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Micro- rors,' one of which is plane, the other concave. mirrors may be moved in various directions, in order to reflect the light properly, by means of the pivots on which they move, in the semicircle QSR, and the motion of the semicircle itself on the pin S: the concave mirror generally answers, best in the day-time; the plane mirror combines better with the condensing lens, and a lamp or candle. At D there is a socket for receiving the pin of the arm Q (fig. 31.) to which the concave speculum, for reflecting light on opaque objects, Plate is fixed. At S is a hole and slit for receiving either the CCCXLI. nippers L (fig. 31.) or the fish-pan I; when these are fig. 31. used, the slider-holder must be removed. T, a hole to receive the pin of the convex lens M.
To use this microscope: Take it out of the box. Screw the body into the round end of the upper part of the arm CD. Place the brass sliders, which contain the magnifiers, into the dove-tailed slit which is on the under side of the aforesaid arm, as seen at E, and slide it forwards until the magnifier you mean to use is under the centre of the body: opposite to each magnifier in this slit there is a notch, and in the dove-tailed part of the arm CD there is a spring, which falls into the above-mentioned notch, and thus makes each magnifier coincide with the centre of the body. Pass the ivory slider you intend to use between the upper plates of the slider-holder KL, and then reflect as strong a light as you can on the subject by means of one of the mirrors; after this, adjust the object to the focus of the magnifier and your eye, by turning the milled screw M, the motion of which raises and depresses the stage NIS. The degree of light necessary for each object, and the accuracy required in the adjustment of the lenses to their proper focal distance from the object, will be easily attained by a little practice.
When opaque objects are to be examined, remove the slider-holder, and place the object on a flat glass, or fix it to the nippers L, the pin of these fit into the hole on the stage; screw the concave speculum R into the arm Q (fig, 31.), and then pass the pin of this arm through the socket D (fig. 12.); the light is now to be reflected from the concave mirror to the silver speculum, and from this down on the object. No exact rule can be given for reflecting the light on the object; we must therefore refer the reader to the mother of all aptness, practice. The speculum must be moved lower or higher, to suit the focus of the different magnifiers and the nature of the object.
The foregoing directions apply equally to the using of this instrument as a single microscope; with this difference only, that the body AB is then removed, and the eye is applied to the upper surface of the arm CD, exactly over the magnifiers.
This microscope is sometimes made with the follow» ing alterations, which are supposed to make it still more convenient and useful. The arm CD that carries the body and magnifiers is made both to turn on a pin, and to slide backwards and forwards in a socket at C; so that, instead of moving the objects below on the stage, and disturbing them, the magnifiers are more Conveniently brought over any part of the objects as desired. The condensing glass is made larger, and slides upon the square bar CF quite distinct from the stage, like the mirrors below; and it is thereby made
useful for any other objects that may be applied on glasses fitted to the stage, as well as those put into the slider-holder K. It is thereby not confined to this stage alone as in the preceding. When the body AB is taken away, the arm CD may be slipt away from its bar, with the magnifiers, and the forceps, wire, and joint, applied to it; and it thereby serves the purpose of a small single or opaque band microscope, for any object occasionally applied to this wire. The magnifiers in the slider E are mounted in a wheel case, which perhaps prevents its being in the way so much as the long slider E before described.-This contrivance is represented at X, fig. 12.
4. Martin's New Universal Compound Microscope.This instrument was originally constructed by Mr B. Martin, and intended to comprise all the uses and advantages of the single, compound, opaque, and aquatic microscopes. The following is a description of it.
