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Micro- the while of those who are desirous of taking many draughts in this way, to get a frame, wherein a sheet of paper may be put in or taken out at pleasure; for if the paper be single, the image of an object will be seen almost as plainly on the back as on the fore side; and, by standing behind the screen, the shade of the hand will not obstruct the light in drawing, as it must in some degree when one stands before it." This construction, however, has now become rather obsolete, and is superseded by the following.

Fig. 22.


II. The improved Solar Microscope, as used with the improved single Microscope, with teeth and pinion. Fig. 22. represents the whole form of the single microscope; the parts of which are as follows: ABCD the external tube; GHIK the internal moveable one; QM part of another tube within the last, at one end of which is fixed a plate of brass hollowed in the middle, for receiving the glass tubes; there is also a moveable flat plate, between which, and the fixed end of the second tube, the ivory sliders are to be placed. L, a part of the microscope, containing a wire spiral spring, keep ing the tube QM with its plates firm against the fixed part IK of the second tube.

EF is the small rack-work of teeth and pinion, by which the tube IG is moved gradually to or from the end AB, for adjusting the objects exactly to the focus of different lengths. NO is a brass slider, with six magnifiers; any one of which may easily be placed before the object. It is known when either of the glasses is in the centre of the eye-hole, by a small spring falling into a notch in the side of the slider, made against each of the glasses. Those parts of the apparatus, cccxxxxIx. fig. 14. marked N° 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22. are made use of here to this microscope. GH is a brass cell, which holds an illuminating glass for converging the sun's beams or the light of a candle strongly upon the objects. The aperture of the glass is made greater or less, by two circular pieces of brass, with holes of different sizes, that are screwed separately over the said lens. But at times objects appear best when the microscope is held up to the common light only, without this glass. It is also taken away when the microscope is applied to the apparatus now to be described.

Fig. 23.

Fig. 23. represents the apparatus, with the single microscope screwed to it, which constitutes the Solar Microscope. AB is the inner moveable tube, to which the single microscope is screwed. CD is the external tube, containing a condensing convex glass at the end D, and is screwed into the plate EF, which is cut with teeth at its circumference, and moved by the pinion I, that is fixed with the plate GH. This plate is screwed fast against the window-shutter, or board fitted to a convenient window of a darkened room, when the instrument is used. KL is a long frame, fixed to the circular plate EF; containing a lookingglass or mirror for reflecting the solar rays through the lens in the body of the tube D. O is a brass milled head, fastened to a worm or endless screw; which on the outside turns a small wheel, by which the reflecting mirror M is moved upwards and downwards.

In using this microscope, the square frame GH is first to be screwed to the window shutter, and the room well darkened: which is best done by cutting around hole of the size of the moveable plate EF,

that carries the reflector, in the window-shutter or board; and, by means of two brass nuts a a, let into the shutter to receive the screws PP, when placed through the holes in the square frame GH, at the two holes QQ: which will firmly fasten the microscope to the shutter, and is easily taken away by only unscrewing the screws PP.

The white paper screen, or white cloth, to receive the images, is to be placed several feet distant from the window which will make the representations the larger in proportion to the distance. The usual distances are from 6 to 16 feet.

The frame KL, with its mirror M, is to be moved by turning the pinion I, one way or the other, tili the beams of the sun's light come through the hole into the room then, by turning of the worm at 0, the mirror must be raised or depressed till the rays become perfectly horizontal, and go straight across the room to the screen. The tube CD, with its lens at D, is now to be screwed into the hole of the circular plate EF: by this glass the rays will be converged to a focus; and from thence proceed diverging to the screen, and there make a large circle of light. The single microscope, fig. 22. is to be screwed on to the end AB (fig. 23.) of the inner tube; and the slider NO, with either of the lenses marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, in the centre of the hole at the end AB. This will occasion a circle of light upon the screen much larger than before. The slider or glass-tube, with the objects to be viewed, is to be placed between the plates at IK against the small magnifier, and moved at pleasure. By shifting the tube AB in or out, you may place the object in such a part of the condensed rays as shall be sufficient to illuminate it, and not scorch or burn it; which will generally require the glass to be about one inch distant from the focus. It now remains only to adjust the object, or to bring it so near to the magnifier that its image formed upon the screen shall be the most distinct or perfect and it is effected by gently turning the pinion F, fig. 22. a small matter one way or the other. If the object be rather large in size, the least magnifiers are generally used, and vice


N° 1. is the greatest magnifier, and N° 6. the least, in the brass slider NO. But, if desired, single lenses of greater magnifying powers are made: and they are applied, by being screwed to the end AB, fig. 22. and the brass slider NO is then taken away.

