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Micro- them as you move it in or out. A few turns of the screw CC will easily prevent this mischief, by giving them room enough. You may change the objects in your sliders for any others you think proper, by taking out the brass rings with the point of a penknife; the talcs will then fall out, if you but turn the sliders; and after putting what you please between them, by replacing the brass rings you will fasten them as they were before. It is proper to have some sliders furnished with talcs, but without any object between them, to be always in readiness for the examination of fluids, salts, sands, powders, the farina of flowers, or any other casual objects of such sort as need only be applied to the outside of the talc.
The circulation of the blood may be easiest seen in the tails or fins of fishes, in the fine membranes between a frog's toes, or best of all in the tail of a water-newt. If your object be a small fish, place it within the tube N, and spread its tail or fin along the side thereof if a frog, choose such a one as can but just be got into your tube; and, with a pen, or small stick, expand the transparent membrane between the toes of the frog's hind foot as much as you can. When your object is so adjusted that no part of it can intercept the light from the place you intend to view, unscrew the long screw CC, and thrust your tube into the arched cavity, quite through the body of the microscope; then screw it to the true focal distance, and you will see the blood passing along its vessels with a rapid motion, and in a most surprising manner.
The third or fourth magnifiers may be used for frogs or fishes: but for the tails of water-newts, the fifth or sixth will do; because the globules of their blood are twice as large as those of frogs or fish. The first or second magnifier cannot well be employed for this purpose; because the thickness of the tube in which the object lies, will scarce admit its being brought so near as the focal distance of the magni
An apparatus for the purpose of viewing opaque objects generally accompanies this microscope; and which consists of the following parts. A brass arm QR, which is screwed at Q, upon the body of the mieroscope at G. Into the round hole R, any of the magnifiers suitable to the object to be viewed are to be screwed; and under it, in the same ring, the concave polished silver speculum S. Through a small aperture in the body of the microscope under the brass plates EE, is to slide the long wire with the forceps T: This wire is pointed at one of its ends; and so, that either the points or forceps may be used for the objects as may be necessary. It is easy to conceive, therefore, that the arm at R, which turns by a twofold joint at a and b, may be brought with its magnifier over the object, the light reflected upon it by the application of the speculum, and the true focus obtained by turning of the male screw CC as before directed. As objects are sometimes not well fixed for view, either by the forceps or point, the small piece shown at V is added, and in such cases answers better: it screws over the point of T; it contains a small round piece of ivory, blackened on one side, and left white upon the other as a contrast to coloured objects, and by a small piece of watch-spring fastens down the objects upon the ivory.
2. Single Microscope by reflection. In fig. 2. A is a scroll of brass fixed upright upon a round wooden base B, or a mahogany drawer or case, so as to stand perfectly firm and steady. C is a brass screw, that passes through a hole in the upper limb of the scroll into the side of the microscope D, and screws it fast to the said scroll E is a concave speculum set in a box of brass, which hangs in the arch G by two small screws ff, that screw into the opposite sides thereof. At the bottom of this arch is a pin of the same metal, exactly fitted to a hole h in the wooden pedestal, made for the reception of the pin. As the arch turns on this pin, and the speculum turns on the end of the arch, it may, by this twofold motion, be easily adjusted in such a manner as to reflect the light of the sun, of the sky, or of a candle, directly upwards through the microscope that is fixed perpendicularly over it; and by so doing may be made to answer many purposes of the large double reflecting microscope. The body of the microscope may also be fixed horizontally, and objects viewed in that position by any light you choose; which is an advantage the common double reflecting microscope has not. It may also be rendered further useful by means of a slip of glass; one end of which being thrust through between the plates where the sliders go, and the other extending to some distance, such objects may be placed thereon as cannot be ap plied in the sliders and then, having a limb of brass that may fasten to the body of the microscope, and extend over the projecting glass a hollow ring wherein to screw the magnifiers, all sorts of subjects may be examined with great convenience, if a hole be made in the pedestal, to place the speculum exactly underneath, and thereby throw up the rays of light. The pocketmicroscope, thus mounted, says Mr Baker," is as easy and pleasant in its use; as fit for the most curious examination of the animalcules and salts in fluids, of the farinæ in vegetables, and of the circulation in small animals; in short, is as likely to make considerable discoveries in objects, that have some degree of transparency, as any microscope I have ever seen or heard of."
The brass scroll A is now generally made to unscrew into three parts, and pack with the microscope and apparatus into the drawer of a mahogany pocketcase, upon the lid of which the scroll is made to fix when in use.
