be based upon scientific observa Much the silme remarks apply to l’tolemy's geography of Asia as tions. Though Ptolemy himself has distinctly pointed out in his to that of Africa. In this case also he had obtaineid, as we have first look the defertive nature of his materials and the true char- already seen, a vague knowledge of extensive regions, wholly unPuter of the data furnished by his tables, few readers stu lied this known to the carlier geographers, and resting to a certain extent portion of his work, and his statements were generally received on authentie information, though much exaggeratu anı misunderwith the sume undoubting faith as was justly attached to his stool. But, while these informants hail really brought home some astronomical observations. It is only in quite recent times that definite statements concerning Serica or the Land of Silk, and its his conclusions have been estimated at their just value, and the capital of Sera, there lay a vast region towards the north of the apparently scientific character of his work shown to be in most line of route leading to this far castorn lanıl 15upposed by Ptolemy Coil sprions e lisice resting upon no adequate foundations. to be nearly coinciilent with the parallel of 10) of which appa

There can be no doubt that the work of 'Ptolemy was from the rently he knew nothing, but whicli he vaguely assumed to extend time of its first publication acrompanied with maps, which are incetinitely northwards as far as the limits of the Unknown Toplarly referrell to in the eighth book. But how far those which Land. The Jaxartes, which ever since the time of Alexander bal are now stunt represent the original series is a lisputed point. been the boundary of Creek grography in this direction, still code In two of the most ancient MSS. it is expressly stated that the time in that of l'tolemy to be the northern limit of all that was map- which irompany them are the work of one Agatholimon of really known of Central Asii. Biroul that he place a mass of Alexandria, who alrew them accorvling to the right books of maines of tribes, to which he coulilit- no cetinite locality, and Claudius Ptolemy." This expression might equally apply to the mountain ranges whiih he could only place at luaplaanil. The work of a continporary draught-man under the eyes of Ptolemy character of his information concerning the southcast of Asia las lumsulf, or to that of a skilful geographer at a later period, anil bre'll already adverted to. But, tunguly as low mnispol.acred Cattinothing is known from any other source concerning this Agathon gara and the metropolis of Sinir connected with it. tlul" can liv mon. The attrmpt to identify him with a grammarian of the 110 doubt that we recognize in this name variously written Tliin: SI! Hm who lived in the 5th century is wholly without founda- am Sinar the now familiar name of China ; amit is important to 11:51 But it appears, on the whole, most probable that the maps olserve that he places the land of the Sinir immediately south of AP" and to th MSS. still extant have been transmitted by unin that of the Series, showing that he was a Wiare of the connexion bus to.rupted trudition from the time of I'tolemy.

teen the two, though the one was known only by land esplora:.. P-of fronpraphical knowledge. - The above examination tions and the other by maritime povas. o tlum-tluka pursued by Ptolemy in framing his general map of In regard to the better known rougions of the roll, aul.jurially the world, or as vrling to the phrase universally employed by the those londering on the Moliterraneall. Ptolemy scorslin to his an. 10138tloo Inhabited World in oikolmérn), has alucaly drawn own acrount followed for the most diri the chicance of Marins. allation to the principal estensions of geographical knowledge. The latter srems to have belied to in great tillit on the work of 4:11 "tltime of Stralo.

Timosthenes who flourished more than two centurib folre in Whilo mnything like an acurate acquaintaner was still contineal ! 11/et to the constil maritine ili-tt!!! l'olor. Lort. the limits of the Roman empire and the region that immediately introduce my chann, Son of wel lor din printed out to 11.