Fig. 13. is a representation of the instrument pla- Plate ced up for use. ABCD is the body of the micro- cccxxxix. scope which consists of four parts, viz. AB the fig. 13. piece, or that containing the eye-glasses, and is screwed into C, which is a moveable or sliding tube on the top; this inner tube contains the body-glass screwed into its lower part. D is the exterior tube or case, in which the other slides up and down in an easy and steady manner. This motion of the tube C is useful to increase and decrease the magnifying power of the body-glass when thought necessary, as before mentioned. E is a pipe or snout screwed on to the body of the microscope D, and at its lower part, over the several magnifying lenses hereafter described. FGHI is the square stem of the microscope, upon which the stage R moves in an horizontal position, upwards or downward, by means of the fine rack work of teeth and pinion. KL is a strong solid joint and pillar, by which the position of the instrument is readily altered from a vertical one to an oblique or to a perfectly horizontal one as may be required: it is thus well adapted to the ease of the observer either sitting or standing; and as it is very often convenient to view objects by direct unreflected light, when the square stem FI is placed in a horizontal position for this purpose, the mirror T is then to be taken off in order to prevent the obstruction of the rays. Mis a circular piece of brass, serving as a base to the pillar. NOP, the tripod or foot by which the whole body of the microscope is steadily supported; it folds up when packed into the case. W is a brass frame, that contains the condensing lens, and acts in conjunction with the large concave and plane mirrors below at T; the reflected rays from which, either of the common light or of that of a candle or lamp, it agreeably modifies, and makes steady in the field of
The particulars of the apparatus to this microscope are as follow: Q is a circular brass box, containing six magnifiers or object lenses, numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 64 the digits of which appear severally through a small round bole in the upper plate of it. To the upper is fixed a small circle of brass, by which it is connected with, and screwed into, the round end of the arm abed; which is a long piece of brass, and moves through either by teeth or pinion, or not, as may be desired, in ef; which is a socket on the upper part of the pillar, and admits, with a motion both easy and steady, the
Micro- brass arm. R is a fixed stage, upon which the objects to be viewed are to be placed: it is firmly fastened to the square pillar, which is moved by the rack-work. In the middle is a large circular hole, for receiving concave glasses, with fluids, &c.; it has also a sliding spring frame to fasten down slips of glass or other things: at abc are three small sockets or holes, intended to receive several parts of the apparatus. S is the refractor, or illuminating lens, for converging the sun's rays upon opaque objects laid upon the stage R. To this purpose it moves on a semicircle upon a long shank g, in a spring socket h, in the arm i; this arm moving every way by a stout pin k in the socket a of the stage. In this manner it is easily adjusted to any position of the sun, candle, &c.-T, the reflecting-glass frame, containing a concave and plane speculum, which is moved upon the square pillar by the hand. The use of it is to illuminate all transparent objects that are applied to the stage above.
Fig. 14. N° 1. is an auxiliary moveable stage; which by means of a pin k is placed in the hole a of the stage R, and can be moved in a horizontal direction over the whole field of the stage. In this stage, there are three circular boles with shouldered bottoms; a large one in the middle, and on each side a small one, for the reception of the three following necessary articles: N° 2. a watch-glass to be placed in the large hole, to hold fluids containing animalcules, &c.; a circular piece of ivory, N° 3. one side of which is black, the other white, to support opaque objects of different contrasted colours; and circular plane and concave glasses, N° 4. for extemporaneous transparent objects. The same use is made of the other small hole as of the large one, only in a lesser degree, to receive small concave glasses, plates, &c.
No 5. is the silvered speculum, called a liberkhun, which makes the single opaque microscope, by being screwed to the slider abc d (fig. 13.) in room of the box of lenses Q, and the body AE above it. The chief use of this is to view very small objects strongly illuminated near the compounded focus of the mirror T (fig. 13.). N° 6. is the forceps or pliers, for holding such kind of objects, and by which they can be applied very readily to the focus of the lens in the hiberkbun. They have a motion all ways by means of the spring socket a, the joint b, and the shank c: they are placed. in the socket c of the fixed stage R (fig. 13.). N° 7. is a small piece of ivory, to be placed upon the pointed end of the pliers: it is black upon one side, and white upon the other, to receive opaque objects.
