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[table]

Order, Family, and

Genus.

97. Contopus

98. Myiarchus

99. EmjiUtias

100. Tyrannus

(Milvulus

Picarije.

PlCIDA

101. Picoides

102. Picus

103. Sphyrapicus .,

104. Campephilus..

105. Jlylatomus ..

106. Centurus

107. Melanerpes ..

108. Colaptes

Cxscviids.

109. Crotophaga ..

110. Coccyzus

111. Geococcyx

AlCEDINIDiE.

112. Ceryle

Caprimttlgida.

113. Chordeiles

114. Antrostoinus..

Ctpselida

115. Nephuecetea ..

116. Chsetura

Tbochilidjc.

117. Trochilus ..

118. Selasphorus ..

119. Alihis

PS1TTACI.

COKT/BIDiB.

120. C'onurus

COLUMBJ5.

COLUMB1D.E.

121. Columba

122. Edopistes

123. Melopelia ..

124. Zenaidura

125. Cnxmepelia ..

Vol. II.—11

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Range beyond the Region.

Range within the Region.

N. and E. of Rocky Mountains

E. and W. coasts and Canada

Eastern States

All United States to Canada

Texas)

Arctic zone and Rocky Mounts.
All United States and Canada
Brit. Columbia and Pennsylvania

southwards
United States and Canada
E. and W. States and Canada
The whole region
United States and S. Canada
United States and Canada

E. States from Pennsylvania S.
S. E. and Cen. States to Canada
California to New Mex. &, Texas

The whole region

All United States to Canada
All United States to Canada

N. W. America

All U. States 4 British Columbia

The whole region
W. coast and Centre
California and Colorado Valley

S. and S. E. Slates

W. and Central States to Canada
E. coast to Cen. plains, Canada

and British Columbia
W. and S. Central States
AH United States to Canada
California and S. E States

Mexico to Amazonia
Neotropical
Mexico
Neotropical
Neotropical genus

Pakearctic

All regs. but Eth. & Aus.

Mexico and Guatemala

Neotropical

Mexico to Venezuela

Neotropical

Neotropical

Neotropical Neotropical Guatemala

Neotropical, S. Pahearctic, Oriental

Neotropical
Neotropical

Jamaica

Almost cosmopolite

Mexico toVeragua (? mi.) Mexico to Veragua Mexico to Guatemala

Neotropical

All regs. but Australian

Neotropical
Mexico to Veragua
Neotropical

[table]
[table]

Peculiar or very Characteristic Genera of Wading and Swimming Birds.

Grallje.

Scolopacid.s.

Micropelma ...
Pkilolttla

('HA11ADRIID.K.

Aphriza

ANSERES.

A NAT ID.*.

Aix ... ...

Bucephala ...

(J-'.'Uliiia

Harelda

Somateria

Camptolcemus

Larida.
Creagrus

N. America

Eastern States to Canada

W. coast of America

N. America

N. America

N. America

Arctic

Arctic

N. E. America (? extinct)

California and N. Pacific coasts

Andes to Chili

West of S. America

China
Europe
Europe
Arctic Seas
North Paliearctic

CHAPTER XVI.

SUMMARY OF THE PAST CHANGES AND GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL REGIONS.

Having now closed our survey of the animal life of the whole earth—a survey which has necessarily been encumbered with a multiplicity of detail—we proceed to summarize the general conclusions at which we have arrived, with regard to the past history and mutual relations of the great regions into which we have divided the land surface of the globe.

All the palseontologicaL no less than the geological and physical evidence, at present available, points to the great land masses of the Northern Hemisphere as being of immense antiquity, and as the area in which the higher forms of life were developed. In going back through the long series of the Tertiary formations, in Europe, Asia, and North America, we find a continuous succession of vertebrate forms, including all the highest types now existing or that have existed on the earth. These extinct animals comprise ancestors or forerunners of all the chief forms now living in the Northern Hemisphere; and as we go back farther and farther into the past, we meet with ancestral forms of those types also, which are now either confined to, or specially characteristic of, the land masses of the Southern Hemisphere. Not only do we find that elephants, and rhinoceroses, and hippopotami, were once far more abundant in Europe than they are now in the tropics, but we also find that the apes of West Africa and Malaya, the lemurs of Madagascar, the Edentata of Africa and South America, and the

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