1:19if, with the al lition of the portions of Asia that had been though there are collothes Wally those while wo has low hearts 1:12. Kuwn to the lineeks, the prographical horizon harul lume!! of detecting for the intent of the litterlitonlitho Rouan Til willenoved towards the east by commercial enterprise, and 11111- late 11 milion loin wili mast frowards th' wuth by the same causi, combined with expolitions valuaboo 111!11! While 11.0.1 1.0t 1.avail to info or a military rhararter, but which woull aqwar to have buen apleis. But the veins tout l'Willy willin lule tikel di asl hy i spirit of diyorery Two expellitions of this kind vanile of thile 1.1-4 11 ulitin :''tliv!lllert:lu! We have hallurid out hy Roman Nerals before the time of Marinus, expositail, and thresholes of the builopo l..." with wlu li, varting from Fezzan, halpabet rate-ul th heart of the man , mi-them.'nin countriesow how to Gaul .111 poinMont ue south as far as a triat called dui ymbo"whil, whiili 11.1:21: :ils have been obsidir.111107241. doria de of **s inhabited by Ethiopians and warmed with thiucursores 114 la Rental listinn This site'maats gwint clearly to the expolitions having in Verwal Godi il- lli Unitially the trurits of : tonatilor'rt and arrived at the Soulillor Verolanıl. But the work, it . Im 10% lin!11. in l. Trupipo 1 81:34 puition of Igi-ymba cannot be determinele simple by myse or 57:1-... Opti- !!): linn to's. . I: NI. YK van; 1'1 The aloyunlly cragurratrul view taken by Jarinins luas In 9-'Polo Tu!!. 11TTI;!,!!. i'. ! !:-!,!!! Irinly notived: bat, eren after his parimate haller'll foldered the :::::. Voi ollschil in plant...'; . :!.. bi lamiy for more than one-half, the yweition assigned lay that it in wi:l: .ili i den... ilir int. 11:11: 3i1ihr!o girmly was doubtle far in Sips toward the south. iul alims, A Birt!!!!of whil. 1. is. :: !11... Ri, bulan ihre name was the only mult that we know er lave domain of:. , , : :1.7.1-1..!1;!• polisi iornitorrad fmm these memorable erpulitions Parolemy found tritis hinwlf in poesion of a consiilorable amount of information on 311.11.r. Whilo :: ir...:).

..:! erroin the interior of northern Africa from whence deliver i W. Tilf rivets. 11. :11:. !!!!!!!

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idot's Bibliothee'

phrase)“ geographize” a country, Ptolenıy deals with this part of his led to 2 Will. IV. c. 10, empowering the privy council to
subject in so careless a manner as to be often worse than useless. take certain preventive measures against the spread of the
Even in the case of a country so well known as (aul the few notices
that he gives of the great rivers that play so important a part in

disease. Numerous local Acts gave the authorities of the
its geography are disfigured by some astounding errors ; while he more important towns power over the public health. To
cloes not notice any of the great tributaries of the Rhine, though this day London is governed by separate legislation. The
mentioning an obscure streamlet, otherwise unknown, because it Towns Improvement Act, 1847, contained provisions of a
happened to be the boundary between two Roman provinces.
The revival of the study of Ptolemy's work after the Middle Aves and the

sanitary kind for incorporation in local Acts. But it was influence it exercised upon the progress of geography have been described in not until as recently as 1818 that a general Public Health the article Map (vol. XV. . 320). llis Geographic was printed for the first time in a Latin translation, accompanied with maps, in 1478, and numerous Act, embracing the whole of England (except the metroother editions followed in the latter part of the 15th and earlier half of the

polis), was passed. The Public Health Act, 1848, created 16th century, but the Greek text (lih not make its appearance till 1533, when it was published at Basel in 4to, edited by the celebrated Erasmus. All these d general board of health as the supreme authority in carly editions, however, swarm with textual errors, and are wholly worthless for critical purposes. The same may be said of the edition of Bertins (Gr. and

sanitary matters. The Local Government Act, 1858, Lat., Leyden, 1618, typ. Elzevir), which was long the standard library edition amended the Act of 1848, chiefly in the direction of of the work. It contains a new set of maps drawn by Mercator, as well as a fresh series (not intended to illustrate Ptolemy) by Ortelius, the Roman Itiner greater local sanitary control. By an Act immediately aries, including the Tabula Peutingeriana, and much other iniscellaneous preceding the Act of 1858 the general board of health matter. The first attempt at a really critical cition was made by Wilberg and Grashof (4to, Essen, 1812), but this unfortunately was never complete. was superseded partly by the home office, partly by the text of the whole work as yet available and has a useful index. But log far privy council

. The Local Government Board, the present the best edition, so far as completed, is that published in

central authority, was created in 1871 by 34 and 35 Vict. (lassicorum Græcorum (Paris, 1883), eliter by Dr C. Muller, with a Latin translation and a copious commentary, geographical as well as critical. The first c. 70. The president of the Local Government Board is part, which is all that has yet appeared, contains only the first three books, usually a member of the cabinet. Numerous other Acts without the Prolegomena, which will be anxiously expected by all students of Ptolemy.

