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TANAGRIDA.
61. Pyranga...
FRINGILLIDÆ.
62. Chrysomitris...
63. Coccothraustes
64. Embernagra
65. Pipilo
66. Junco
67. Zonotrichia
68. Melospiza
69. Spizella ...
70. Passerella
71. Passerculus
72. Pocecetes ...
73. Ammodromus
74. Coturniculus...
75. Peucæa...
76, Cyanospiza
77. Poospiza
78. Carpodacus
79. Cardinalis
80. Pyrrhuloxia
81. Guiraca ...
82. Hedymeles

(Spermophila
83. Loxia
84. Pinicola ...
85. Linota
86. Leucosticte
87. Calamospiza
88. Chondestes
89. Euspiza...
90. Plectrophanes

7 The whole region

Neotropical, Palæarctic 1 W. and N. W. America

Palæarctic, Guatemala 1 Rocky Mountain district Neotropical 9 All N. America

Mexico and Guatemala 5 All United States

Mexico and Guatemala 5 The whole region

Neotropical 7 All United States to Sitka Mexico and Guatemala 6 N. America

Mexico and Guatemala 3 The whole region

Northern Asia 6 The whole region

Mexico and Guatemala 1 All United States

Mexico 3 All United States

Mexico and Guatemala 3 E. and N. of N. America Neotropical 3 S. Atlantic States and California Mexico 5 All United States to Canada Central American 2 California and S. Central States Neotropical 5 The whole region

Mexico, Palæarctic 1 S. and S. Central States

Mexico to Venezuela 1 Texas and Rio Grande 1 Southern States

Neotropical 2 All United States

Mexico to Columbia 1 Texas)

Neotropical genus 2 N. of Pennsylvania

Palæarctic 1 Boreal America

***

Palæarctic
2 E. and N. of N. America Palæarctic
4 Alaska to Utah

Palæarctic
1 Arizona and Texas to Mexico Mexico
1 Western, Cen., & Southern States Mexico
2 S. Eastern States

Palæarc., Columb. (mig.) 6 Boreal America and E. side of Palæarctic

Rocky Mountains
1 Mouth of Yellowstone River

1 High central plains to E. States Palæarc., Mexico, Andes
and Canada

of Columbia

91. Centronyx
ALAUDIDA.
92. Otocorys
MOTACILLIDE.
93. Anthus
94. Neocorys...
TYRANNIDÆ.
95. Sayornis

(Pyrocephalus 96. Empidonax

] The whole region
1 Nebraska

Cosmopolite

3 E. States to Canada, California
1 Gila and Rio Grande)
7 The whole region

Mexico to Ecuador
Neotropical
Mexico to Ecuador

Order, Family, and

Genus.

No. of
Species.

Range within the Region.

Range beyond the Region.

97. Contopus 98. Myiarchus 99. Empidias 100. Tyrannus

(Milvulus

3 N. and E. of Rocky Mountains Mexico to Amazonia
2 E. and W. coasts and Canada Neotropical
1 Eastern States

Mexico
4 An United States to Canada Neotropical
1 Texas)

Neotropical genus

PICARIÆ

PICIDE. 101. Picoides 102. Picus 103. Sphyrapicus 104. Campephilus... 105. Hylatomus 106. Centurus 107. Melanerpes 108. Colaptes

3 Arctic zone and Rocky Mounts. Palæarctic
6 All United States and Canada All regs. but Eth. & Aus.
6 Brit. Columbia and Pennsylvania Mexico and Guatemala

southwards
2 United States and Canada Neotropical
1 E. and W. States and Canada
3 The whole region

Mexico to Venezuela
3 United States and S. Canada Neotropical
3 United States and Canada Neotropical

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1 N. W. America

Jamaica
2 All U. States & British Columbia Almost cosmopolite

TROCHILIDA. 117. Trochilus 118. Selasphorus 119. Atthis

2 The whole region

Mexico to Veragua (? mi.) 2 W. coast and Centre

Mexico to Veragua 2 California and Colorado Valley Mexico to Guatemala

PSITTACI.

CONURIDÆ, 120. Conurus ...

1 S. and S. E. States

Neotropical

COLUMBÆ.

COLUMBIDE 121. Columba 122. Ectopistes 123. Melopelia 124. Zenaidura 125. Chæmepelia ..

VOL II.-11

3 W. and Central States to Canada All regs. but Australian
1 E. coast to Cen. plains, Canada

and British Columbia
1 W. and S. Central States Neotropical
1 All United States to Canada Mexico to Veragua
i California and S. E. States Neotropical

Order, Family, and

Genus.

No. of
Species.

Range within the Region.

Range beyond the Region.