No 8. is a liberkhun of a larger size than that first mentioned, with a hole in its centre: this is screwed. into N° 9. the hole a of a brass ring, fastened to a long wire b; which moves up and down in the spring socket b of the stage R, in which it also moves sideways; and thus, with the body. AE above, forms an aquatic compound microscope for showing all sorts of objects in water and other fluids placed under it in the watch-glass No 2. on the stage.
No 11. is a cone, with a proper aperture a to exclude superfluous light, that would disturb a critical observation of a curious object; it is placed on the under side of the fixed stage R.
No 12. is what is usually called a bug-box, consist
ing of a concave glass with a plane one screwed over Micreit; by means of which a bug, louse, flea, &c. may be scope. secured and viewed alive. It is to be placed on either of the stages R (fig. 13.), or No 1. (bg. 14.).
N° 13. is the fish pan. In the long concave body ab, a fish may be so confined by the ribband c, that the transparent tail may be in part over the slit or hole at a. In this state, it is placed on the stage R, with the pin d in the hole c of the stage, and moves freely and horizontally for viewing the circulation of the blood, &c.
N° 14. is the slider-bolder that is placed on the stage R: it receives the sliders and tubes when filled with transparent objects, to be viewed either by the compound or single microscope.
N° 15. represents the ivory slider, to hold the objects between the talcs as usual.
No 16. is a useful auxiliary slider framed in brass. In this slider small concave glasses are cemented; and a slip of plane glass slides over them; by which any small living object, as mites, &c. may be confined without injury, and deliberately viewed.
N° 17. represents a set of glass tubes, three in number, one within another; they are useful for small tadpoles, water newts, eels, &c. when the circulation of the blood is to be viewed. There is a small hole at one end of each tube, that serves to admit the air; for when they are filled with water, the other end is stopped with a cork.
No 18. is a small ivory box, containing spare talcs and wires, to supply the sliders with occasionally.
N° 19. a brass cell or button, containing a very small lens, properly set between two small plates of brass, that it may be brought very near to the object when viewed therewith as a single microscope. This magnifier is screwed into the same hole as the wheel of six magnifiers Q are (fig. 13.).
N° 20. is a lens, adapted to view and examine objects, by magnifying them sufficiently, so as to be able to apply them to the microscope for inspection: on this account it is called the explorator.
The preceding are the chief articles of the apparatus: which, on account of their being somewhat different from what is applied to other microscopes, we have been thus particular in describing. In using the microscope, and while viewing objects by either the single or compound instrument, the focal distances of the magnifiers are made perfectly exact by turning of the pinion at the nut w, in one way or the other, very gently in the teeth of the rack-work at X (fig. 13.).
It is necessary that the centres of the object-lenses or magnifiers, the stage, and the mirrors at bottom, should all be in a right line in the axis of the microscope, when opaque objects are to be viewed, that are placed upon the ivory piece N° 7. or the forceps No 6. and all other such sort of objects which are placed in the centre of the stage R, or slider-holder N° 14: But when aquatic or living objects, which require a great space to move in, are to be viewed, then the horizontal motion at ef (fig. 13.) is made use of, and the view may be extended laterally over the whole of the diameter of the object or field of view; and by putting the arm a bed forward or backward in its socket ef, the view is extended in the contrary direction
direction equally well; and in this manner the whole of the objects may be viewed without the least disturb
As the brass arms a bed may be brought to the height of three or four inches above the stage R; so, by means of the rack-work motion of the stage, a lens of a greater focal distance than the greatest in the wheel Q may be occasionally applied in place of the wheel, and thereby the larger kind of objects be viewed; the instrument becoming, in this case, what is called a megalascope.
In viewing moving living objects, or even fixed ones, when nice motions are requisite, a rack-work and pinion is often applied to the arm a b c d: the arm is cut out with teeth; and the pinion, as shown at Y, is applied to work it. This acts but in one direction; and, in order to produce an equally necessary motion perpendicular to this, rack-work and pinion is applied tangent-wise to the stage, which is then jointed.
