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Islands ; Xanthomelus (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Cicinnurus (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; Paradigalla (1 sp.), New Guinea; Semioptera (1 sp.), Gilolo and Batchian.

Sub-family II. Epimachinæ.—Epimachus (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Drepanornis (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Seleucides (1 sp.), New Guinea (Plate X., Vol. I., p. 414); Ptilorkis (4 sp.), New Guinea and North Australia.

Sub-family III. Tectonarchinæ (Bower-birds).--Sericulus (1 sp.), Eastern Australia ; Ptilonorhynchus (1 sp.), Eastern Australia; Chlamydodera (4 sp.), North and East Australia; Ælurædus (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and East Australia ; Amblyornis (1 sp.), New Guinea.

FAMILY 22.-MELIPHAGIDÆ. (23 Genera, 190 Species.)

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----|---- ---- ----|----1.2.3.4 (As in the Hand List, but omitting Zosterops, and slightly

altering the arrangement.) The extensive group of the Meliphagidæ, or Honey-suckers, is wholly Australian, for the genus Zosterops, which extends into the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, does not naturally belong to it. Several of the genera are confined to Australia, others to New Zealand, while a few range over the whole Australian region. The genera are distributed as follows:

Myzomela (18 sp.), has the widest range, extending from Celebes to the Samoa Islands, and to Timor and Eastern Australia ; Entomophila (4 sp.), Australia and New Guinea; Gliciphila (10 sp.), Australia, Timor, New Guinea, and New Caledonia ; Acanthorhynchus (2 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Meliphaga (1 sp.), Australia ; Ptilotis (40 sp.), Gilolo and Lombok to Australia and Tasmania, and to the Samoa and Tonga Islands ; Meliornis (5 sp.). Australia and Tasmania ; Prosthemadera (1 sp.), Pogonornis (1 sp.), New Zealand ; Anthornis (4 sp.), New Zealand and Chatham Islands ; Anthochora (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Xan

thotis (4 sp.), Papuan Islands and Australia ; Leptornis (2 sp.), Samoa Islands and New Caledonia; Philemon = Tropidorhyncus (18 sp.), Moluccas and Lombok to New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania and New Caledonia ; Entomiza (2 sp.), Australia ; Manorhina (5 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Euthyrhynchus (3 sp.), New Guinea ; Melirrhophetes (2 sp.), New Guinea ; Melidectes (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Melipotes (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Melithreptus (8 sp.), New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania; (397) Moho (3 sp.), Sandwich Islands ; Chợtoptila (1 sp.), Sandwich Islands.

FAMILY 23.—NECTARINIIDÆ. (11 Genera, 122 Species.)

GEXERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTROPICAL | NEARCTIC | PALÆARCTIC
SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS.

ETHIOPIAN ORIENTAL AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS.

--------|-8--| 1.2.3.41.2.3.41 1.2-

The Nectariniidæ, or Sun-birds, form a rather extensive group of insectivorous honey-suckers, often adorned with brilliant metallic plumage, and bearing a superficial resemblance to the American humming-birds, although not in any way related to them. They abound in the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as New Ireland, and south to Queensland, while one species inhabits the hot Jordan Valley in the Palæarctic region. For the Eastern genera I follow Lord Walden's classification (Ibis, 1870); the African species not having been so carefully studied are mostly placed in one genus. The genera adopted are as follows :

Promerops (1 sp.), South Africa; Nectarinia (60 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region; Cinnyricinclus (5 sp.), West Africa ; Neodre. panis (1 sp.), Madagascar; Arachnecthra (13 sp.), Palestine, all India to Hainan, the Papuan Islands, and North-east Australia ; Æthopyga (15 sp.), Himalayas and Central India to West China, Hainan, Java, and Northern Celebes ; Nectarophila (5 sp.), Central India and Ceylon, Assam and Aracan to Java, Celebes and the Philippines ; Chalcostetha (6 sp.), Malay Peninsula to New Guinea; Anthreptes (1 sp.), Siam, Malay Peninsula to

Sula Islands, and Flores ; Cosmeteira (1 sp.), Papuan Islands ; Arachnothera (15 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding Philippines) Celebes, Lombok, and Papuan Islands.

FAMILY 24.—DICÆIDÆ. (5 Genera, 107 Species.)

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The Dicæidæ, or Flower-peckers, consist of very small, gailycoloured birds, rather abundant over the whole Oriental and much of the Australian regions, and one genus extending over the Ethiopian region. The genera here adopted are the following :

(622) Zosterops (68 sp.), the whole Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as the Fiji Islands, and north to Pekin and Japan ; (400 – 403) Diccun (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, except China, with the Australian region as far as the Solomon Islands ; (404) Pachyglossa (2 sp. 1437 1442), Nepal and Northern Celebes ; (405) Piprisoma (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon and Timor; (1450) Pardalotus (10 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; (407 — 409) Prionochilus (5 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and Papuan Islands.

