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The Vireonidæ, or Greenlets, are a family of small fly-catching birds wholly restricted to the American continent, where they range from Paraguay to Canada. They are allied to the Mniotiltidæ and perhaps also to the Australian Pachycephalidæ. Only two of the genera, ,with about a dozen species, inhabit the Nearctic region. The distribution of the genera is as follows:

Vireosylvia (13 sp.), Venezuela to Mexico, the Antilles, the Eastern States and Canada ; Vireo (14 sp.), Central America and the Antilles to Canada ; Neochloe (1 sp.), Mexico; Hylophilus (20 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; Laletes (1 sp.), Jamaica; Vireolanius (5 sp.), Amazonia to Mexico; Cychlorhis (9 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico.

FAMILY 29.-AMPELIDÆ. (4 Genera, 9 Species.)



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The Ampelidæ, represented in Europe by the waxwing, are a small family, characteristic of the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions, but extending southward to Costa Rica and the West Indian islands. The genera are distributed as follows:

(1539) Ampelis (3 sp.), the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, and southward to Guatemala; (1360) Ptilogonys (2 sp.), Central America ; (1942) Dulus (2 sp.), West Indian Islands ; (1361) Phoenopepla (1 sp.), Mexico and the Gila Valley.

FAMILY 30.—HIRUNDINIDÆ. ( 9 Genera, 91 Species.)




The Hirundinidæ, or Swallows, are true cosmopolites. Although they do not range quite so far north (except as stragglers) as a few of the extreme polar birds, yet they pass beyond the Arctic Circle both in America and Europe, Cotyle riparia having been observed in the Parry Islands, while Hirundo rustica has been seen both in Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla. Cotyle riparia and Chelidon urbica also breed in great numbers in northern Lapland, latitude 67° to 70° north. Many of the species also, have an enormous range, the common swallow (Hirundo rustica) inhabiting Europe, Asia and Africa, from Lapland to the Cape of Good Hope and to the Moluccas. The genera of swallows are not well determined, a number having been established of which the value is uncertain. I admit the following, referring by numbers to the Hand List :

(215 — 221 226 — 228) Hirundo (40 sp.), the range of the entire family ; (222 223) Psalidoprogne (10 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (224) Phedina (1 sp.), Madagascar and Mascarene Islands; (225) Petrochelidon (5 sp.), North and South America and Cape of Good Hope; (229 — 232 ? 234) Atticora (8 sp.), the Neotropical region and ? Australia ; (235 237) Cotyle (11 sp.), Europe, India, Africa, North America, Antilles and Ecuador; (236) Stelgidopteryx (5 sp.), La Plata to United States ; (238 and 239) Chelidon (6 sp.), Palæarctic region, Nepal, Borneo ; (240 — 242) Progne (5 sp.), all North and South America

FAMILY 31.—ICTERIDÆ. (24 Genera, 110 Species.)





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The Icteridæ, or American hang-nests, range over the whole continent, from Patagonia and the Falkland Islands to the Arctic Circle. Only about 20 species inhabit the Nearctic region, while, as usual with exclusively American families, the larger proportion of the genera and species are found in the tropical parts of South America. The genera adopted by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are the following :

Clypeicterus (1 sp.), Upper Amazon ; Ocyalus (2 sp.), Upper Amazon to Mexico ; Ostinops (8 sp.), Brazil and Bolivia to Mexico; Cassiculus (1 sp.), Mexico; Cassicus (10 sp.), South Brazil and Bolivia to Costa Rica ; Icterus (34 sp.), La Plata to the Antilles and United States; Dolichonyx (1 sp.), Paraguay to Canada; Molothrus (8 sp.), La Plata to Northern United States ; Agelous (7 sp.), La Plata and Chili to Northern United States ; Xanthocephalus (1 sp.), Mexico to California and Canada ; Xanthosomus (4 sp.), La Plata to Venezuela; Amblyrhamphus (1 sp.), La Plata and Bolivia ; Gymnomystax (1 sp.), Amazonia and Guiana; Pseudoleistes (2 sp.), La Plata and Brazil ; Leistes (3 sp.), La Plata to Venezuela ; Sturnella (5 sp.), Patagonia and Falkland Islands to Middle United States; Curæus (1 sp.), Chili; Nesopsar (1 sp.), Jamaica ; Scolecophgaus (2 sp.), Mexico to Arctic Circle; Lampropsar (4 sp.), Amazonia and Ecuador to Mexico; Quiscalus (10 sp.), Venezuela and Columbia to South and Central United States; Hypopyrrhus (1 sp.), Columbia ; Aphobus (1 sp.), Brazil and Bolivia ; Cassidix (2 sp.), Brazil to Mexico and Cuba.

FAMILY 32.—TANAGRIDÆ. (43 Genera, 304 Species.)