The same object may be variously magnified, by the lenses severally applied to it; and the degree of magnifying power is easily known by this rule: As the distance of the object is to that of its image from the magnifier; so is the length or breadth of the object to that of the image.

Instead of the brass sliders with the lenses NO, there is sometimes screwed a lens of a large size, and longer focal distance: the instrument is then converted into a megalascope; and is adapted for viewing the larger kind of objects contained in large sliders, such as is represented at R. And, in the same manner, small objects of entertainment, painted upon glass like the sliders of a magic lanthorn, are much magnified, and represented upon the same screen.

The solar microscopes just described are capable only of magnifying transparent objects; for which pur




Fig. 24

pose the last instrument is extremely well adapted. But as opaque objects form the most considerable part of the curious collections in the works of art as well as nature, a solar microscope for this purpose was a long time wanted.-For several years previous to 1774, Mr Martin made several essays towards the construction of such an instrument; and at last completed one about the time just mentioned, which he named,

III. The Opaque Solar Microscope. With this instrument (to use his own words) "all opaque objects, whether of the animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdom, may be exhibited in great perfection, in all their native beauty; the lights and shades, the prominences and cavities, and all the varieties of different hues, tints, and colours; heightened by reflection of the solar rays condensed upon them.-Transparent objects are also shown with greater perfection than by the common solar microscope."

Fig. 24. represents the solar opaque microscope, mounted for exhibiting opaque objects.

Fig. 25. is the single tooth and pinion microscope, as before, which is used for showing transparent objects; the cylindrical tube Y thereof being made to fit into the tube FE of the solar microscope.

ABCDEF, (fig. 24.) represents the body of the solar microscope; one part thereof, ABCD, is conical; the other, CDEF, is cylindrical. The cylindrical part receives the tube G of the opaque box, or the tube Y of the single microscope. At the large end AB of the conical part, there is a lens to receive the rays from the mirror, and refract them towards the box HIKL. NOP is a brass frame; which is fixed to the moveable circular plate a bc: in this frame there is a plane mirror, to reflect the solar rays on the aforementioned lens. This mirror may be moved into the most convenient position for reflecting the light, by means of the nuts Q and R. By the nut Q it may be moved from east to west; and it may be elevated or depressed by the nut R. de, Two screws to fasten the microscope to a window shutter. The box for opaque objects is represented at HIKL: it contains a plane mirror M, for reflecting the light which it receives from the large lens to the object, and thereby illuminating it; S is a screw to adjust this mirror, or place it at a proper angle for reflecting the light. VX, two tubes of brass, one sliding within the other, the exterior one in the box HIKL; these carry the magnifying lenses: the interior tube is sometimes taken out, and the exterior one is then used by itself. Part of this tube may be seen in the plate within the box HIKL. At H there is a brass plate, the back part of which is fixed to the hollow tube h, in which there is a spiral wire, which keeps the plate always bearing against the side. H of the brass box HIKL. The sliders, with the opaque objects, pass between this plate and the side of the box; to put them there, the plate is to be drawn back by means of the nut g: ik is a door to one side of the opaque box. The foregoing pieces constitute the several parts necessary for viewing opaque objects. We shall now proceed to describe the single microscope, which is used for transparent objects: but in order to examine these, the box HIKL must be first removed, and in its place we must insert the tube Y of the single microscope that we are now going to describe.

Fig. 25. represents a large tooth and pinion micro- Microscope at m, within the body of this microscope, are scope. two thin plates, that are to be separated in order to let the ivory sliders pass between them; they are presFig. 25. sed together by a spiral spring, which bears up the under plate, and forces it against the upper one.