(E. II. B.) dealing with public health were passed from 1819 to 1874. PUBLIC HEALTH. State medicine as an organized Finally in 1875 the existing law was digested into the department of administration is entirely of modern growth. Public Health Act, 1875 (38 and 39 Vict. c. 55).1 By the common law of England the only remedy for any The tendency of sanitary legislation has been to place local saniact or omission dangerous to health was an action for

tary regulations in the hands of the local authorities, subject to a

general superintendence by a Government department. The Act damages or an indictment for nuisance. (See NUISANCE.)

of 1875, which registers the results of this tendency, is a conAt the same time the jurisdiction of the commissioners of solidating not an amending Act, and did not materially alter the sewers acted to a certain extent as a preventive means. law. It is impossible in this place to do more than give a short Commissions of sewers were granted by the crown, at

notice of its comprehensive provisions. For the purposes of the first in virtue of the general prerogative, afterwards under

Act England, except the metropolis, is divided into urban and rural

sanitary districts, subject respectively to the jurisdiction of urban the provisions of numerous statutes, the earliest dating and rural sanitary authorities. The urban authority is either the from 1427 (6 Hen. VI. c. 5). The powers of the com corporation of a borough, improvement commissioners, or a local missioners included the removal of obstructions in rivers,

boaril, according to circumstances. A district becomes subject to a

local board at the instance of either the Local Government Boarul the making of fosses and drains, &c. Their jurisdiction,

or the owners and ratepayers of the district. The local board is where still existing, is expressly preserved in the modern clected by the owners

elected by the owners and ratepayers. It must be elected before Public Health Acts. The indictment for nuisance still lies 15th April in every year. The meinbers hold office for three years, for many offences which are now punishable in a summary

one-third retiring every year. The Oxford local board is governel manner under the powers of recent legislation. But for a

by regulations peculiar to itself, giving the university a large pro

portion of members. Rural districts are conterminous with poorlong time it was the only, not as now a concurrent, remedy. law unions, exclusive of any urban district. The guardians of the Its obvious defect is that proceedings can only be taken poor forin the rural authority. There is a port sanitary authority after the mischief has been done. Old examples of in seaport towns. (See QUARANTINE.) The jurisdiction of a local nuisances dangerous to health and punishable at common

authority is both preventive and remedial. The matters falling

under this jurisdiction include (1) sewers, with certain exceptions, law are the keeping of swine in a town, the dividing of a

among which come sewers under the authority of commissioners of house in a town so that by reason of overcrowding it would sewers, (2) scavenging and cleansing streets, (3) water-supply, (1) be more dangerous in time of sickness or playne, and the cellar-ılwellings and Toilging-houses, (5) nuisances,” (6) offensive carrying on of offensive trades, such as the melting of For the history of sanitary legislation in England, see the Report tallow. The court leet seems to have had some jurisdic

of the Royul Sunitury Commission, 1869; M. D. Chalmers, Lucal

(rorernment, ch. vii. ; Stephen, Commentaries, vol. iii. bk, iv. pt. iii. tion in sanitary matters, contined to the prevention of

ch. ix. ; G. A. R. Fitzgerald, The Public Ilealth Act, 1975, Introd. nuisances and the determination of the quality of provi - The list of nuisances which may be dealt with summarily under sions within its local limits. At a comparatively early the Act is as follows :-“(1) any premises in such a state as to be a date statutes were passed dealing with matters for which

muisance or injurious to health ; (2) any pool, ditch, gutter, water.

course, privy, urinal, cesspool, drain, or ashpit so foul or in such a the common law had provided too cumbrous a remedy

state as to be a nuisance or injurious to health ; (3) any animal so kept The attention of parliament, though but to a slight extent, as to be a nuisance or injurious to health ; (4) any accumulation or was directed to the health of London as early as the Statute deposit which is a nuisance or injurious to health ; (5) any house or of the City of London in 1285 (13 Elw. I. st. 5). The

part of a house so overcrowiled as to be dangerous or injurious to the earliest legislative enactment affecting the public health

health of the inmates, whether or not members of the same family ;

