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thorough knowledge of their respective languages. For a complete and most satisfactory proof and illustration of this position, we must refer our readers to Mr. Jackson's eleventh chapter, from which we are constrained, by our limits, to make no other than the following extracts:

When we recollect that the envoys to Marocco for the last century have been men almost wholly unacquainted with the manners, customs, and religious prejudices of the people, and ig. norant of their language, we shall cease to be surprised that our con. nection with that empire has been so limited, and impeded by mutual misunderstanding of each other's sentiments, originating, but too of. ten, in deficiency and inaccuracy of interpreters. What expecta. tions can be indulged of terminat. ing successfully negociations with a prince, in conversing with whom some ignorant and illiterate interpreter, generally a Jew, and a de voted subject of the emperor, must be made the confidential servant of the party, treating? Besides, every one acquainted with the nature of the government,and political prinei. ples of the court of Marocco, is well aware, that, even supposing it possible to procure a Jew, capable of Interpreting accurately the English Into Arabic, and vice versa, yet there are many expressions necessary for an envoy to use to the emperor, whichᏋ no Jew in the country dare to utter on pain of losing his head; the general garrulity of these people, moreover, is such, that they are perhaps unworthy of being in. trusted with any secret wherein the interest of a nation is concerned. Of this the emperor himself is con

vinced, as was also his father, who frequently, during his reign, exe pressed his regret to Mr. A. Lay. ton, that no English consul could be found capable of holding direct intercourse with him."

In a conversation with the minister at Marocco for European affairs, his excellency asked me if, in the event of his master's writing to his majesty, the latter would be able to get the letter interpreted; I answered in the affirmative; and a very polite and friendly letter was afterwards written, which re. quested an answer; but it remained here in the secretary of state's office, without any attention being paid to its contents; a mark of dis respect which gave great offence to the emperor.

"It appears to me extraordi. nary, that a language which is spoken over a much greater extent of country than any other on earth

a language combining all the powers and energy of the Greek and Latin, should be so little un. derstood, that an Arabic letter, written by the present Emperor of Marocco to the King of Great Britain, actually lay in the secre`` tary of state's office some months without being translated. The circumstance coming to the know ledge of the chancellor of the exchequer (the right honourable Spencer Perceval) that gentlemare expressed a wish to a friend of mine, to have a translation, and the letter was transmitted to me for that purpose. Doctor Buffe, who delivered it, assured me, it shad been sent to one, if not both unis versities, and to the post-office, but that, either from a difference in the

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punctuation of the characters, or in the language itself, no one could be found capable of rendering it into English. This statemcut, however unaccountable it may appear to many, was afterwards farther confirmed, by passports and other papers in African Arabic being sent to me for translations, the want of which had detained vessels in our ports, and caused merchants in London to suffer from a loss of markets."

An academy of commerce was instituted by the emperor Joseph II. at Vienna; at which academy the pupils were instructed in a variety of foreign languages, and in the art of drawing. Such an academy might be founded by the British government, without imposing any burthen on the public, at Malta. The whole property in this island, formerly belonging to the Knights of St. John, has devolved to the crown of Great Bri-. tain. This property might be converted into a fund for the sup port of proper masters, who could be procured from the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean, and a certain number of scholars. In ths seminary young men might he trained up to act in the capacities of consuls, commercial interpreters, and agents, and as travellers under the patronage of literary and liberal individuals or societies, for the exploration of unknown regions, and the improvement of both natu ral and civil history. From the islands and the countries on the Mediterranean, as well as from Great Britain and Ireland, young



men, besides those on the foundation, might be attracted to the college of Malta, so finely situated for such a rendezvous, and the acquisition of the living languages facilitated by social converse among. ingenious youths of different nations. If this project of a college at Malta should come under the eye, and meet with the approbation of Mr. Jackson, it would be well if he would take it up. There is no one we know of, better qualified to point out its advantages, and the arrangements proper for carrying it into execution.

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State of the Foreign Affairs of Great Britain for the Year 1809. By Gould Francis Leckie, Esq.