The opaque apparatus also, as above described, is applicable this way by reflection. It only consists in turning the arm R (fig. 1.), with the magnifier over the concave speculum below (fig. 2.), or to receive the light as reflected obliquely from it: the silver spe culum screwed into R will then reflect the light, which it receives from the glass speculum, strongly upon the object that is applied upon the wire T underneath:
This miscroscope, however, is not upon the most convenient construction, in comparison with others now made it has been esteemed for many years past from its popular name, and recommendation by its makers. Its portability is certainly a great advantage in its favour; but in most respects it is superseded by the microscopes hereafter described. 19%ų a
3. Microscope for Opaque Objects, called the Single Fig. 3. Opaque Microscope. This microscope remedies the inconvenience of having the dark side of an object next
Micro the eye, which formerly was an insurmountable obscope. jection to the making observations on opaque objects with any considerable degree of exactness or satisfaction for, in all other contrivances commonly known, the nearness of the instrument to the object (when glasses that magnify much are used) unavoidably overshadows it so much, that its appearance is rendered obscure and indistinct. And, notwithstanding ways have been tried to point light upon an object, from the sun. or a candle, by a convex glass placed on the side thereof, the rays from either can be thrown upon it in such an acute angle only, that they serve to give a confused glare, but are insufficient to afford a clear and perfect view of the object. But in this microscope, by means of a concave speculum of silver highly polished, in whose centre a magnifying lens placed, such a strong and direct light is reflected upon the object, that it may be examined with all imaginable ease and pleasure. The several parts of this instrument, made either of brass or silver, are as follow.
Through the first side A, passes a fine screw B, the other end of which is fastened to the moveable side C. Dis a nut applied to this screw, by the turning of which the two sides A and C are gradually brought together. E is a spring of steel that separates the two sides when the nut is unscrewed. F is a piece of brass, turning round in a socket, whence proceeds a small spring tube moving upon a rivet; through which tube there runs a steel wire, one end whereof terminates in a sharp point G, and the other with a pair of pliers H fastened to it. The point and pliers are to thrust into, or take up and hold, any insect or object; and either of them may be turned upwards, as best suits the purpose. I is a ring of brass, with a female screw within it, mounted on an upright piece of the same metal; which turns round on a rivet, that it may be set at a due distance when the least magnifiers are employed. This ring receives the screws of all the magnifiers. K is a concave speculum of silver, polished as bright as possible; in the centre of which is placed a double convex lens, with a proper aperture to look through it. On the back of this speculum a male screw L is made to fit the brass ring I, to screw into it at pleasure. There are four of these concave specula of different depths, adapted to four glasses of different magnifying powers, to be used as the objects to be examined may require. The greatest magnifiers have the least apertures. M is a round objectplate, one side of which is white and the other black: The intention of this is to render objects the more visible, by placing them, if black, on the white side, or, if white, on the black side. A steel spring N turns down on each side to make any object fast; and issuing from the object-plate is a hollow pipe to screw it on the needle's point G. O is a small box of brass, with a glass on each side, contrived to confine any ving object, in order to examine it: this also has a pipe to screw upon the end of the needle G. P is a turned handle of wood, to screw into the instrument when it is made use of. Q, a pair of brass pliers to take up any object, or manage it with conveniency. R is a soft hair-brush for cleaning the glasses, &c. Sis a small ivory box for tales, to be placed, when wanted, in the small brass box 0.
When you would view any object with this micro
scope, screw the speculum, with the magnifier you Microthink proper to use, into the brass ring I. Place your object, either on the needle G in the pliers H, on the object-plate M, or in the hollow brass box O, as may be most convenient; then holding up your instrument by the handle P, look against the light through the magnifying lens ; and by means of the nut D, together with the motion of the needle, by managing its lower end, the object may be turned about, raised, or depressed, brought nearer the glass, or removed farther from it, till you find the true focal distance, and the light be seen strongly reflected from the speculum upon the object, by which means it will be shown in a manner surprisingly distinct and clear; and for this purpose the light of the sky or of a candle will answer very well. Transparent objects may also be viewed by this microscope; only observing, that when such come under examination, it will not always be proper to throw on them the light reflected from the speculum; for the light transmitted through them, meeting the reflected light, may together produce too great a glare. A little practice, however, will show how to regulate both lights in a proper manner.