(6) any factory, workshop, or bakeshop (not already under the operagenerally appears to be 12 Ric. II. c. 13, 1388, forbid

tion of any general Act for the regulation of factories or bakehouses) ding the deposit of offensive matter in rivers and other not kept in a cleanly state, or not ventilated in such a manner as to waters, as well in the city of London as in other cities.

rendler harmless as far as practicable any gases, vapours, clust, or other Acts of a similar character were from time to time passed

impurities generated in the course of the work carried on therein, that

are a nuisance or injurious to health, or so overcrowded while work is to meet particular offences, such as 4 and 5 Hen. VII.

carried on as to be dangerous or injurious to the health of those c. 3, by which no butcher was to slaughter cattle in employed therein ; (7) any fireplace or furnace which does not, as far London or other walled towns. The plague called fortlı

as practicable, consume the smoke arising from the combustibles used the Act of 1 Jac. I. c. 31, which made it a capital offence

therein, and which is used for working engines by steam, or in any

mill, factory, dyehouse, brewery, bakehouse, or gaswork, or in any for an infected person to go abroad after being commander manufacturing or trade process whatsoever ; (8) any chimney (not ly the proper authority to keep his house. The Act for being the chimney of a private lwelling-house) sending forth black the rebuilding of London after the great fire, 19 (ar. 11. smoke in such quantity as to be a nuisance.' In relation to these c. 3, contained various provisions as to the height of

statutory nuisances it is provided that no penalty is to be inflicted in houses, breadth of streets, construction of sewers, and pro

respect of any accumulation or deposit if it is necessary for business

purposes and is effectual means have been taken for preventing injury hibition of noisome trades. In 1832 the fear of cholera therefrom to the public health, or in respect of a nuisance from uncon


trades, (7) unsound mcat, (8) infectious diseases and hospitals, (9) | purposes of public health depend primarily upon the Metropolis prevention of epidemic diseases, (10) mortuaries and (by the Public Management Act, 1855 (18 and 19 Viet. c. 120, s. 250, schedules A Health Act, 1879) cemeteries, (11) highways, (12) streets, (13) and B). The local authorities are the metropolitan board of works, buildings, (14) lighting, (15) public pleasure-grounds, (16) markets the vestries and district boards, and in the city of London) the and slaughter-houses, (17) licensing of hackney carriages, horses, commissioners of sewers. Asylums and hospitals are administereil and boats. It is to be noticed that jurisdiction in some of these by the metropolitan asylums board. The water-supply is regulated cascs is confined to an urban authority. Contracts made by an by the Metropolis Water Acts, 1852 and 1871, gas by the Metrourban authority, whereof the value or amount exceeds £50, must politan Gas Act, 1860. be in writing, and sealed with the common seal of the authority. Scotland.Sanitary legislation occurs as carly as the reign of Where the contract is of the value or amount of £100 or upwards Alexander III. The Statuta Gilde, c. 19, forbaile the deposit of tenders for its execution must be invited. A local authority has dung or ashes in the street, market, or on the banks of the Tweed power, subject to the approval of the Local Government Board, to at Berwick under a penalty of cight shillings. At a later date the Inake bye-laws and impose penalties for their breach. The authority Act of 1510, c. 20, enacted that no flesh was to be slain in Edinburgh must appoint a medical officer and an inspector of nuisances ; if an on the cast side of the Leith Wynd ; that of 1621, c. 29, fixed the urban authority, it must in addition appoint a surveyor, clerk, and locality of fleshers and candlemakers. The existing law of public treasurer. Officers may not contract with a local authority. An health is contained in the Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1867 (30 urban authority has power to levy a general district rate, a private and 31 Vict. c. 101). The local authority is the town council