The slider S (under fig. 4.), which contains the magnifiers, fits into the hole n; and any of the magnifiers may be placed before the object, by moving the aforesaid slider: when the magnifier is at the centre of the hole P, a small spring falls into one of the notches which is on the side of the slider.

Under the plate m are placed two lenses, for enlarging the field of view on the screen: the smaller of the two is fixed in a piece of brass, and is nearest the plate m; this is to be taken out when the magnifiers, N° 4, 5, or 6, are used, or when the megalascope lens T (fig. 24.) is used; but is to be replaced for N° 1, 2, 3.

This microscope is adjusted to the focus by turning the milled nut O.

To use the solar microscope :-Make a round hole in the window shutter, a little larger than the circle abc; pass the mirror ONP through this hole, and apply the square plate to the shutter; then mark with a pencil the places which correspond to the two holes through which the screw is to pass; take away the microscope, and bore two holes at the marked places, sufficiently large to let the milled screws de pass through



The screws are to pass from the outside of the shutter, to go through it and being then screwed into their respective holes in the square plate, they will, when screwed home, hold it fast against the inside of the shutter, and thus support the microscope.

Screw the conical tube ABCD to the circle a b c, and then slide the tube G of the opaque box into the cylindrical part CDEF of the body, if opaque objects are to be examined; but if they be transparent objects you mean to show, then place the tube Y within the tube CDEF.

The room is to be darkened as much as possible, that no light may enter but what passes through the body of the microscope; for, on this circumstance, together with the brightness of the sunshine, the perfection and distinctness of the image in a great measure depend.

When the microscope is to be used for opaque objects, 1. Adjust the mirror NOP, so as to receive the solar rays, by means of the two finger screws or nuts, QR; the first, Q, turns the mirror to the right or left; the second, R, raises or depresses it: this you are to do till you have reflected the sun's light through the lens at AB strongly upon a screen of white paper placed at some distance from the window, and formed thereon a round spot of light. An unexperienced observer will find it more convenient to obtain the light by forming this spot before he puts on either the opaque box or the tooth and pinion microscope.

Now put in the opaque box, and place the object between the plates at H; open the door i k, and adjust the mirror M till you have illuminated the object strongly. If you cannot effect this by the screw S, you must move the screws Q, R, in order to get the light reflected strongly from the mirror NOP, or the

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The object being strongly illuminated, shut the door ik, and a distinct view of the object will soon be obtained on your screen, by adjusting the tubes VX, which is effected by moving them backwards or for


A round spot of light cannot always be procured in northern latitudes, the altitude of the sun being often too low; neither can it be obtained when the sun is directly perpendicular to the front of the room.

As the sun is continually changing its place, it will be necessary, in order to keep his rays full upon the object, to keep them continually directed through the axis of the instrument, by the two screws Q and R.

To view transparent objects, remove the opaque box, and insert the tube Y, fig. 25. in its place; put the slider S into its place at n, and the slider with the objects between the plates at m; then adjust the mirror NOP, as before directed by the screws Q, R, so that the light may pass through the object; regulate the focus of the magnifier by the screw O. The most pleasing magnifiers in use are the fourth and fifth.

The size of the object may be increased or diminished, by altering the distance of the screen from the microscope five or six feet is a convenient distance.

To examine transparent objects of a larger size, or to render the instrument what is usually called a megalascope, take out the slider S from its place at n, and screw the button T (fig. 24.) into the hole at P, fig. 25. and remove the glass which is under the plate at m, and regulate the light and focus agreeable to the foregoing directions.

N. B. At the end of the tube G there is a lens for increasing the density of the rays, for the purpose of burning or melting any combustible or fusible substance this lens must be removed in most cases, lest the objects should be burnt. The intensity of the light is also varied by moving this tube backwards or forwards.

Apparatus of the Opaque Solar Microscope. The large square plate and mirror; the body of the microScope; the opaque box and its tube; the tooth and pinion microscope; the slider with the magnifiers; the megalascope magnifier; the two screws d and e; some ivory sliders; some sliders with opaque objects; a brass frame, with a bottom of soft deal to stick any object on; a brass cylinder K (fig. 31.), for confining opaque CCCXLI. objects.