THE grand political measure of opposing a kind of maritime enpire to the overgrown, and still growing empire, of France, on the continent of Europe, touched on in our last article, is so ingeniously and ably recommended to the British government in the writings of Mr. Leckie, that we do not he sitate to give this small pamphlet a place among the books we have selected as favourable specimens of 1809. It exhibits a happy and rare union of patriotism, learning, genius, comprehensive views, and solid sense. The spirit and ten.. dency of the pamphlet is briefly stated in the conclusion:

"From all that we have hitherto experienced of the views of Bonaparte, from his undertaking and

*See also our account of his "Ilistorical Survey of the Foreign Affairs of Great Britain, with a View to explain the Causes of the Disasters set the late and present Wars," in our Accoun1 os Books, Vol. L. p. 267.



accomplishing what he promises, from his negociations in Turkey and Persia, and the threat he has expressed of invading our Indian = provinces, are we authorized to hold him so cheap as to feel no so. licitude on the subject? We must by this time be satisfied that the means we have hitherto employed to oppose his ambition, are insufficient and nugatory; and our ministers cannot flatter themselves that by perseverance in their old maxims they can work effects contrary to those which they have over and over again experienced, and that they can still claim the confidence of the nation which they have so often disappointed.

"It is evident that the taking part with the old established governments, or the new ones that act on their principles, has only shewn our ministers that they deceive themselves, while they have overlooked, in every part of the world, those materials which Bonaparte has used, and of which they would not even deign to ac knowledge the existence. Will they, after what every one knows of Turkey and Persia, disregard these facts, and take those broken and heterogeneous masses for ho. mogeneous and integral states? Will they continue to act on this principle, and send troops and subsidies to those countries, with out being conscious that they send them to the assistance of nobody, and to attain no object but disgrace? Are they so hardened in ignorance of facts, and stupidity to events, as to be totally unable to comprehend the elements of Bonaparte's progress? Are they determined to shut their eyes against that which every one sees, and to

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defend themselves from the acknowledgment of their errors by invincible obstinacy? Are they de termined to continue the war, while they reject the only obvious means by which it can be waged with success? Would it not be more consistent to recommend submission, than to deprive us both of the advantages resulting from war, and the tranquillity of peace? But they are entangled in difficulties & from which they cannot extricate themselves. They see that peace and submission are synonymous terms. The bad success they have experienced makes them consider war as a dismal alternative. They have not candour enough to ac knowledge their errors, and act on a better system; and they have just enough ambition to wish to keep their places. They are sen sible of the disgrace which awaits their half.digested counsels, and the fear of shame has not sufficient influence over them, to induce them either to act on more rational principles, or to retire from situa tions to which they are unequal.

"Two lines of conduct are open before us-either we may submit to Bonaparte, and become a part of his immense empire, giveno » up our laws and institutions, our personal freedom, the security of property, the doininion of the seas,11 the commerce of the world, and what is more than all, the high character, we have hitherto borne as a great people, or we must contend with him in earnest, and oppose the greatness of his projects, by the magnitude of our own. Το continue blockading ports, taking possession of here and there a rock and a harbour, defending Spanish juntas and Sicilian tribunals,


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General Instructions to Sir John Moore, before he set out on his March
to Spain.-Plan of Leading a British Army into the Heart of Spain
-By whom formed.-The British Ministry deplorably ignorant both of
the French Force in Spain, and the real State of that Country.-The
French concentrated behind the Ebro.-The whole of their Force in
Cantonments and Garrisons-Exaggerated Accounts of the Enthusiasm
of the Spaniards.-Fond Credulity of the British Ministry on that Sub-

ject, and, in Consequence of this, the most romantic projects.-The flatter-

ing Expectations of Co-operation held out to Sir John Moore utterly dis-

appointed. Central Junta of Spain. - Their Character, incredible"

Weakness and Folly-Traitors among them.-False Intelligence of

the Approach of the French in great Force to Salamanca.-Measures

announced by Sir John Moore under the Impression of this to the Junta

of that Place. Amazing Apathy and Indifference to Public Affairs

and the Fate of the Country-Tardy and deficient Supplies to our

Army-The Situation of Sir David Baird, who had landed in Gal-

licia, materially affected by the Defeat of the Spanish army of the North.

-Design of Sir John Moore to take a Line of Positions on the

Duero-Frustrated by the total Defeat of General Castanos-By this

the British General determined to retreat on Lisbon-This Plan of

Retreating abandoned, and why-False and treacherous Intelligence

transmitted by the Civil and Military Junta of Madrid to the Com-

mander of the British Army-Warmly seconded and supported by

Dispatches from Mr. Frêre-Strange Infatuation, as well as Arro-

gance and Presumption, of that Minister-Means by which the false

Intelligence was happily counteracted. The Force brought against

Spain by Buonaparte after the Conference of Erfurth.-The bold

Measures adopted by the British Commander for the Extrication

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