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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE

WITH NEW MAPS AND ORIGINAL AMERICAN ARTICLES BY EMINENT WRITERS

WITH AMERICAN REVISIONS AND ADDITIONS

By W. H. DEPUY, D.D., LL.D.,
BRINGING Each VOLUME UP TO DATE.

VOLUME XXI.

CHICAGO
THE WERNER COMPANY

1895

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Encyclopædia Britannica.

VOL. XXI.(ROT-SIA).

Total number of Articles, 779.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS
ROTIFERA. Prof. A. G. BOURNE.

SCOTLAND-HISTORY, GEOLOGY, AND STATISTICS.
ROUMANIA. GEORGE G. CHISHOLM, M.A., B.Sc., and

ÆNEAS J. G. MACKAY, LL.D., ARCH, GEIKIE, F.R.S., A. J. EVANS, Author of "Through Bosnia on Foot.”

and T. F. HENDERSON.
ROUSSEAU. GEORGE SAINTSBURY.

CHURCH. Rev. ALLAN MENZIES, B.D.
ROWING. EDWIN D. BRICKWOOD:

EARLY LITERATURE. JOHN SMALL, LL.D.
ROYAL SOCIETY. HERBERT Rix,

SCOTT, SIR WALTER. Prof. W. MINTO, M. A. RUBENS. HENRI HYMANS, Conservai: :. la Biblio SCREW. Prof. HENRY A. ROWLAND, Johns Hopkins thèque Royale, Brussels.

University, Baltimore.
RUSSIA. P. A. KROPOTKINE and W. R. MORFILL, M. A. SCULPTURE. Prof. J. H. MIDDLETON.
SABBATH. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

SCYTHIA. Prof. A. von GUTSCHMID, Tübingen.
SABINES. Sir E H. BUNBURY, Bart.

SEAL. W. H. FLOWER, LL.D., F.R.S.
SACRIFICE. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D., and Rev.

FISHERIES, Rev. M. HARVEY, St John's, N.F.
Edwin HATCH, D.D.

SEA-LAWS. Sir TRAVERS Twiss, Q.C., D.C.L., F.R.S.
SAIL E, JEWILL.

SEALS. Prof. J. H. MIDDLETON.
SAINTE-BEUVE. MATTHEW ARNOLD, D.C.L.

SEAMANSHIP. Capt. H. A. MORLARTY, R.N., C.B.
SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE. Prof. A. CRUM BROWN,

SEA-SERPENT. W. E. HOYLE, M.A., “Challenger"
F.R.S., University of Edinburgh.

Expedition Office.
ST JOHN, KNIGHTS OF. A. M. BROADLEY.

SEA WATER. Prof. W. DITTMAR, F.R.S.
ST LAWRENCE. Sir CAARLES A. HARTLEY, K.C.M.G.

SEISMOMETER. Prof. J. A. EWING, B.Sc.

SELJÚKS. Prof. M. TH. HOUTSMA, Leyden.
ST LOUIS. D. H. DI ADAM, St Louis.

SEMITIC LANGUAGES. Prof. THEODOR NÖLDEKE,
ST PETERSBURG. P. A. KNOPOTKINE.
SAINT-SIMON, COMTE DE. THOMAS KIRKUP, BI. A.

University of Strasburg.
SAINT-SIMON, DUC DE. GEORGE SAINTSBURY.

SENECA. R. D. HICKS, M.A.
SALIC LAW. J. H. Hessels, M.A.

SENEGAMBIA. D. KALTBRUNNER, Author of "Manuel
SALMONIDÆ. J. T. CUNNINGHAM, B.A.

du Voyageur.”
SALT, · F. DIAXWELL LYTE, F.C.S.

SENIOR. J. K. INGRAM, LL.D.
SALUTATIONS. E. B. Tylon, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.

SEPTUAGINT. JULIUS WELLHAUSEN, Ph.D., Pro-
SAMARITANS. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D

fessor.of Semitic Langunges, University of Marburg. SAMOS. Sir E. H. BUNBURY, Bart.

SEPULCHRE, HOLY. A. B. M'GRIGOR, LL.D.
SAN FRANCISCO. W. C. BARTLETT, LL.D.

SEQUOIA. C. PIERPONT JOANSON.
SANSKRIT. Prof. JULIUS EGGELING, Ph.D.

SERIES. A. CAYLEY, M.A., F.R.S., Sadlerian Pro

fessor of Mathematics, University of Cambridge. SARDINIA. GEORGE G. CAISAOLN.

SERVIA. G. G. CHISHOLM and W. R. MORFILL.
SARPI. RICHARD GarxeTT, LL.D.
SATIRE. R. GARNETT, LLD.

SEVERUS. J. S. REID, D.Litt.

SÉVIGNÉ. GEORGE SAINTSBURY.
SAVIGNY. Joux MacDoYELL, Barrister-at-law.

SEWERAGE. Prof. J. A. EWING.
SAVINGS BANKS. E. W. BIABROOK, F.S.A.

SEWING MACHINES. JAMES PATON.
SAVONAROLA. Dladame LINDA VILLARI, Florence.
SAVOY. H. B. BRIGGS.

SEX. PATRICK GEDDES, F.R.S.E.

SEXTANT. J. L. E. DREYER, Ph.D.
SAWS. G. W. HOTCHKISS, Chicago.
SAXONY. FINDLAY DUIRHEAD, BI. A.

SHAFTESBURY, EARLS OF. OSMUND AIRY and

Rev. Thomas FOWLER, M. A., Oxford.
SAY. J. K. INGRAM, LL.D., Librarian; Trinity Col.

SHAKESPEARE. T. SPENCER BAYNES, LL. D.
lege, Dublin.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. H. R. TEDDER.
SCALIGER. Richard C. CURISTIE.

SHARK. ALBERT GÜNTHER, Ph.D., F.R.S.
SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES. Dr Adolf NOREEN,

SHEEP. W. H. FLOWER, LL.D.
University, Upsala.

SHELLEY. W. M. ROSSETTI.
SCARLET FEYER. J. O. AFFLECK, D.D.
mais

SHERIDAN. Prof. W. Minto.
SCEPTICISM. Prof. ANDREW SETH, D.A., University

SHERIFF. Æ. J. G. BLACKAY, LL.D.
College of South Wales.
SCHELLING. Prof. R. ADAMSON, LL.D.

SHIP. 'Rév. EDMOND WARRE, Eton College.
SCHILLER. JANES SIME,. 11.A.

SHIPBUILDING. Sir NATHANIEL BARNABY, K.C.B.,
SCHIZOMYCETES. H. MARSHALL WARD, M.A.

late Director of Nayal Construction, Whitehall. SCHLEIERMACHER. Rov. J. F. Smith.

SHIPPING. W. CUNNINGHAM, B.D. SCHOLASTICISM. Prof. A. Serr.

SHOEMAKING. JAMES PATON. SCHOOLS OF PAINTING. J. Henry MIDDLETON,

SHOOTING. J. DALZIEL DOUGALL, Author of "ShootF.S.A., Slade Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge.

ing, its Appliances, Practice, and Purpose." 3CHOPENHAUER.

SHORTHAND. The Hon. Ion G. N. Keitu - Fal.
W. WALLACE, 1. A., LL.D.,
Whyte's Professor of Boral Philosophy, Oxford.

CONER, M.A.
SCIPIO. Rev. W. J. BRODRIBB, M.ba.

SHREW. Surgeon-Major G. E. DOBSON, F.R.S.
SIANI Coutts TROTTEL.

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