What has been related above respects the construction of those denominated parlour microscopes, in con. tradistinction to those which are portable: their dimensions, however, have been considerably reduced by opticians, in order to render them fit for the pocket; and as they are for the most part constructed on nearly the same principles as those which have been already described, what has been said will sufficiently instruct our readers in using any pocket microscope whatever. Only it may be observed, that in those reduced instruments, both the field of view and the magnifying power are proportionably diminished.
We shall conclude the account of this sort of mieroscope with descriptions of a very portable pocket apparatus of microscopic instruments, and of a new microscopic pocket telescope, both invented by the late Mr B. Martin, and since made by most instrumentmakers in London.
The former is represented at. fig. 15. It consists of two parts, viz. the body a b, and the pedestal ik, which is joined by a screw at the part between b and a. It consists of three cylindric tubes, viz. (1.) the exterior tube, or case, ab; (2.) a middle tube cb; and (3.) the interior tube f g The middle tube cd is the adjuster; and is connected with the outer tube by the rack-work of teeth and pinion, as shown at e: by which means it is moved up and down at pleasure through the smallest space, and carries with it the internal tube fg. The interior tube fg receives on its lower part at b the several capsules or boxes 2, 3, 4, 5, (fig. 16.) which contain the object lenses or magnifiers.
The method of using this compound microscope in the perpendicular position, is as follows: The stage No 1. is put within the exterior tube at b. Under the springs are applied the four ivory sliders, which contain a variety of transparent objects; then move the interior tube fg up and down with the hand, till you discern the object in the slider, and there let it rest. After this, turn the pinion at e very tenderly one way or the other, till you obtain a perfect view of the transparent objects properly illuminated, from a mirror contained in the pedestal or stand i k, suspended upon, and moveable about, the points of VOL. XIV. Part I.
two screws (7). N° 6. (fig. 16.) represents a moveable stage, which is placed in the spring socket m. contains a concave glass, for the reception of animalcules in fluids; and has the advantage of bringing any part into view by moving the handle at n. If living and moving objects are required to be shown, they must be confined in the concave, by putting a glass cover, N° 7. upon the stage; and then a small spider, a louse, a flea, bug, &c. may be seen, and the motion or circulation of the blood, &c. observed with surprising distinctness.
To view the circulation of the blood in the most eminent degree, it must be done by placing small frogs, tadpoles, water-newts, fishes, &c. in a tube as represented N° 8. (fig. 17.); which tube is placed in the Fig. 17. holes o in the opposite sides of the case a b, fig. 15. in the lower part-N° 9. (fig. 16.) is a pair of pincers or pliers d, for holding any object; the other end of the steel wire is pointed to receive a piece of ivory b, with one end black, and the other white, on which you stick objects of different hue: this also, when used, is placed in the spring socket m.
To use this instrument as a compound opaque, you screw off the body part a b, and screw to it the handle r (fig. 16.); by this means you may hold the microscope in a horizontal position, as shown in the figure. The silver dish or speculum (which is contained in the bottom or base k, fig. 15.), is then screwed on at b. N° 9. is placed in the spring socket m, and adjusted backward and forward in m, till the reflected light from the speculum falls in a proper manner on the opaque object. Either of the four magnifiers, 2, 3, 4, 5, may be used, and brought to a proper focus, as before described by the tooth and pinion e (fig. 15.). If you take off the opaque apparatus, and apply the stage N° 1. (fig. 16.) with an ivory slider, and at the end b screw in either of the two lenses, N° 10. (which are distinguished by the name of illuminators), the microscope being held up to the light (and properly adjusted), the whole field of view will be strongly illuminated, and present a most pleasing appearance of any transparent object. These two convex lenses are of different focuses, and are to be used singly or together; N° 2. being the greatest magnifier, will require the object to be strongly illuminated, and of course both the lenses must be used together. By candle-light, this method of viewing transparent ob jects will prove very entertaining; by screwing the handle into the part s of N° 10. it becomes a delightful hand megalascope for viewing flowers, fossils, shells, &c,; and each lens, as before mentioned, having a different focus, produces two magnifying powers used singly, and when combined a third.