4. Ellis's single and Aquatic Microscope. Fig. 4. re- Fig. 4. presents a very convenient and useful microscope, contrived by Mr John Ellis, author of An Essay upon Corallines, &c. To practical botanists, observers of animalcula, &c. it possesses many advantages above those just described. It is portable, simple in its construction, expeditious, and commodious in use. K represents the box containing the whole apparatus: it is generally made of fish-skin; and on the top there is a female screw, for receiving the screw that is at the bottom of the pillar A: this is a pillar of brass, and is screwed on the top of the box. D is a brass pin which fits into the pillar; on the top of this pin is a hollow socket to receive the arm which carries the magnifiers; the pin is to be moved up and down, in order to adjust the lenses to their focal or proper dis tance from the object. [N. B. In the representations of this microscope, the pin D is delineated as passing through a socket at one side of the pillar A; whereas it is usual at present to make it pass down a hole bored through the middle of the pillar.] E, the bar which carries the magnifying lens; it fits into the socket X, which is at the top of the pin or pillar D. This arm may be moved backwards and forwards in the socket X, and sideways by the pin D; so that the magnifier, which is screwed into the ring at the end E of this bar, may be easily made to traverse over any part of the object that lies on the stage or plate B. FF is a polished silver speculum, with a magnifying lens placed at the centre thereof, which is perforated for this purpose. The silver speculum screws into the arm E, as at F. G, another speculum, with its lens, which is of a different magnifying power from the former. H, the semicircle which supports the mirror I; the pin R, affixed to the semicircle H, passes through the hole which is towards the bottom of the pillar A. B, the stage, or the plane, on which the objects are to be placed; it fits into the small dove-tailed arm which is at the upper end of the pillar DA. C, a plane glass, with a small piece of black silk stuck on it; this glass is to lay in a groove made in the stage C. M, a hollow glass to be laid occasionally on the stage-in
Micro- stead of the plane glass C. L, a pair of nippers, These are fixed to the stage by the pin at bottom; the steel wire of these nippers slides backwards and forwards in the socket, and this socket is moveable upwards and downwards by means of the joint, so that the position of the object may be varied at pleasure. The object may be fixed in the nippers, stuck on the point, or affixed, by a little gum-water, &c. to the ivory cylinder N, which occasionally screws to the point of the nippers.
To use this microscope: Take all the parts of the apparatus out of the box; then begin by screwing the pillar A to the cover thereof; pass the pin R of the semicircle which carries the mirror through the hole that is near the bottom of the pillar A; push the stage into the dove-tail at B, slide the pin into the pillar (see the N. B. above); then pass the bar E through the socket which is at the top of the pin D, and screw one of the magnifying lenses into the ring at F. The microscope is now ready for use: and though the enumeration of the articles may lead the reader to imagine the instrument to be of a complex nature, we can safely affirm that he will find it otherwise. The instrument has this peculiar advantage, that it is difficult to put any of the pieces in a place which is appropriated to another. Let the object be now placed either on the stage or in the nippers L, and in such manner that it may be as nearly as possible over the centre of the stage; bring the speculum F over the part you mean to observe; then throw as much light on the speculum as you can, by means of the mirror I, and the double mo, tion of which it is capable; the light received on the speculum is reflected by it on the object. The distance of the lens F from the object is regulated by moving the pin D up and down, until a distinct view of it is obtained. The best rule is, to place the lens beyond its focal distance from the object, and then gradually to slide it down till the object appears sharp and well defined. The adjustment of the lenses to their focus, and the distribution of the light on the object, are what require the most attention: on the first the distinctness of the vision depends; the pleasure arising from a clear view of the parts under observation is due to the modification of the light. No precise rule can be given for attaining accurately these points; it is from practice alone that ready habits of obtaining these necessary properties can be acquired, and with the assistance of this no difficulty will be found.
5. A very simple and convenient microscope for botanical and other purposes, though inferior in many respects to that of Mr Ellis, was contrived by the ingenious Mr Benjamin Martin, and is represented at fig. 5. where AB represents a small arm supporting two or more magnifiers, one fixed to the upper part as at B, the other to the lower part of the arm at C; these may be used separately or combined together. The arm AB is supported by the square pillar IK, the lower end of which fits into the socket E of the foot FG; the stage DL is made to slide up and down the square pillar; H, a concave mirror for reflecting light on the object. To use this microscope, place the object on the stage, reflect the light on it from the concave mirror, and regulate it to the focus, by moving the stage nearer to or farther from the lens at B. The ory sliders pass through the stage; other objects may
be fixed in the nippers MN, and then brought under the Microeye-glasses; or they may be laid on one of the glasses scope. which fit the stage. The apparatus to this instrument consists of three ivory sliders; a pair of nippers; a pair of forceps; a flat glass and a concave ditto, both fitted to the stage.