, the improvement rate an additional rate levied in return for some police commissioners or trustees, or the parochial board, accordspecial advantage beyond that obtained by the inhabitants in ing to circumstances. There is no distinction of urban and rural general), and (in certain cases) a highway rate. The expenses of a authority: The central authority is the board of supervision conrurul authority are either general or special, the latter being chiefly stituted by 8 and 9 Viet. C. 83. . Proceedings by a local authority the expenses arising from sewerage and water-supply. General in cases of nuisance are by summary petition to a sheriff or a justice expenses are defrayed out of a common fund raised out of the poor (in some cases only to a sheriff) upon requisition in writing under mte. Special expenses are a charge upon the contributory places the hands of ten inhabitants. An appeal lies in cases of suflicient benefited. A local authority may, with the sanction of the Local value from the sherill-substitute to the sherifl and from the sherill Cioverument Boarul, raise loans for the purposes of the Act. The to the Court of Session. The list of nuisances in the Act dillers, loans are charged upon the general district rate. Legal procecil. but not materially, from that in the English Art. The powers of ings under the Act aro generally summary. Where proceedings local authorities in England and Scotland are very similar. There are by action, one month's notice of action must be given where are no provisions as to contracts by local authorities corresponding the cause of action is anything done, or intended to be done, or to those in the English Act. omitted to be done under the provisions of the Act. The action Ireland.—Several Acts of the Irisli parliament dealt with specific inust be brought within six months after the accruing of the cause nuisances, C.4., 5 Geo. III. c. 15, forbidding the laying of lilth in of action. The local authority and its officers are protected from the streets of cities or county towns, and making regulations as to fwrsonal liability for matters done in pursuance of the Act. An sweeping anıl scavenging. There were also numerous private Acts appeal froin a court of summary jurisdiction lies to quarter sessions, dealing with water-supply and the obstruction of watercourses. In cases where the local authority decides a question as to liability In 1878 the existing legislation was consolidated by the Public to expenses, an appeal lies to the Local Government Board. The Health (Ireland) Act, 1873 (11 and 42 Vict. c. 52), a close copy Local Government Board has power to alter areas and unite dis of the English Art of 1875. The list of statutory nuisances is trirts, to direct inquiries in relation to any matters concerning the the same in both Arts. The ban authority is the corporation, public health in any place, to make provisional orders, and to the commissioners, the municipal commissioners, or the town comenforce performance of luty by a defaulting local authority. missioners, according to circumstances. Iclau has its own local

In addition to the Public IIealth Act, 1875, there are Solernment board. various Acts incorporated with that Act under the name

l'nite Statis, — After the Civil War bearils of health were estab.

lished in the chief cities Public health is under the control of the of the “Sanitary Acts," dealing with similar subjects. local authorities to a greater extent than in Englanil

. By the Art of These are the Bakehouse Regulation Act (1863), the Congress of 27th February 1799 officers of the United States are bound Artisans and Labourers Dwellings Act (1868), thc Baths to observe the health laws of the Status i national borrel of health and Washhouses Acts, the Labouring Classes Lodying

was created ly the 11 of 31 March 1-7°, 1. 202. Its main duties Houze Acts (1851, 1866, 1867). Since 1875 numerous

are to give advice to local authorities and to carry on investigations

in silnitary matters. It has curtain juuri-liition in quarantine and Icts amending and extending the Public Health Ict have in epidemics of a puli orly lanmon names J. Wt.) heen passed, dealing with (among other matters) river PUBLIC RECORDS. See Rrrorps, PrelIC, pollution, water supply, hospitals for infectious diseases, l'UBLILII'S (less correctly written l'ı D110-) Syrts, nuisance arising from alkali-works, and lodging of fruit a Latin writor of farces (mimi), flourished in the 1st cenpriekers. There is besides a mass of legislation which in tury B.c. He was a native of Syria and was brought as a fact, if not in name, has for its ohject the sanitary welfare slave to Italy, but lip lois wit in tal nt bi won the favour of the people. It is sufficient to mention the Vaccination of lois master, who freel and weatud liim. Hli: farces, lets, the Factory Acts, the Irtisans and Labourers Dwell

. in which he acted himself, had a great access in the ings Arts subsequent to 1868, the Merchant Shippinglets provincial towns of Italy and at the games given by C'esar insuring the carrying of medicines and antiscorbuties on

in 16.1.( Publilius appeared on the stomp at Rome anıl Imand ships the provision of sleeping space for seamen, received from (it vier himself the prize for it listrionic conand the inspeetion of scamen's lodying-houses), the Jul- test in which the actor aqui-led all his competitors, teration Icts, and the numerous Burial Elets. In many including the celeboratul Laberin. For the lint, we learn lical.lets notification of infectious disease by the medical from Jerome that in 13 Pulililil till enthalled the man in attendance to the local authority is male com Roman play onss. (imero will. sed with pere the pulsory; but the legislature has not as yet adopter any exhibition of his play, and S Wilo il wirm mirer Mineral provision of the kind.

of his wife and witty savings .Ill that li muins of his The vientific aspect of publie health does not fall within works in a collection of Souteneos (contestati, a wries of :he cosque of the present article: it has been treated under moral maxim- in iambican trobar lope. This collection he title Islese. It is sufficient to say here that the mm-t have line at a verseny delte's cinere it was etteet of the attention which of late years has been given known to Aulus (iellitis in 1110 e11 11:19 .