The manner of using this instrument as a single mi. croscope (like Wilson's) is represented in fig. 17. where the button or magnifier at each is to be screwed off, and the circular piece N° 11. is screwed in its place. This piece has a spring socket made to receive the slider-holder N° 12. No 13. is a circular piece of brass, with a long shank and spring, and is introduced through the outside tube a b at t. N° 2, 3, 4, 5, are screwed occasionally in the centre of this piece, and used as single lenses with ivory sliders, &c. N° 14. contains a lens of a great magnifying power, for viewing very minute objects: to render this instrument the most complete single opaque microscope, you have only to screw into N° 13. +
Micro- the silver speculum No 15. which has a small lens set in scope. its centre. The slider-holder N° 12, is taken out of N° 11, and the pincers or nippers d b, being detached from the other part of N° 9. are passed through the long spring socket N° 11. and ready to receive any opaque body in the pincers, or on the black and white piece of ivory. To the large screw of N° 13. are applied the two lenses N° 10. which make it the completest megalascope that can be desired.
The handler contains the four ivory sliders with objects.
The shagreen case which contains this universal microscope and its apparatus, is six inches long, three inches wide, two inches deep; and weighs together 16 ounces. "Thus (says Mr Martin) so small, so light, so portable, and yet so universally complete, is this pocket microscopic apparatus, that you find nothing material in the large three-pillared microscope, the opaque microscope, Wilson's single microscope, and the aquatic microscope, all, together, which you have not in this; besides some very considerable advantages in regard to the field of view, &c. which they have not (A)."
This inventive artist having contrived a construction of the compound microscope so small as to admit of being packed in a common walking cane, thought next of introducing the same instrument into the inside of what he called his Pocket Three-brass drawer Achromatic Telescope. The same eye glasses that serve the purpose of a telescope, answer as the compound magnifier, for viewing transparent and opaque objects in a microscope.
Fig. 18, 19, 20, represent the telescope separated by unscrewing it at m, in order that the whole of the necessary parts in use may be exhibited. Fig. 19. represents the exterior tube, which is of mahogany, and its rims of brass. It is detached from the rest of the telescope, as not making any part of the microscope. The brass cover k 1, that shuts up the objectglass of the telescope, is also the box which contains the two-wheel object frames, and a small plain reflecting mirror.
In fig. 20. A is the cover taken off, by unscrewing the top part: The mirror B is taken out; and also, by unscrewing the bottom part, the two circular wheels, with the objects shown in C and D.
Fig. 18. is a representation of the three internal brass sliding tubes of the telescope, which form the microscopic part. The tubes are to be drawn out as shown in this figure; then, at the lower end of the large tube in the inside, is to be pulled out a short tube bc, that serves as a kind of stage to hold the wheels, with objects, and support the reflecting mirror. This tube is to be partly drawn out, and turned so that the circular hole that is pierced in it may coincide with a similar hole that is cut in the exterior tube. This tube is represented as drawn out in the figure;
and the mirror B placed therein, and the wheel with Microtransparent objects. C (fig. 20.) represents the wheel with transparent objects, and D the wheel with opaque objects. They are both made of ivory; and turn round upon a centre brass pin slit upon the top, which fits upon the edge of the tube; which tube is then to be pushed up into the telescope tube, so that its lower end may rest upon the upper edge of the wheel according to its view at a, fig. 18.
In viewing the objects, the second brass tube of the telescope must be pushed down, till its milled edge at top falls upon that of the exterior tube; taking care that the circular hole is duly placed to the exterior one. These circular holes are not seen in fig. 18. being supposed in the opposite side, where the wheel is fixed. The adjustment for the focus is now only necessary; which is obtained by pushing downwards or upwards the proper tube, till the object appear quite distinct. In viewing transparent objects, the instrument may used in two positions; one vertical, when the light is to be reflected upon the object by the mirror; the other, by looking up directly against the light of a candle, common light, &c.; in which case the mirror must be taken away. In viewing opaque objects, the mirror is not used; but as much common light as possible must be admitted through the circular holes in the sides of the tubes.
