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The Hylaplesidæ are Toads with perfect ears, and they seem to be confined to the Neotropical region. The only genus, Hylaplesia (5 sp.), inhabits Brazil, Chili, and the Island of Hayti.
FAMILY 10.—BUFONIDÆ. (6 Genera, 64 Species.)
The rather extensive family of the Bufonidæ, which includes our common Toad, and is characterised by prominent neck glands and tongue fixed in front, is almost universally distributed, but is very rare in the Australian region; one species being found in Celebes and one in Australia. The genera are :
Kalophrynus (2 sp.), Borneo ; Bufo (58 sp.), has the range of the entire family, except Australia; Otilophus (1 sp.), South America ; Peltaphryne (1 sp.), Porto Rico; Pseudobufo (1 sp.), Malay Peninsula ; Schismaderma (1 sp.), Natal; Notaden (1 sp.), East Central Australia.
FAMILY 11.-XENORHINIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
The Xenorhinidæ may be characterised as Toads with perfect ears and tongue free in front. The only species of Xénorhina is a native of New Guinea.
FAMILY 12.-ENGYSTOMIDÆ (15 Genera, 31 Species.)
The Engystomidæ are Toads without neck-glands and with the tongue tied in front. They are most abundant in the Oriental and Neotropical regions, especially in the latter, which contains about half the known species, with isolated species in Australia, Africa, and the Southern States of North America. They appear to be the remnant of a once extensive and universally distributed group, which has maintained itself in two remote regions, but is dying out everywhere else. The genera are :
Engystoma (9 sp.), Carolina to La Plata, with one species in South China ; Diplopelma (3 sp.), South India to China and Java; Cacopus (2 sp.), Central India ; Glyphoglossus (1 sp.), Pegu; Callula (4 sp.), Sikhim, Ceylon, China, and Borneo; Brachymerus 1 sp.), South Africa; Adenomera (1 sp.), Brazil ; Pachybatrachus (1 sp.), Australia ; Breviceps (2 sp.), South and West Africa; Chelydobatrachus (1 sp.), West Australia; Hypopachus (1 sp.), Costa Rica; Rhinoderma (1 sp.), Chili; Atelopus (1 sp.), Cayenne and Peru; Copea (1 sp.), South America ; Paludicola (1 sp.), New Granada.
FAMILY 13.-BOMBINATORIDÆ. (8 Genera, 9 Species.)
The Bombinatoridæ are a family of Frogs which have imperfect ears and no neck-glands, and they have a very peculiar and
interesting distribution, being confined to Central and South Europe, the southern part of South America, and New Zealand. They consist of many isolated groups forming five separate subfamilies. The genera are :
Bombinator, Central Europe and Italy; Pelobates and Didocus, Central Europe and Spain; Telmatobius (2 sp.), Peru and Brazil; Alsodes, Chonos Archipelago; Cacotus, Chili; Liopelma, New Zealand; Nannophryne, Straits of Magellan.
FAMILY 14--PLECTROMANTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
The Plectromantidæ, which are Frogs with neck-glands, and the toes but not the fingers dilated, consists of a single species of the genus Plectromantis. It inhabits the region west of the Andes, and south of the Equator.
FAMILY 15.-ALYTIDÆ. (5 Genera, 37 Species.)
The Alytidæ are Frogs with neck-glands and undilated toes. They are most abundant in the Ethiopian region, with a few species in the Nearctic and Australian regions, and one in Europe and Brazil' respectively. The genera are :
Alytes (1 sp.), Central Europe ; Scaphiopus (5 sp.), California to Mexico and the Eastern States; Hyperolius (29 sp.), all Africa, and two in New Guinea and North Australia; Helioporus (1 sp.), in Australia ; Nattereria (1 sp.), Brazil.
FAMILY 16.—PELODRYADÆ. (3 Genera, 7 Species.)
The Pelodryada are Tree Frogs with neck-glands, and are confined to the Australian and Neotropical regions. The genera are :
Phyllomedusa (3 sp.), South America to Paraguay; Chirodryas, Australia; and Pelodryas (3 sp.), Moluccas, New Guinea and Australia.
FAMILY 17.-HYLIDÆ. (11 Genera, 94 Species.)
The Hylidæ are glandless Tree Frogs with a broadened sacrum. They are most abundant in the Neotropical region, which contains more than two-thirds of the species ; about twenty species are Australian; six or seven are Nearctic, reaching northward to Great Bear Lake; while one only is European, and one Oriental. The genera are :
Hyla (62 sp.), having the range of the whole family; Hylella (1 sp.), Ololygon (1 sp.), Pohlia (2 sp.), Triprion (1 sp.), Opisthodelphys (1 sp.), and Nototrema (4 sp.), are South American ; while Trachycephalus (8 sp.), is peculiar to the Antilles, except one South American species; Pseudacris (1 sp.), ranges from Georgia, United States, to Great Bear Lake; Litoria (7 sp.), is Australian and Papuan, except one species in Paraguay; Ceratohyla (4 sp.), is only known from Ecuador.
FAMILY 18.–POLYPEDATIDÆ. (24 Genera, 124 Species.)
The Polypedatidæ, or glandless Tree Frogs with narrowed sacrum, are almost equally numerous in the Oriental and Neotropical regions, more than forty species inhabiting each, while in the Ethiopian there are about half this number, and the remainder are scattered over the other three regions, as shown in the enumeration of the genera >
Ixalus (16 sp.), Oriental, except one in Japan, and one in Western Polynesia; Rhacophorus (7 sp.), and Theloderma (1 sp.), are Oriental; Hylarana (10 sp.), Oriental, to the Solomon Islands and Tartary, Nicobar Islands, West Africa, and Madagascar; Megaliwalus (1 sp.), Seychelle Islands ; Leptomantis (1 sp.), Philippines; Platymantis (5 sp.), New Guinea, Philippines, and Fiji Islands; Cornufer (2 sp), Java and New Guinea ; Polypedates (19 sp.), mostly Oriental, but two species in West Africa, one Madagascar, two Japan, one Loo-Choo Islands; and one Hong Kong; Hylambates (3 sp.), Hemimantis (1 sp.), and Chiromantis (1 sp.), are Ethiopian; Rappia (13 sp.), is Ethiopian, and extends to Madagascar and the Seychelle Islands; Acris (2 sp.), is North American ; Elosia (1 sp.), Epirhivis (1 sp.), Phyllobates (9 sp.), Hylodes (26 sp.), Hyloxalus (1 sp.), Pristimantis (1 sp.), Crossodactylus (1 sp.), Calostethus (1 sp.), Strabomantis (1 sp.), and Leiyla (1 sp.), are Neotropical, the last two being Central American, while species of Hylodes and Phyllobates are found in the West Indian Islands,