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(13 sp.), California and South Central States to Bolivia and La Plata ; (424) Spodiornis (1 sp.), Andes of Quito ; (1866 1867) Pyrrhula (9 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region to the Azores and High Himalayas ; (1868) Crithagra (17 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, Mauritius, Syria; (1869) Ligurnus (2 sp.), West Africa ; (1870 1871) Carpodacus (18 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions to Mexico and Central India; (1872 — 1874) Erythrospiza (6 sp.), Southern parts of Palæarctic region; (1875) Uragus (2 sp.), Siberia and Japan; (1876) Cardinalis (2 sp.), South and Central States to Venezuela : (1877) Pyrrhuloxia (1 sp.), Texas and Rio Grande; (1878 1879) Guiraca (6 sp.), Southern United States to La Plata ; (1880) Amaurospiza (2 sp.), Costa Rica and Brazil ; (1881) Hedymeles (2 sp.), all United States to Columbia ; (1882) Pheucticus (5 sp.), Mexico to Peru and Bolivia ; (1883) Oryzoborus (6 sp.), Mexico to Ecuador and South Brazil; (1884) Melopyrrha (1 sp.), Cuba; (1885) Loxigilla (4 sp.), Antilles ; (1886 1887) Spermophila (44 sp.), Texas to Bolivia and Uruguay; (1888) Catamenia (4 sp.), Columbia to Bolivia ; (1889) Neorhynchus (3 sp.), West Peru; (1892) Catamblyrhyncus (1 sp.), Columbia; (1893) Loxia (7 sp.), Europe to North-west India and Japan, Arctic America to Pennsylvania, Mexico; (1894) Pinicola (3 sp.), Arctic America, Northeast Europe to the Amoor, Camaroons Mountains West Africa; (1895) Propyrrhula (1 sp.), Darjeeling in the winter, ? Thibet ; (1896) Pyrrhospiza (1 sp.), Snowy Himalayas; (1807) Hæmatospiza (1 sp.), South-east Himalayas, 5,000 - 10,000 feet; (1898 1899) Linota (12 sp.), Europe to Central Asia, north and east of North America; (1900) Leucosticte (7 sp.), Siberia and Thibet to Kamschatka, and from Alaska to Utah.

Sub-family Emberizinæ.-(1995) Calamospiza (1 sp.), Arizona and Texas to Mexico; (1906) Chondestes (2 sp.), Western, Central, and Southern States to Mexico and Nicaragua ; (1907 — 1910) Exspiza (9 sp.), Palæarctic region, India, Burmah, and South China, South-east United States to Columbia ; (1911 – 1920) Emberiza (28 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region (continental), to Central India in winter ; (1921) Gubernatrix (1 sp.), Paraguay and La Plata, (according to Messrs. Sclater and Salvin this comes next to Pipilo); (1922) Fringillaria (8 sp.), Africa and South Europe; (1923 – 1925) Plectrophanes (6 sp.), Arctic Zone to Northern Europe and North China, Arctic America, and east side of Rocky Moun. tains; (1926) Centronyx (1 sp.), Mouth of Yellowstone River.

FAMILY 34.—PLOCEIDÆ. (29 Genera, 252 species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

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The Ploceidæ; or Weaver-finches, are especially characteristic of the Ethiopian region, where most of the genera and nearly four-fifths of the species are found; the remainder being pretty equally divided between the Oriental and Australian regions. Like the true finches these have never been properly studied, and it is exceedingly difficult to ascertain what genera are natural and how far those of Australia and Africa are distinct. The following enumeration must therefore be taken as altogether tentative and provisional. When the genera adopted differ from those of the Hand List they will be referred to by numbers.

Textor (5 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1650 — 1654 1657) Hyphantornis (32 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (1655 1656) Symplectes (8 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Malimbus (9 sp.), West Africa; (1659 1661) Ploceus (6 sp.), West and East Africa, the Oriental region (excluding Philippines); (1860) Nelicurvius (1 sp.), Madagascar; Foudia (12 sp.), Madagascar and Mascarene Islands, Tropical Africa ; (1663 1664) Sporopipes (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1865 – 1667) Pyromelana (14 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, Abyssinia to 10,500 feet; Philetærus (1 sp.), South Africa ; Nigrita (7 sp.), West Africa to Upper Nile; Plocepasser (4 sp.), East and South Africa ; (1872 — 1674) Vidua (7 sp.), Tropical and South Africa (Plate V., Vol. I., p. 264); (1675 – 1677) Coliuspasser (9 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Chera (1 sp.), South Africa; Spermospiza (2 sp.), West Africa; Pyrenestes (6 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1682 — 1687 1689 1692 1693 1698) Estrilda (26 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, India, Burmah, and Java to Australia ; (1688 1690 1691 1695 1696) Pytelia (24 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1694) Hypargos (2 sp.), Mozambique and Madagascar; (1697) Emblema (1 sp.), North-west Australia (1699 1712 – 1717) Amadina (15 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, Moluccas to Australia and the Samoa Islands ; (1700 1701 1710) Spermestes (8 sp.), Tropical Africa and Madagascar; (1702) Amauresthes (1 sp.), East and West Africa ; (1703 1707 – 1709 1711) Munia (30 sp.), Oriental region to Timor and New Guinea; (1704) Donacola (3 sp.), Australia ; (1705 1706) Poephila (6 sp.), Australia ; (1718 — 1721) Erythrura (7 sp.), Sumatra to Java, Moluccas, Timor, New Guinea, and Fiji Islands; (1722) Hypochera (3 sp.), Tropical and South Africa.