IV. The CAMERA OBSCURA, or LUCERNAL, Microscope. The great facility with which objects can be represented on paper or a rough glass in the camera obscura, and copies drawn from them by any person though unskilled in drawing, evidently suggested the application of the microscope to this instrument. The greatest number of experiments that appear to have been made with this view, were by Mr Martin and Mr Adams; the former of whom frequently applied the microscope to the portable camera, and with much effect and entertainment. But these instruments being found to answer only with the assistance of the sun, Mr Adams directed his experiments to the construction of an instrument of more extended utility, which could be equally employed in the day-time and by


night. He accordingly succeeded so far as to pro- Micro duce, by candle-light, the images of objects refracted from a single magnifier upon one or two large convex lenses (of about five inches or upwards in diameter), at the end of a pyramidal shaped box, in a very pleasing and magnified appearance, so as to give opaque objects as well as transparent ones the utmost distinctness of representation; but still the light of a candle or lamp was found generally insufficient to throw the requisite degree of illumination upon the objects. The invention of what is called Argand's lamp, within these few years, offered a complete remedy for this defect, by the intensity and steadiness of its light. This did not escape Mr Adams (son of the former), who immediately applied it; and who had likewise so altered and improved his father's instrument, both in construction and form, as to render it altogether a different one, and far more perfect and useful.

The advantages and properties of this excellently conceived instrument are numerous and important. "As the far greater part of the objects which surround us are opaque (says our author), and very few are sufficiently transparent to be examined by the common microscopes, an instrument that could be readily applied to the examination of opaque objects has always been a desideratum. Even in the examination of transparent objects, many of the fine and more curious portions are lost, and drowned, as it were, in the light which must be transmitted through them; while different parts of the same object appear only as dark lines or spots, because they are so opaque as not to permit any light to pass through them. These difficulties, as well as many more, are obviated in the lucernal microscope; by which opaque objects of various sizes may be seen with ease and distinctness: the beautiful colours with which most of them are adorned, are rendered more brilliant, without changing in the least the real tint of the colour; and the concave and convex parts retain also their proper form.-The facility with which all opaque objects are applied to this instrument, is another considerable advantage, and almost peculiar to itself; as the texture and configuration of the more tender parts are often hurt by previous preparation, every object may be examined by this instrument, first as opaque, and afterwards (if the texture will admit of it) as transparent.-The lucernal microscope does not in the least fatigue the eye; the object appears like nature itself, giving ease to the sight and pleasure to the mind: there is also, in the use of this instrument, no occasion to shut the eye which is not directed to the object. A further advantage peculiar to this microscope is, that by it the outlines of every object may be taken, even by those who are not accustomed to draw; while those who can draw well will receive great assistance, and execute their work with more accuracy and in less time than they would otherwise have been able to have performed it. Transparent objects as well as opaque may be copied in the same manner. The instrument may be used at any time of the day, but the best effect is by night; in which respect it has a superiority over the solar microscope, as that instrument can only be used when the sun shines.

Transparent objects may be examined with the lucernal microscope in three or four different modes, from


Micro. from a blaze of light almost too great for the eye to bear, to that which is perfectly easy to it: And by the addition of a tin lanthorn to the apparatus, may be thrown on a screen, and exhibited at one view to a large company, as by the solar microscope.


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We shall now proceed to the description of the instrument and apparatus as given by Mr Adams. Fig. 26.represents the improved Lucernal Microscope, CCCXLI mounted to view opaque objects. ABCD is a large ig. 16. mahogany pyramidal box, which forms the body of the microscope; it is supported firmly on the brass pillar FG, by means of the socket H and the curved piece IK.

LMN is a guide for the eye, in order to direct it in the axis of the lenses; it consists of two brass tubes, one sliding within the other, and a vertical flat piece, at the top of which is the hole for the eye. The outer tube is seen at MN, the vertical piece is represented at LM. The inner tube may be pulled out, or pushed in, to adjust it to the focus of the glasses. The vertical piece may be raised or depressed, that the hole, through which the object is to be viewed, may coincide with the centre in the field of view; it is fixed by a milled screw from M, which could not be shown in this figure.