There is a spare hole in the transparent wheel, and also one in the opaque, to receive any occasional object that is to be viewed. Any sort of object whatsoever may be viewed, by only pushing up the microscope tube into its exterior, and bringing the first eye-tube to its focal distance from the object.
The brass tubes are so contrived, that they stop when drawn out to the full length: so that by applying one hand to the outside tube, and the other to the end of the smallest tube, the telescope at one pull may be drawn out; then any of the tubes (that next to the eye is best) may be pushed in gradually, till the most distinct view of the object be ob
The tubes all slide through short brass spring tubes, any of which may be unscrewed from the ends of the sliding tubes by means of the milled edges which project above the tubes, taken from each other, and the springs set clear if required.
III. Of SOLAR Microscopes.
This instrument, in its principle, is composed of a tube, a looking-glass or mirror, a convex lens, and Wilson's single microscope before described. The sun's rays being reflected through the tube by means of the mirror upon the object, the image or picture of the object is thrown distinctly and beautifully upon a screen of white paper or a white linen sheet, placed at a proper distance to receive the same; and may be magnified
(A) Notwithstanding the properties that have been ascribed to the above instrument, and the praises bestowed upon it by some, which induced us to admit so minute a description, we must apprise our readers, that it has been omitted in Mr Adams's enumeration; and upon inquiry we learn, that it has fallen into neglect among the most judicious opticians, being found too imperfect to serve the purposes of science, and too complicated for the use of persons who seek only entertainment.
Plate CCCXL. fig. 11.
The different forms in which the Solar Microscope is constructed, are as follow.
light upon the screen before you apply the micro- Micro-
Things being thus prepared, screw the body of the microscope over the small end E of the brass tube F; which slip over the small end E of the tube D, and pull out the said tube D less or more as your object is capable of enduring the sun's heat. Ďead objects may be brought within about an inch of the focus of the convex lens 5; but the distance must be shortened for living creatures, or they will soon be killed.
I. The old construction is represented in fig. 21. A
When this microscope is employed, the room must be rendered as dark as possible; for on the darkness of the room, and the brightness of the sunshine, depend the sharpness and perfection of your image. Then putting the looking glass & through the hole in your window shutter, fasten the square frame A to the shutter by its two screws and nuts 1, 1. This done, adjust your looking-glass to the elevation and situation of the sun, by means of the jointed wire H, together with the catgut and pulley, 3, 4. For the first of these raising or lowering the glass, and the other inelining it to either side, there results a twofold motion, which may easily be so managed as to bring the glass to a right position, that is, to make it reflect the sun's rays directly through the lens 5, upon the paper screen, and form thereon a spot of light exactly round. But though the obtaining a perfect circular spot of
The magnifiers most useful in the solar microscope are in general, the fourth, fifth, or sixth. The screen on which the representations of the objects are thrown, is usually composed of a sheet of the largest elephant paper, strained on a frame which slides up or down, or turns about at pleasure on a round wooden pillar, after the manner of some fire screens. Larger screens may also be made of several sheets of the same paper pasted together on cloth, and let down from the ceiling with a roller like a large map.
"This microscope (says Mr Baker) is the most entertaining of any; and perhaps the most capable of making discoveries in objects that are not too opaque :. as it shows them much larger than can be done any other way. There are also several conveniences attending it, which no other microscope can have for the weakest eyes may use it without the least straining or fatigue: numbers of people together may view any object at the same time; and by pointing to the particular parts thereof, and discoursing on what lies before them, may be able better to understand one another, and more likely to find out the truth, than in other microscopes, where they must peep one after another, and perhaps see the object neither in the same light nor in the same position. Those also, who have no skill in drawing, may, by this contrivance, easily sketch out. the exact figure of any object they have a mind to preserve a picture of; since they need only fasten a paper on the screen, and trace it out thereon either with a. pen or pencil, as it appears before them. It is worth