The two last microscopes are frequently fitted up with a toothed rack and pinion, for the more ready adjustment of the glasses to their proper focus. 6. Withering's portable Botanic Microscope. Fig. 6. Fig. 6. represents a small botanical microscope contrived by Dr Withering, and described by him in his Botanical Arrangements. It consists of three brass plates, ABC, which are parallel to each other; the wires D and E are rivetted into the upper and lower plates, which are by this means united to each other; the middle plate or stage is moveable on the aforesaid wires by two little sockets which are fixed to it. The two upper plates each contain a magnifying lens, but of different powers; one of these confines and keeps in their places the fine point F, the forceps G, and the small knife H.-To use this instrument, unscrew the upper lens, and take out the point, the knife, and the forceps; then screw the lens on again, place the object on the stage, and then move it up or down till you have gained a distinct view of the object, as one lens is made of a shorter focus than the other; and spare lenses of a still deeper focus may be had if required. This little microscope is the most portable of any. Its principal merit is its simplicity.
7. Botanical Lenses or Magnifiers. The haste with which botanists, &c. have frequently occasion to view objects, renders an extempore pocket-glass indispensably necessary. The most convenient of any yet constructed, appears to be that contrived, in regard to the form of the mounting, by Mr Benjamin Martin; and is what he called a Hand Megalascope, because it is well adapted for viewing all the larger sort of small objects universally, and by only three lenses it has seven different magnifying powers.
Fig. 7. represents the case with the three frames and Fig. 7. lenses, which are usually of 1, 14, and 2 inches focus: they all turn over each other, and shut into the case, and are turned out at pleasure.
The three lenses singly, afford three magnifying powers; and by combining two and two, we make three more: for d with e makes one, d with f another, and e with fa third; which, with the three singly, make six; and lastly, all three combined together make another; so that upon the whole, there are seven powers of magnifying with these glasses only.
When the three lenses are combined, it is better to turn them in, and look through them by the small apertures in the sides of the case. The eye in this case is excluded from extra light; the aberration of the superfluous rays through the glasses is cut off; and the eye coincides more exactly with the common axes of the lenses.
A very useful and easy kind of microscope (deseribed by Joblot, and which has been long in use), adapted chiefly for viewing, and confining at the same time, any living insects, small animals, &c. is shown at fig. 8. Fig. 8. where A represents a glass tube, about 1 inch diameter, and 2 inches high. B, a case of brass or wood, containing a sliding tube, with two or three magnify
Micro- ing glasses that may be used either separately or combined. In the inside, at the bottom, is a piece of ivory, black and white on opposite sides, that is occasionally removed, and admits a point to be screwed into the centre. The cap unscrews at D, to admit the placing of the object: the proper distance of the glasses from the object is regulated by pulling up or down the brass tube E at top containing the eye-glasses.
This microscope is particularly useful for exhibiting the well-known curicus curculio imperialis, vulgarly called the diamond beetle, to the greatest advantage; for which, as well as for other objects, a glass bottom, and a polished reflector at the top, are often applied, to condense the light upon the object. In this case, the stand and brass-bottom F, as shown in the figure, are taken away by unscrewing.
9. Mr Lyonet's Single Anatomical Dissecting Microscope. Fig. 9. represents a curious and extremely useful microscope, invented by that gentleman for the purpose of minute dissections, and microscopic preparations. This instrument must be truly useful to amateurs of the minutiae of insects, &c. being the best adapted of any for the purposes of dissection. With this instrument Mr Lyonet made his very curious microscopical dissection of the chenille de saule, as related in his Traité Anatomique de la chenille qui ronge le bois de saule, 4to.
AB is the anatomical table, which is supported by a pillar NO; this is screwed on the foot CD. The table AB is prevented from turning round by means of two steady pins. In this table or board there is a hole G, which is exactly over the centre of the mirror EF, that is to reflect the light on the object; the hole G is designed to receive a flat or concave glass, on which the objects for examination are to be placed.
RXZ is an arm formed of several balls and sockets, by which means it may be moved in every possible situation; it is fixed to the board by means of the screw H. The last arm IZ has a female screw, into which a magnifier may be screwed as at Z. By means of the screw H, a small motion may be occasionally given to the arm IZ, for adjusting the lens with accuracy to its focal distance from the object.