At N is a dove-tailed piece of brass, made to receive the dove-tail at the end of the tubes MN, by which it is affixed to the wooden box ABCDE. The tubes MN may be removed from this box occasionally, for the convenience of packing it up in a less com


OP, a small tube which carries the magnifiers.

O, one of the magnifiers; it is screwed into the end of a tube, which slides within the tube P; the tube P may be unscrewed occasionally from the wooden body.

QRSTVX, a long square bar, which passes through the sockets YZ, and carries the stage or frame that holds the objects; this bar may be moved backward or forward, in order to adjust it to the focus by means of the pinion which is at a.

b, A handle furnished with an universal joint, for more conveniently turning the pinion. When the handle is removed, the nut (fig. 27.) may be used in

Fig. 27. its stead.

de, A brass bar, to support the curved piece KI, and keep the body AB firm and steady.

fghi, The stage for opaque objects: it fits upon the bar QRST by means of the socket hi, and is brought nearer to or removed farther from the magnifying lens by turning the pinion a: the objects are placed in the front side of the stage (which cannot be seen in this figure) between four small brass plates; the edges of two of these are seen at kl. The two upper pieces of brass are moveable; they are fixed to a plate, which is acted on by a spiral spring, that presses them down, and confines the slider with the objects: this plate, and the two upper pieces of brass, are lifted up by the small nut m.

At the lower part of the stage, there is a semicircular lump of glass n, which is designed to receive the light from the lamp, fig. 29. and to collect and throw it on the concave mirror o, whence it is to be reflected on the object.


upper part fg hs (fig. 26.) of the opaque stage


takes out, that the stage for transparent objects may Microbe inserted in its place.


Fig. 28. represents the stage for transparent objects; the two legs 5 and 6 fit into the top of the under part Fig. 29. rshi of the stage for opaque objects; 7 is the part which confines or holds the sliders, and through which they are to be moved; 9 and 10, a brass tube, which con tains the lenses for condensing the light, and throwing it upon the object; there is a second tube within that marked 9 and 10, which may be placed at different distances from the object by the pin 11.

When this stage is used as a single microscope, with out any reference to the lucernal, the magnifiers or object lenses, are to be screwed into the hole 12, and to be adjusted to a proper focus by the nut 13.

N. B. At the end AB (fig. 26.) of the wooden body there is a slider, which is represented as partly drawn out at A: when quite taken out, three grooves will be perceived; one of which contains a board that forms the end of the box; the next contains a frame with a grayed glass; and the third, or that farthest from the end AB, two large convex lenses.

Fig. 29. represents one of Argand's lamps, which Fig. 29. are most suitable for microscopic purposes, on account of the clearness, the intensity, and the steadiness of the light. The following account of the method of managing them, with other observations, is copied from an account given by Mr Parker with those he sells.

The principle on which the lamp acts, consists in disposing the wick in thin parts, so that the air may come in contact with all the burning fuel; by which means, together with an increase of the current of air occasioned by rarefaction in the glass tube, the whole of the fuel is converted into flame.

The wicks are circular; and, the more readily to regulate the quantity of light, are fixed on a brass collar, with a wire handle, by means of which they are raised or depressed at pleasure.

To fix the wick on, a wooden mandril is contrived, which is tapered at one end, and has a groove turned at the other.

The wick has a selvage at one end, which is to be put foremost on the mandril, and moved up to the groove; then putting the groove into the collar of the wick-holder, the wick is easily pushed forward upon it.

The wick-holder and wick being put quite down in their place, the spare part of the wick should, while dry, be set a-light, and suffered to burn to the edge of the tubes; this will leave it more even than by cutting, and, being black by burning, will be much easier lighted for this reason, the black should never be quite cut off.

The lamp should be filled an hour or two before it is wanted, that the cotton may imbibe the oil and draw the better.

The lamps which have a reservoir and valve, need no other direction for filling than to do it with a proper trimming pot, carefully observing when they are full; then pulling up the valve by the point, the reservoir, being turned with the other hand, may be replaced without spilling a drop.