Earli in the subject is seen in the reduction of the death-rate maxim is comprised in a inclou l'il'al's il!o the virus ar from 2.0.03 per thousand in the years 1811.,31 10 2107 arranged in a poiluetical ceder acoplina ?" thuir initial four the year 1871-91.

letters In cours of time to colle. 1:1) 1.2- interpolated LoL --The nietropolis is goreruna lisa surir of fututos, with sentence drawn from this writ.10.1?erially from erupa peruliar to itxill

. Others general its pealed as to the aportyphaal writings of Speed: :!, Helor of gnuin: Phil Health Act. 153. 'The limits of the metropolis for ilir Perus is about 700). This inful...!!!!! puthy saying,

-nha- the famous "jule damnuir : 1047a.solitur.” melenike if it be pmrel to the court that the smoke has buen

nsrofile interesir..

1. Jollin ipernial as far as practicable and that the tire has been carefully the lient clit atica d ta

(Terliner, 1.- anil W. MiveriT 1. l.

S.I. - 1;



PÜCKLER-MUSKAU, HERMANN LUDWIG HEINRICH, of population it still stands third among the state capitals. PRINCE OF (1785-1871), a German author, was born at Its spacious streets run exactly east-west and north-south, Muskau in Lusatia on 30th October 1785. He served for and its houses, often of three stories, are solidly built of some time in the body-guard at Dresden, and afterwards stone and in Spanish style. The cathedral, dedicated to travelled in France and Italy. In 1811, after the death the Immaculate Conception, was commenced in 1552 of his father, he inherited the barony of Muskau and a after the designs of Juan Gomez de Mora, but it was not considerable fortune. As an officer under the duke of completed until 1649, after Bishop Juan de Palafox y Saxe-Weimar he distinguished himself in the war of Mendoza had devoted eight years of strenuous effort to liberation and was made military and civil governor of the enterprise. It is rather more than 320 feet long and Bruges. After the war he retired from the army and 165 wide, and consists of a nave 80 feet high, with side visited England, where he remained about a year. In aisles and a dome, the upper portion of which is con1822, in compensation for certain privileges which he re-structed of pumice-stone for the sake of lightness. The signed, he was raised to the rank of prince by the king of main front, like the columns of the interior, is in the Doric Prussia. Some years earlier he had married the countess style, but its two side towers are Ionic. In one is a great of Pappenheim, daughter of Prince Hardenberg; but he bell cast in 1637 and weighing upwards of 8 tons. Apart separated from her in 1826. He again visited England from the cathedral Puebla was famous for the number, and and travelled in America and Asia Vinor, living after his more especially for the lavish decoration of its churches, return at Muskau, which he spent much time in cultivating monasteries, and colleges. Several of these (such as the and adorning. In 1845 he sold this estate, and, although church and convent of Santo Domingo and the church of he afterwards lived from time to time at various places in S. Felipe Neri) are still of note, and the city also contains Germany and Italy, his principal residence was the castle a museum, a theatre, &c. Puebla has long been one of the of Branitz in the district of Kottbus, where he formed great trading and manufacturing centres of the country, splendid gardens as he had already done at Vuskau. In and it has recently become an important point in the 1863 he was made an hereditary member of the Prussian rapidly-developing railway system, having in 1884 lines Herrenhaus, and in 1866 he attended the Prussian general to Apizaco on the railway from Vera Cruz to Mexico (28 staff in the war with Austria. He died at Branitz on 4th miles), to Villa de Libres (58 miles), to San Martin (24 February 1871, and, in accordance with instructions in his miles), to Matamoros Izucar (31 miles), and to San Juan de will, his body was burned. As a writer of books of travel | los Llanos. Cotton and woollen goods, leather, earthenhe held a high position, his power of observation being ware, soap, and glass are the leading manufactures. The keen and his style lucid and animated. His first work population, which was about 80,000 in 1746 and 52,717 was Briefe eines Verstorbenen (1830-31), in which he ex- in 1793, and which greatly decreased during the revolupressed many independent judgments about England and tionary period, is now (1885) stated at 75,000. other countries he had visited and about prominent persons Puebla was founded in 1533-34 by Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal, whom he had met. Among his later books of travel were archbishop of Santo Domingo, and the Franciscan friar Toribio Semilasso's vorletzter Weltgang (1835), Semilasso in Afrika Motolinia. In 1550 it became the seat of the bishopric which had (1836), Aus llehemed-Ali's Reich (1844), and Die Rück- originally been founded in 1526 at Tlaxcala. The epithet " de los