Another chain of balls is sometimes used, carrying a lens to throw light upon the object; the mirror is likewise so mounted, as to be taken from its place at K, and fitted on a clamp, by which it may be fixed to any part of the table AB.
To use the Dissecting Table.-Let the operator sit with his left side near a light window; the instrument being placed on a firm table, the side DH towards the stomach, the observations should be made with the left eye. In dissecting, the two elbows are to be supported by the table on which the instrument rests, the hands resting against the board AB; and in order to give it greater stability (as a small shake, though imperceptible to the naked eye, is very visible in the microscope), the dissecting instruments are to be held one in each hand, between the thumb and two forefingers.
11. Of DOUBLE Microscopes, commonly called ComPOUND Microscopes.
Double microscopes are so called, from being a comination, of two or, more lenses.
The particular and chief advantages which the com- Micrépound microscopes have over the single, are, that the objects are represented under a larger field of view, and with a greater amplification of reflected light. 1. Culpeper's Microscope. The compound microscope, originally contrived by Mr Culpeper, is represented at fig. 10. It consists of a large external brass body A, Fig. 10. B, C, D, supported upon three scrolls, which are fixed to the stage EF; the stage is supported by three larger scrolls, that are screwed to the mahogany pedestal GH. There is a drawer in the pedestal, which holds the apparatus. The concave mirror I is fitted to a socket in the centre of the pedestal. The lower part LMCD of the body forms an exterior tube, into which the upper part of the body ABLM slides, and may be moved up or down, so as to bring the magnifiers, which are screwed on at N, nearer to or farther from the object.
To use this microscope: Screw one of the buttons, which contains a magnifying lens, to the end N of the body place the slider, with the objects, between the plates of the slider-holder. Then, to attain distinct vision, and a pleasing view of the object, adjust the body to the focus of the lens you are using, by moving the upper part gently up and down, and regulate the light by the concave mirror.
For opaque objects, two additional pieces must be used. The first is a cylindrical tube of brass (represent ed at L, fig. 11.), which fits on the cylindrical part at Fig. 11. N of the body. The second piece is the concave specu lum h; this is to be screwed to the lower end of the aforesaid tube: the upper edge of this tube should be made to coincide with the line which has the same number affixed to it as to the magnifier you are using; e. g. if you are making use of the magnifier marked 5, slide the tube to the circular line on the tube N that is marked also with N° 5. The slider-holder should be removed when you are going to view opaque ob jects, and a plane glass should be placed on the stage in its stead to receive the object; or it may be placed in the nippers, the pin of which fits into the hole in the stage.
The apparatus belonging to this microscope consists of the following particulars: viz. Five magnifiers, each fitted in a brass button; one of these is seen at N, fig. 10. Six ivory sliders, five of them with objects. A brass tube to hold the concave speculum. concave speculum in a brass box. A fish pan. A set of glass tubes. A flat glass fitted to the stage. A concave glass fitted to the stage. A pair of forceps. A steel wire, with a pair of nippers at one end and a point at the other. A small ivory cylinder, to fit on the pointed end of the aforesaid nippers. A convex lens, moveable in a brass semicircle; this is affixed to a long brass pin, which fits into a hole on the stage.
The construction of the foregoing microscope is very simple, and it is easy in use; but the advantages of the stage and mirror are too much confined for an extensive: application and management of all kinds of objects. Its greatest recommendation is its cheapness; and to those who are desirous of having a compound microscope at a low price, it may be acceptable.
2. Cuffs Microscope. The improved microscope: next in order is that of Mr Cuff. Besides remedying the disadvantages above mentioned, it contains the
Micro- addition of an adjusting screw, which is a considerable improvement, and highly necessary to the examination of objects under the best defined appearance from the glasses. It is represented at fig. 11. with the apparatus that usually accompanies it. A, B, C, shows the body of this microscope; which contains an eye-glass at A, a broad lens at B, and a magnifier which is screwed on at C. The body is supported by the arm DE, from which it may be removed at pleasure. The arm DE is fixed on the sliding bar F, and may be raised or depres sed to any height within its limits. The main pillar a b is fixed in the box be; and by means of the brass foot d is screwed to the mahogany pedestal XY, in which is a drawer containing all the apparatus. O is a milled-headed screw, to tighten the bar F when the adjusting screw cg is used. p q Is the stage, or plate, which carries the objects; it has a hole at the centre n. G, a concave mirror, that may be turned in any direction, to reflect the light of a candle, or the sky, upon the object.
