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FRINGILLIDE. 62. Chrysomitris... 63. Coccothraustes 64. Embernagra ... 65. Pipilo ... ... 66. Junco ... ... 67. Zonotrichia 68. Melospiza ... 69. Spizella ... ... 70. Passerella 71. Passerculus ... 72. Pocecetes ... ... · 73. Ammodromus 74. Coturniculus... 75. Peucæa... ... 76, Cyanospiza ... 77. Poospiza ... 78. Carpodacus ... 79. Cardinalis ... 80. Pyrrhulovia .. 81. Guiraca ... .. 82. Hedymeles ...

(Spermophila 83. Loxia ... ... 84. Pinicola ... ... 85. Linota ... ... 86. Leucosticte ... 87. Calamospiza ... 88. Chondestes .. 89. Euspiza... ... 90. Plectrophanes 91. Centronyx ...

7 The whole region

Neotropical, Palæarctic 1 W. and N. W. America

Palæarctic, Guatemala 1 Rocky Mountain district Neotropical 9 All N. America

Mexico and Guatemala 5 All United States

Mexico and Guatemala The whole region

Neotropical All United States to Sitka Mexico and Guatemala 6 N. America

Mexico and Guatemala 3 The whole region

Northern Asia 6 The whole region

Mexico and Guatemala 1 All United States

Mexico 3 All United States

Mexico and Guatemala 3 | E. and N. of N. America Neotropical

S. Atlantic States and California Mexico
| All United States to Canada Central American
2 California and S. Central States Neotropical
5 The whole region

Mexico, Palæarctic
S. and S. Central States Mexico to Venezuela
Texas and Rio Grande
Southern States

Neotropical
All United States

Mexico to Columbia
Texas)

Neotropical genus
N. of Pennsylvania

Palæarctic
Boreal America

Palæarctic
E. and N. of N. America Palæarctic
Alaska to Utah

Palæarctic
Arizona and Texas to Mexico Mexico
1 Western, Cen., & Southern States Mexico
S. Eastern States

Palæarc., Columb. (mig.) | Boreal America and E. side of Palæarctic

Rocky Mountains
1 Mouth of Yellowstone River

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1 High central plains to E. States Palæarc., Mexico, Andes and Canada

of Columbia

MOTACILLIDÆ.
93. Anthus ... ...
94. Neocorys... ...

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TYRANNIDÆ.
95. Sayornis . 3 E. States to Canada, California

(Pyrocephalus) 1 Gila and Rio Grande) 96. Empidonax ... | 7 | The whole region

Mexico to Ecuador
Neotropical
Mexico to Ecuador

Order, Family, and

Genus.

No. of
Species.

Range within the Region. ·

Range beyond the Region.

97. Contopus 98. Myiarchus 99. Empidias 100. Tyrannus

(Milvulus

3 N. and E. of Rocky Mountains Mexico to Amazonia
2 E. and W. coasts and Canada Neotropical
1 Eastern States

Mexico
4 | All United States to Canada Neotropical
1 Texas)

Neotropical genus

PICARIÆ.

PICIDÆ. 101. Picoides 102. Picus ... ... 103. Sphyrapicus ... 104. Campephilus... 105. Hylatomus ... 106. Centurus 107. Melanerpes ... 108. Colaptes

3 Arctic zone and Rocky Mounts. Palæarctic
6 All United States and Canada All regs. but Eth. & Aus.

Brit. Columbia and Pennsylvania Mexico and Guatemala

southwards
2 United States and Canada Neotropical
1 E. and W. States and Canada
3 The whole region

Mexico to Venezuela
3 United States and S. Canada Neotropical
3 United States and Canada Neotropical

CUCULIDE 109. Crotophaga ... 110. Coccyzus ... 111. Geococcyx ...

2 E. States from Pennsylvania S. Neotropical
3 S. E. and Cen. States to Canada Neotropical
i California to New Mex. & Texas Guatemala

ALCEDINIDE.
112. Ceryle ... ... | 2 | The whole region

CAPRIMULGIDE.
113. Chordeiles ... | 3 | All United States to Canada
114. Antrostomus... | 3 | All United States to Canada

Neotropical, S. Palæarc

tic, Oriental

Neotropical
Neotropical

CYPSELIDA. 115. Neph@cetes ... | 1 N. W. America

Jamaica 116. Chætura ... | 2 | All U. States & British Columbia Almost cosmopolite

TROCHILIDE. 117. Trochilus ... | 2 The whole region 118. Selasphorus ... 2 /W. coast and Centre 119. Atthis ... ... 2 California and Colorado Valley

Mexico to Veragua (? mi.)
Mexico to Veragua
Mexico to Guatemala

PSITTACI.