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The Tanagers are an extensive family of varied and beautiful fruit-eating birds, almost peculiar to the Neotropical region, only four species of a single genus (Pyranga) extending into the Eastern United States and Rocky Mountains. Southward they range to La Plata. They are especially abundant in the forest regions of South America east of the Andes, where no less than 40 out of the 43 genera occur; 23 of the genera are peculiar to this sub-region, while only 1 (Phlogothraupis) is

peculiar to Central America and Mexico, and 2 (Spindalis and Phoenicophilus) to the West Indian islands. The genera adopted by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin with their distribution will be found at Vol. II., p. 99, in our account of Neotropical Zoology.

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The great family of the Fringillidæ, or finches, is in a very unsettled state as regards their division into genera, the most divergent views being held by ornithologists as to the constitution and affinities of many of the groups. All the Australian finchlike birds appear to belong to the Ploceidæ, so that the finches, as here constituted, are found in every region and sub-region, except the Australian region from which they are entirely absent -a peculiar distribution hardly to be found in any other family of birds.

Many European ornithologists separate the Emberizidæ, or buntings, as a distinct family, but as the American genera have not been so divided I am obliged to keep them together; but the genera usually classed as “buntings " are placed last, as a subfamily. In the following arrangement of the genera, I have done what I could to harmonize the views of the best modern writers. For convenience of reference the succession of the genera is that of the Hand List, and the numbers of the sub-genera are given whenever practicable :

(1793 1795) Fringilla (6 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region, including the Atlantic Islands ; (1794) Acanthis (3 sp.), Europe to Siberia, Persia, and North-West Himalayas ; (1796) Procarduelis (1 sp.), High Himalayas and East Thibet ; (1797 – 1803) Chrysomitris (18 sp.), Neotropical and Nearctic regions, Europe, and Siberia; (1804) Metoponia (1 sp.), East Europe to North West Himalayas ; (1805 and 1809) Chlorospiza (9 sp.), Palæarctic region and Africa to the Cape of Good Hope; (1808 — 1809) Dryospiza (14 sp.), South Europe, Palestine, Canaries, and all Africa ; (1810) Sycalis (18 sp.), the whole Neotropical region ; (1811 – 1813 1816 – 1819) Pyrgita (34 sp.), Palæarctic and Oriental regions, and all Africa ; (1814) Montifringilla (4 sp.), Palæarctic region ; (1815) Fringillauda (2 sp.), NorthWest Himalayas to East Thibet ; (1820 — 1822) Coccothraustes (6 sp.), Palæarctic region and Nepal, Nearctic region to Mexico; (1823) Eophona (2 sp.), China and Japan; (1824) Mycerobas (2 sp.), Central Asia to Persia, High Himalayas, and East Thibet; (1825) Chaunoproctus (1 sp.), Bonin Islands, south-east of Japan, (probably Palæarctic) ; (1826) Geospiza (7 sp.),Galapagos Islands ; (1827) Camarhynchus (5 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; (1828) Cactornis (4 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; (1830 – 1832) Phrygilus (10 sp.), Columbia to Fuegia and the Falkland Islands ; (1833) Xenospingus (1 sp.), Peru; (1834) Diuca (3 sp.), Peru to Chili and Patagonia ; (1835 and 1837) Emberizoides (3 sp.), Venezuela to Paraguay ; (1836) Donacospiza (1 sp.), South Brazil and La Plata ; (1839) Chamæospiza (1 sp.), Mexico; (1838 and 1840) Embernagra (9 sp.), Arizona to La Plata ; (1841) Hæmophila (6 sp.), Mexico to Costa Rica; (1842) Atlapetes (1 sp.), Mexico; (1843) Pyrgisoma (5 sp.), Mexico to Costa Rica; (1844 and 1845) Pipilo (12 sp.), all North America to Guatemala ; (1846) Junco (6 sp.), all the United States to Guatemala; (1847) Zonotrichia (9 sp.), the whole Nearctic and Neotropical regions ; (1848 1849) Melospiza (7 sp.), Sitka and United States to Guatemala; (1850) Spizella (7 sp.), Canada to Guatemala ; (1851) Passerella (4 sp.), the Nearctic region and Northern Asia; (1852) Passerculus (6 sp.), Nearctic region and to Guatemala; (1853) Pocecetes (1 sp.), all United States and Mexico; (1854) Ammodromus (4 sp.), all United States to Guatemala ; (1855) Coturniculus (6 sp.), north and east of North America to Jamaica and Bolivia ; (1856) Peuccea (6 sp.), South Atlantic States and California to Mexico; (1857) Tiaris (1 sp.), Brazil ; (1858) Volatinia (1 sp.), Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia ; (1859) Cyanospiza (5 sp.), Canada to Guatemala; (1860 1861) Paroaria (6 sp.), Tropical South America, east of the Andes ; (1862) Coryphospingus (4 sp.), Tropical South America ; (1883) Haplospiza (2 sp.), Mexico and Brazil ; (1884 1891) Phonipara (8 sp.), Mexico to Columbia, the greater Antilles ; (1865) Poospiza

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