Those lamps which fill in the front like a bird-fountain, must be reclined on the back to fill; and this



Micro- should be done gently, that the oil in the burner may return into the body when so placed and filled: if, by being too full, and oil appears above the guard, only move the lamp a little, and the oil will disappear; the lamp may then be placed erect, and the oil will flow to its 'proper level.

The oil must be of the spermaceti kind, commonly called chamber oil, which may generally be distinguish ed by its paleness, transparency, and inoffensive scent: all those oils which are of a red and brown colour, and of an offensive scent, should be carefully avoided, as their glutinous parts clog the lamp, and the impurities in such oil, not being inflammable, will accumulate and remain in the form of a crust on the wick. Seal oil is nearly as pale and sweet as chamber oil; but being of a heavy sluggish quality, is not proper for lamps with fine wicks.

Whenever bad oil has been used, on changing it, the wick must also be changed; because, after having imbibed the coarse particles in its capillary tubes, it will not draw up the fine oil.

To obtain the greatest degree of light, the wick should be trimmed exactly even, the flame will then be completely equal.

There will be a great advantage in keeping the lamp clean, especially the burner and air tubes; the neglect of cleanliness in lamps is too common: a candlestick is generally cleaned every time it is used, so should a lamp; and if a candlestick is not to be objected to because it does not give light after the candle is exhausted, so a lamp should not be thought ill of, if it does not give light when it wants oil or cotton: but this last has often happened, because the deficiency is less visible.

The glass tubes are best cleaned with a piece of wash leather.

If a fountain lamp is left partly filled with oil, it may be liable to overflow: this happens by the contraction of the air when cold, and its expansion by the warmth of a room, the rays of the sun, or the heat of the lamp when re-lighted: this accident may be effectually prevented by keeping the reservoir filled, the oil not being subject to expansion like air. On this account, those with a common reservoir are best adapted for microscopic purposes.

To examine Opaque Objects, with the Lucernal Mi. croscope. To render the use of this instrument easy, it is usually packed with as many of the parts together as possible: it occupies on this account rather more room, but is much less embarrassing to the observer, who has only three parts to put on after it is taken out of its box, namely, the guide for the eye, the stage, and the tube with its magnifier.

But to be more particular: Take out the wooden slider A (fig. 26.), then lift out the cover and the gray glass, from their respective grooves under the

slider A.

Put the end N of the guide for the eye LMN into its place, so that it may stand in the position which is represented in this figure.

Place the socket which is at the bottom of the opaque stage, on the bar QXT, so that the concave mirror may be next the end DE of the wooden body.

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1. To throw the light upon the object. The flame of the lamp is to be placed rather below the centre of the glass lump n, and as near it as possible; the concave mirror o must be so inclined and turned as to receive the light from the glass lump, and reflect it thence upon the object; the best situation of the concave mirror and the flame of the lamp depends on a combination of circumstances, which a little practice will discover.

2. To regulate the guide for the eye, or to place the centre of the eye-piece L so that it may coincide with the focal point of the lenses and the axis of vision: Lengthen and shorten the tubes MN, by drawing out or pushing in the inner tube, and raising or depressing the eye-piece ML, till you find the large lens (which is placed at the end AB of the wooden body) filled by an uniform field of light, without any prismatic colours round the edge; for till this piece is properly fixed, the circle of light will be very small, and only occupy a part of the lens; the eye must be kept at the centre of the eye-piece L, during the whole of the operation; which may be rendered somewhat easier to the observer, on the first use of the instrument, if he hold a piece of white paper parallel to the large lens, removing it from or bringing it nearer to them till he find the place where a lucid circle, which he will perceive on the paper, is brightest and most distinct; then he is to fix the centre of the eye-piece to coincide with that spot; after which a very small adjustment will set it perfectly right.

3. To adjust the lenses to their focal distance. This is effected by turning the pinion a, the eye being at the same time at the eye-piece L. The gray glass is often placed before the large lenses, while regulating the guide for the eye, and adjusting for the focal distance.

If the observer, in the process of his examination of an object, advance rapidly from a shallow to a deep magnifier, he will save himself some labour by pulling

out the internal tube at O.

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