CONURIDE. 120. Conurus ... ... | 1 S. and S. E. States

Neotropical

COLUMBÆ.

COLUMBIDE 121. Columba

3 W. and Central States to Canada All regs. but Australian 122. Ectopistes

1 E. coast to Cen. plains, Canada

and British Columbia 123. Melopelia ... i W. and S. Central States Neotropical 124. Zenaidura ... 1 All United States to Canada Mexico to Veragua 125. Chæmepelia .. | 1 California and S. E. States | Neotropical

VOL. II.-11

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GALLINA.

TETRAONIDE. 126. Cyrotonyx 11 s. Central States

Mexico and Guatemala 127. Ortyx ... ... 5 All United States and to Canada Mexico to Honduras and

Costa Rica 128. Callipepla .. California

Mexico 129. Lophortyz

Arizona and California 130. Oreortyx ... California and Oregon 131. Tetrao ... ... N. and N. W. America

Palæarctic 132. Centrocercus ... Rocky Mountains 133. Pediocretes ... 2 N. and N. W. America 134. Cupidonia ... E. & N. Cen. States and Canada 135. Bonasa... ... 1 N. United States and Canada Palæarctic 136. Lagopus... ... 4 Arctic zone and to 39° N. Lat. Palæarctic

in Rocky Mountains PHASIANIDR. 137. Meleagris ... | 2 E. and Central States to Canada Mexico, Honduras

CON

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ACCIPITRES.
VULTURIDE.

Sub-Family
(CATHARTINE.)
138. Catharista ... 1 United States to 40° N. Lat.
139. Psuedogryphis | 2 United States to 49' N. Lat.

Neotropical
Neotropical

FALCONIDE 140. Polyborus ... 141. Circus ... .. 142. Antenor... ... 143. Astur ... ... 144. Accipiter 145. Tachytriorchis 146. Buteo ... ... 147. Archibuteo 148. Asturina ... 149. Aquila... ... 150. Háliæetus ... 151. Nauclerus . .

i S. States to Florida & California Neotropical
1 All N. America

Nearly cosmopolite
2 California and Texas

Neotropical
1 All N. America

Almost cosmopolite
| All temperate N. America Almost cosmopolite
i New Mexico to California Neotropical
12 All N. America

All regs. but Australian
All N. America

N. Palæarctic
S. E. States

Neotropical
1. The whole region

Palæarc., Ethiop., Indian 2 All N. America

| All regs. but Neotropical 1 E. coast to Pennsylvania and Neotropical

Wisconsin
1 Florida)

Neotropical
Southern and Western States Tropical regions
Southern States

Neotropical
The whole region

Almost cosmopolite
N. of N. America

N. Palæarctic
i All N. America

Almost cosmopolite

(Rostrhamus 152. Elanus ... ... 153. Ictinia ... ... 154. Falco 155. Hierofalco .... 156. Cerchneis

PANDIONIDE. 157. Pandion... ... ! i

Temperate N. America

Cosmopolite

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Peculwar or very Characteristic Genera of Wading and Swimming Birds.

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CHAPTER XVI.

SUMMARY OF THE PAST CHANGES AND GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL REGIONS.

HAVING now closed our survey of the animal life of the whole earth—a survey which has necessarily been encumbered with a multiplicity of detail—we proceed to summarize the general conclusions at which we have arrived, with regard to the past history and mutual relations of the great regions into which we have divided the land surface of the globe. All the palaeontological, no less than the geological and physical evidence, at present available, points to the great land masses of the Northern Hemisphere as being of immense antiquity, and as the area in which the higher forms of life were developed. In going back through the long series of the Tertiary formations, in Europe, Asia, and North America, we find a continuous succession of vertebrate forms, including all the highest types now existing or that have existed on the earth. These extinct animals comprise ancestors or forerunners of all the chief forms now living in the Northern Hemisphere; and as we go back farther and farther into the past, we meet with ancestral forms of those types also, which are now either confined to, or specially characteristic of, the land masses of the Southern Hemisphere. Not only do we find that elephants, and rhinoceroses, and hippopotami, were once far more abundant in Europe than they are now in the tropics, but we also find that the apes of West Africa and Malaya, the lemurs of Madagascar, the Edentata of Africa and South America, and the

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