Solomon rept China, with the Aug 25 sp.), the whole 0

FAMILY 25.—DREPANIDIDÆ. (4 Genera, 8 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTROPICAL NEARCTIC | PALÆARCTIC ETHIOPIAN I ORIENTAL I AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONA. | SUB-RECIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. I SUB-REGIONS. | SUB-REGIONS.

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The Drepanididæ are confined to the Sandwich Islands, and I follow Mr. Sclater's suggestion in bringing together the following genera to form this family :

Drepanis (3 sp.); Hemignathus (3 sp.) ; Loxops (1 sp.); Psittirostra (1 sp.). If these are correctly associated, the great differences in the bill indicate that they are the remains of a larger and more varied family, once inhabiting more extensive land surfaces in the Pacific.

FAMILY 26.-CEREBIDÆ. (11 Genera, 55 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTROPICAL NEAROTIC | PALÆARCTIC ETHIOPIAN I ORIENTAL I AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS,

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2.3.

----|---- ----|---(According to the arrangement of Messrs. Sclater and Salvin.)

The Corebidæ, or Sugar-birds, are delicate little birds allied to the preceding families, but with extensile honey-sucking tongues. They are almost wholly confined to the tropical parts of America, only one species of Certhiola ranging so far north as Florida. The following is the distribution of the genera :

Diglossa (14 sp.), Peru and Bolivia to Guiana and Mexico; Diglossopis (1 sp.), Ecuador to Venezuela; Oreomanes (1 sp.), Ecuador; Conirostrum (6 sp.), Bolivia to Ecuador and Columbia ; Hemidacnis (1 sp.), Upper Amazon and Columbia; Dacnis. (13 sp.), Brazil to Ecuador and Costa Rica ; Certhidea (2 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; Chlorophanes (2 sp.), Brazil to Central America and Cuba ; Coreba (4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; Certhiola (10 sp.), Amazon to Mexico, West Indies, and Florida; Glossoptila (1 sp.), Jamaica.

FAMILY 27.–MNIOTILTIDÆ. (18 Genera, 115 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTROPICAL NEARCTIC PALÆARCTIC
SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS.

ETHIOPIAN
SUB-REGIONS.

ORIENTAL
SUB-REGIONS.

AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS.

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-2.3.4 1.2.3.4

---- ---- -(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are followed for the Neotropical,

Baird and Allen for the Nearctic region.) The Mniotiltidæ, or Wood-warblers, are an interesting group of small and elegant birds, allied to the preceding family and ío the greenlets, and perhaps also to the warblers and tits of Europe.

They range over all North America from Panama to the Arctic regions, but do not extend far beyond the tropic in Southern America. They are almost as abundant in the Nearctic as in the Neotropical region ; and considering the favourable condi. tions of existence in Tropical America, this fact, in connection with their absence from the South Temperate zone would lead us to suppose that they originated in North Temperate America, and subsequently spread southward into the tropics. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that their metropolis, in the breeding season, is to the north of the United States. The genera adopted by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are as follows:

(918) Siurus (4 sp.), Venezuela and West Indies to Eastern States and Canada; Mniotilta (1 sp.), Venezuela, Mexico, and Antilles to the Eastern States ; Parula (5 sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and the Eastern States, and Canada; Protonotaria (1 sp.), Antilles to Ohio; Helminthophaga (8 sp.), Columbia to Arctic America Helmintherus (2 sp.), Central America to Eastern States; Perissoglossa (1 sp.), Antilles and Eastern States ; Dendræca (33 sp.), Amazon to Antilles, and Arctic America, and south to Chili; Oporornis (2 sp.), Guatemala to Eastern States; Geothlypis (11. sp.), all North America and Brazil ; Myiodioctes (5 sp.), all North America and Columbia ; Basileuterus (22 sp.), Bolivia and Brazil to Mexico ; Setophaga (15 sp.), Brazil to Canada ; Ergaticus (2 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; Cardellina (1 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; (1440) Granatellus (3 sp.), Amazon to Mexico; (1441) Teretristis (2 sp.), Cuba; (1439) Icteria (2 sp.), Costa Rica and United States to Canada.

FAMILY 28.–VIREONIDÆ. (7. Genera, 63 Species.)

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(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are followed for the Neotropical gepera ; Professor Baird and Mr. Allen for those of the Nearctic region.)

VOL. II.—19

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