To use this microscope: Screw the magnifier you intend to use to the end C of the body; place the slider-holder P in the hole n, and the slider with the object between the plates of the slider-holder; set the upper edge of the bar DE to coincide with the divisions which correspond to the magnifier you have in use, and pinch it by the milled nut; now reflect a proper quantity of light upon the object, by means of the concave mirror G, and regulate the body exactly to the eye and the focus of the glasses by the adjusting screw cg.
To view opaque objects, take away the slider-holder P, and place the object on a flat glass under the centre of the body, or on one end of the jointed nippers op. Then screw the silver concave speculum h to the end of the cylinder L, and slide this cylinder on the lower part of the body, so that the upper edge thereof may coincide with the line which has the same mark with the magnifier that is then used: reflect the light from the concave mirror G to the silver speculum, from which it will again be reflected on the object. The glasses are to be adjusted to their focal distance as before directed.
The apparatus consists of a convex lens H, to collect the rays of light from the sun or a candle, and condense them on the object. La cylindrical tube, open at each side, with a concave speculum screwed to the lower end h. P the slider-holder: this consists of a cylindrical tube, in which an inner tube is forced upwards by a spiral spring; it is used to receive an ivory slider K, which is to be slid between the plates h and i. The cylinder P fits the hole in the stage; and the hollow part at k is designed to receive a glass tube. R is a brass cone, to be put under the bottom of the cylinder P, to intercept occasionally some of the rays of light. S, a box containing a concave and a flat glass, between which a small living insect may be confined: it is to be placed over the hole n. T, a flat glass, to lay any occasional object upon; there is also a concave one for fluids. O is a long steel wire, with a small pair of pliers at one end, and a point at the other, designed to stick or hold objects: it slips backwards and forwards in the short tube o; the pin p fits into the hole of the stage. W, a little round
ivory box, to hold a supply of talc and rings for the Miro. sliders. V, a small ivory cylinder, that fits on the scope. pointed end of the steel wire: it is designed for opaque objects. Light-coloured ones are to be stuck upon the dark side, and vice versa. M, a fish-pan, whereon to fasten a small fish, to view the circulation of the blood: the tail is to be spread across the oblong hole k at the small end, and tied fast, by means of a ribband fixed thereto; the knob is to be shoved through the slit made in the stage, that the tail may be brought under the magnifier.
3. This microscope has received several material improvements from Mr Martin, Mr Adams, &c. By an alteration, or rather an enlargement, of the body of the tube which contains the eye-glasses, and also of the eye-glasses themselves, the field of view is made much larger, the mirror below for reflecting light is made to move upon the same bar with the stage; by which means the distance of it from the stage may be very easily and suitably varied. A condensing glass is applied under the stage in the slider-holder, in order to modify and increase the light that is reflected by the mirrors below from the light of a candle or lamp. It is furnished also with two mirrors in one frame, one concave and the other plane, of glass silvered; and by simply unscrewing the body, the instrument, when desired, may be converted into a single microscope. Fig. 12. is a Fig. 12. representation of the instrument thus improved; and the following is the description of it, as given by Mr Adams in his Essays.
AB represents the body of the microscope, containing a double eye-glass and a body-glass; it is here shown as screwed to the arm CD, from whence it may be occasionally removed, either for the convenience of packing, or when the instrument is to be used as a single microscope.
The eye-glasses and the body-glasses are contained in a tube which fits into the exterior tube AB; by pulling out a little this tube when the microscope is in use, the magnifying power of each lens is increased.
The body AB of the microscope is supported by the arm CD; this arm is fixed to the main pillar CF, which is screwed firmly to the mahogany pedestal GH; there is a drawer to this pedestal, which holds the apparatus.
NIS, the plate or stage which carries the slider-holder KL; this stage is moved up or down the pillar CF, by turning the milled nut M; this nut is fixed to a pinion, that works in a toothed rack cut on one side of the pillar. By means of this pinion, the stage may be gradually raised or depressed, and the object adjusted to the focus of the different lenses.
KL is a slider-holder, which fits into a hole that is in the middle of the stage NIS; it is used to confine and guide either the motion of the sliders which contain the objects, or the glass tubes that are designed to confine small fishes for viewing the circulation of the blood. The sliders are to be passed between the two upper plates, the tubes through the bent plates.
L is a brass tube, to the upper part of which is fixed the condensing lens before spoken of; it fits into the under part of the slider-holder KL, and may be set at different distances from the object, according to its distance from the mirror or the candle.
O is the frame which holds the two reflecting mir-