Angeles,” which is now practically dropped, was in the 17th and kehr (1846-48). He was also the author of Andeutungen 18th centuries the chief part of the name, which often appears über Landschaftsgärtnerei (1831).

simply as Angeles. It is associated with a popular belief that See Pickler - Muskau's Briefwechsel und Tagebücher; Ludmilla during the building of the cathedral two angels every night added

as much to the height of the walls as the workmen had managed Assing, Fürst Hermann von Pückler-Muskau ; and Petzold, Fürst Hermann von Pückler-Muskau in seiner Bedeutung für die bildende

to add in the preceding day. In 1845 Santa Anna made an unsucGartenkunst.

cessful attempt to capture the city. On 18th March 1863 it was

invested by the French under Forey, and on 17th May taken by PUDSEY, a township of the West Riding of Yorkshire, storm,

See Buschman's history of the city and cathedral in Ztschr. f. allgem. Eruis situated on an acclivity rising above the valley of the kunde, 1803, vol. xv. pp. 193-212, and xvi. pp. 338-345. Aire and on the Great Northern Railway, 4 miles east of PUERPERAL FEVER. See SEPTICEMIA. Bradford and 6 south-west of Leeds. The principal build PUERTO CABELLO, a town and seaport in the South ings are the church of St Lawrence in the Gothic style, American republic of Venezuela, in the province of Caraerected in 1821 and lately improved, and the mechanics' bobo, used to rank next to Cartagena, and possesses one institute, a fine building, comprising class-rooms, a library, of the finest natural harbours in that part of the world. a public hall, and a lecture hall. The town has an import. It is backed at the distance of about 5 miles by a range of ant woollen trade and possesses dyeing and fulling mills. mountains 3000 feet high, across which pass, at a height Pudsey appears in Domesday as “ Podechesaie.” It was

“Podechesaie.” It was of 1800 feet, the road (36 miles) and the railway now sold by Edward II. to the Calverley family, from whom it (1885) in course of construction to Valencia, the capital passed to an ancestor of the Milners. By the Bradford of the province. The old town used to lie on an island Water and Improvement Act of 1881 part (37 acres) of the originally a coral bank) joined to the mainland by a urban sanitary district of Pudsey was amalgamated with bridge ; but since about 1850 the narrow channel between that of Bradford. The population of the diminished district the town and the more extensive suburbs on shore has (2409 acres) in 1871 was 12,173, and in 1881 it was 12,314. | been filled up and covered with blocks of building, so that

PUEBLA, or in full LA PUEBLA DE LOS ANGELES, a now Puerto Cabello occupies a kind of headland projecting city of Mexico, formerly capital of the province of Tlaxcala, into the bay. Formerly the lowness of its site and the now of the state of Puebla, lies 76 miles south-east of mangrove swamps which fringed the whole coast rendered Mexico, in 19' N. lat. and 98° 2' W. long., at a height of it appallingly unhealthy : at the time of Humboldt's visit, 7220 feet above the sea. It is admirably situated on a for example, the surgeon of the hospital reported that in spacious and fertile plateau, which, while almost destitute seven years he had 8000 cases of yellow fever, and there of trees, is, especially in the neighbourhood of the city, were instances of the authorities having to take possession clothed with gardens and fields. To the south-west rises of vessels in the harbour because the entire crew had perthe summit of Popocatepetl, and Orizaba and Iztaccihuatl ished (Eastwick). But yellow fever has not been known are also within the horizon. By Humboldt Puebla was at Puerto Cabello since about 1868, and the general deathranked as the most important city of Spanish America rate of the place is quite normal. A good supply of water after Mexico, Guanajuato, and Havana, and in the matter is obtained from the Rio Esteban by means of an aqueduc

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