FAMILY 35.-STURNIDÆ. (29 Genera, 124 Species.)

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The Sturnidæ, or Starlings, are a highly characteristic OldWorld group, extending to every part of the great Eastern continent and its islands, and over the Pacific Ocean to the Samoa Islands and New Zealand, yet wholly absent from the mainland of Australia. The family appears to be tolerably well-defined, and the following genera are generally considered to belong to it: (1558 1559 1562) Eulabes (13 sp.), the Oriental region to South-west China, Hainan, and Java,--and Flores, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands in the Australian region ; Ampeliceps (1 sp.), Tenasserim, Burmah, and Cochin China; Gymnops (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; Basilornis (2 sp.), Celebes and Ceram; Pastor (1 sp.), South-east Europe to India, Ceylon, and Burmah; Acridotheres (7 sp.), the whole Oriental region and Celebes ; (1568 1569) Sturnia (12 sp.), the whole Oriental region, North China, Japan, and Siberia, Celebes ; Dilophus (1 sp.) South Africa ; Sturnus (6 sp.), Palæarctic region, to India and South China in winter; Sturnopastor (4 sp.), India to Burmah and East Java ; Creadion (2 sp.) New Zealand; Heterolocha (1 sp.), New Zealand ; (1520) Callæas (2 sp.), New Zealand ; Buphaga (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Euryceros (1 sp.), Madagascar (see Plate VI., Vol. I, p. 278.) . This genus and the last should perhaps form distinct families. (1577) Juida (5 sp.), Central, West, and South Africa ; ( 578) Lamprocolius (20 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Cinnyricinclus (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Onychognathus (2 sp.), West Africa; (1681) Spreo (4 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (1582 — 1585) Amydrus (7 sp.), South and East Africa, Palestine ; Aplonis (9 sp.), New Caledonia to the Tonga Islands ; (1587 — 1589) Calornis (18 sp.), the whole Malay Archipelago and eastward to the Ladrone and Samoa Islands ; (1590) Enodes (1 sp.), Celebes ; Scissirostrum (1 sp.), Celebes ; (1592) Saroglossa (1 sp.), Himalayas ; (1593) Hartlaubius (1 sp.), Madagascar; Fregilupus (1 sp.), Bourbon, but it has recently become extinct; (363) Falculia (1 sp)., Madagascar.

FAMILY 36.—ARTAMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 17 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEOTROPICAL
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The Artamidæ, or Swallow-shrikes, are a curious group of birds, ranging over the greater part of the Oriental and Australian regions as far east as the Fiji Islands and south to Tasmania. Only a single species inhabits India, and they are more plentiful in Australia than in any other locality. The only well-marked genus is Artamus.

There are a few Madagascar birds belonging to the genus Artamia, which some ornithologists place in this family, others with the Laniidæ, but which are here classed with the Oriolidæ. FAMILY 37.—ALAUDIDÆ. (15 Genera, 110 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

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The Alaudidæ, or Larks, may be considered as exclusively belonging to the great Eastern continent, since the Nearctic, Neotropical, and Australian regions have each only a single species. They abound most in the open plains and deserts of Africa and Asia, and are especially numerous in South Africa. The genera, including those recently established by Mr. Sharpe, are as follows:

Otocorys (8 sp.); the Palæarctic region, North America and south to the Andes of Columbia, North India; (1928 1929) Alauda (17 sp.), Palæarctic region, all Africa, the Peninsula of India, and Ceylon ; (1931) Galerita (10 sp.), Central Europe to Senegal and Abyssinia, Persia, India and North China ; (1932) Calendula (2 sp.), Abyssinia and South Africa ; (1933 1934) Calandrella (6 sp.), Europe, North Africa, India, Burmah, North China, and Mongolia; (1935 – 1937) Melanocorypha (7 sp.), South Europe to Tartary, Abyssinia, and North-west India ; Pallasia ( *p. 7781), East Asia ; (1988) Certhilauda (4 sp.), South Europe, South Africa ; Heterocorys (p. 7792) South Africa ; (1939) Alæmon (3 sp.), South-east Europe to Western India, and South Africa ; (1940) Mirafra (25 sp.), the Oriental and Ethiopian regions to Australia ; (1941) Ammomanes (10 sp.), South Europe to Palestine and Central India, and to Cape Verd Islands and South Africa ; (1942 1943) Megalophonus (6 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Tephrocorys (1 sp.), South Africa ; Pyrrhulauda (9 sp.), all Africa, Canary Islands, India and Ceylon.

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