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1 S. Central States

Mexico and Guatemala 5 All United States and to Canada Mexico to Honduras and

Costa Rica
1 California

Mexico
2 Arizona and California
i California and Oregon
3 N. and N. W. America

Palæarctic
1 Rocky Mountains
2 N. and N. W. America
1 E. & N. Cen. States and Canada
1 N. United States and Canada Palæarctic
4 Arctic zone and to 39° N. Lat. Palæarctic

in Rocky Mountains

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2 E. and Central States to Canada Mexico, Honduras

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ACCIPITRES.
VULTURIDE.

Sub-Family
(CATHARTINE.)
138. Catharista
139. Psuedogryphis

FALCONIDE 140. Polyborus 141. Circus 142. Antenor... 143. Astur 144. Accipiter 145. Tachytriorchis 146. Buteo 147. Archibuteo 148. Asturina 149. Aquila...

150. Haliæetus 151. Nauclerus

(Rostrhamus 152. Elanus 153. Ictinia 154. Falco 155. Hierofalco 156. Cerchneis

1 S. States to Florida & California Neotropical
1 All N. America

Nearly cosmopolite
2 California and Texas

Neotropical
1 All N. America

| Almost cosmopolite
3 All temperate N. America Almost cosmopolite
1 New Mexico to California Neotropical
12 | All N. America

All regs. but Australian 3 All N. America

N. Palæarctic 1 S. E. States

Neotropical 1. The whole region

Palæarc., Ethiop.,Indian 2 All N. America

All regs. but Neotropical 1 E. coast to Pennsylvania and Neotropical

Wisconsin
1 Florida)

Neotropical
1 Southern and Western States Tropical regions
i Southern States

Neotropical
7 The whole region

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Almost cosmopolite 2 N. of N. America

N. Palæarctic 1 All N. America

Almost cosmopolite

PANDIONIDE. 157. Pandion...

1 Temperate N. America

Cosmopolite

Order, Family, and

Genus.

No. of
Species.

Range within the Region.

Range beyond the Region

STRIGIDE. 158. Surnia 159. Nyctea 160. Glaucidium 161. Micrathene 162. Pholeoptyux... 163. Bubo 164. Scops 165. Syrnium 166. Asio 167. Nyctale ... 168. Strix

1 Arctic & N. Temperate America N. Palæarctic
1 S. Carolina to Greenland

N. Palæarctic
1 Oregon and California

Neotropical, Palæarctic 1 Arizona and New Mexico Mexico 1 N. W. America, Texas

Neotropical 1 All N. America

All regs. but Australian 2 The whole region

Almost cosmopolite 2 E. States, California, Canada All regs. but Australian 2 The whole region

All regs. but Australian 3 All N. America

Palæarctic 1 Temperate N. America Almost cosmopolite

...

Peculrar or very Characteristic Genera of Wading and Swimming Birds.
GRALLÆ.
SCOLOPACIDE.
Micropelma 1 N. America

Andes to Chili
Philoliela

1 Eastern States to Canada
CHARADRIIDX.
Aphriza ... 1 W. coast of America

West of S. America
ANSERES.
ANATIDA
Aix
1 N. America

China
Bucephala 4 N. America

Europe
Edemia... 3 N. America

Europe
Harelda ...
1 | Arctic

Arctic Seas
Somateria
5 Arctic

North Palæarctic
Camptolæmus i N. E. America (? extinct)
LARIDE.
Creagrus

1 California and N. Pacific coasts

...

CHAPTER XVI.

SUMMARY OF THE PAST CHANGES AND GENERAL RELATIONS OF

THE SEVERAL REGIONS.

HAVING now closed our survey of the animal life of the whole earth—a survey which has necessarily been encumbered with a multiplicity of detail—we proceed to summarize the general conclusions at which we have arrived, with regard to the past history and mutual relations of the great regions into which we have divided the land surface of the globe.

All the palæontological, no less than the geological and physical evidence, at present available, points to the great land masses of the Northern Hemisphere as being of immense antiquity, and as the area in which the higher forms of life were developed. In going back through the long series of the Tertiary formations, in Europe, Asia, and North America, we find a continuous succession of vertebrate forms, including all the highest types now existing or that have existed on the earth. These extinct animals comprise ancestors or forerunners of all the chief forms now living in the Northern Hemisphere; and as we go back farther and farther into the past, we meet with ancestral forms of those types also, which are now either confined to, or specially characteristic of, the land masses of the Southern Hemisphere. Not only do we find that elephants, and rhinoceroses, and hippopotami, were once far more abundant in Europe than they are now in the tropics, but we also find that the apes of West Africa and Malaya, the lemurs of Madagascar, the Edentata of Africa and South America, and the

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