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FAMILY 38.—MUGILIDÆ. (3 Genera, 78 Species.) “ Fresh-water and marine fishes, with oblong compressed bodies, cycloid scales, and small mouths, often without teeth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Coasts and fresh waters of all temperate and tropical regions.
Mugil (66 sp.) is mostly marine, and is very widely distributed ; several species (Grey Mullets) occur on the British coasts. Agonostoma (9 sp.) is confined to the fresh waters of the West Indies, Central America, New Zealand, Australia, Celebes, and the Comoro Islands. Myxus (3 sp.) is marine, and occurs both in the Atlantic and Pacific.
FAMILY 39.—OPHIOCEPHALIDÆ. (2 Genera, 26 Species.)
“Fresh-water fishes, with elongate subcylindrical scaled bodies; often leaving the water for a considerable time."
DISTRIBUTION.—Rivers of the Oriental region:-India, Ceylon, China, Malay Islands to Philippines and Borneo.
FAMILY 40.—TRICHONOTIDÆ. (2 Genera, 2 Species.) “ Marine carnivorous fishes, with elongate subcylindrical bodies, cycloid scales, and eyes directed upwards.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Coasts of Celebes, Ceram, and New Zealand.
FAMILY 41.-CEPOLIDÆ. (1 Genus, 7 Species.) “Marine fishes, with very long, compressed, band-like bodies, covered with small cycloid scales.”
DISTRIBUTION.— Temperate seas of Western Europe and Eastern Asia, and one species in the Malayan Seas.
Cepola rubescens (the Band fish) ranges from Scotland to the Mediterranean. All the other species but one are from Japan. FAMILY 42.—GOBIESOCIDÆ. (9 Genera, 21 Species.) “Carnivorous marine fishes, elongate, anteriorly depressed and scaleless, with dorsal fin on the tail.”
DISTRIBUTION.— Temperate and tropical seas ; Scandinavia to the Cape, California to Chili, West Indies, Red Sea, Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji Islands.
Three species of Lepadogaster have occurred in the English Channel. .
FAMILY 43.—PSYCHROLUTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)
“A large-headed, elongate, naked marine fish, with small teeth, and dorsal fin on the tail.”
DISTRIBUTION.—West Coast of North America (Vancouver's Island.)
FAMILY 44.–CENTRISCIDÆ. (2 Genera, 7 Species.) “ Marine fishes, with compressed, oblong or elevated bodies, elongate tubular mouth and no teeth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—West Coast of Europe and Africa, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean to Java, Philippines, and Japan.
A species of Centriscus has occurred on the South Coast of England, and another species is found both at Madeira and Japan.
FAMILY 45.-FISTULARIDÆ. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) “Marine fishes, very elongate, with long tubular mouth and small teeth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical seas, both in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, and as far east as the New Hebrides.
FAMILY 46.—MASTACEMBELIDÆ. (2 Genera, 9 Species.)
“Fresh-water fishes, with eel-like bodies and very long dorsal
DISTRIBUTION.—Rivers of the Oriental region, one species from Ceram (?).
FAMILY 47.—NOTACANTHI. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) “Marine fishes, with elongate bodies covered with very small scales, and snout protruding beyond the mouth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Greenland, Mediterranean, and West Australia.
Order II.-ACANTHOPTERYGII PHARYNGOGNATHI.
FAMILY 48.—-POMACENTRIDÆ. (8 Genera, 143 Species.)
“Marine fishes, with short compressed bodies covered with toothed scales, and with feeble dentition.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical parts of Pacific and Indian Ocean, less numerous in Tropical Atlantic, a few reaching the Mediterranean, Japan, and South Australia. Pomacentrus, Glyphidodon, and Heliastes are Atlantic genera.
FAMILY 49.-LABRIDÆ. (46 Genera, 396 Species.) “Herbivorous or carnivorous marine fishes, with elongate bodies covered with cycloid scales, and teeth adapted for crushing the shells of mollusca."
DISTRIBUTION.— Temperate and tropical regions of all parts of the globe.
The genera Labrus, Crenilabrus, Ctenolabrus, Acantholabrus, Centrolabrus, and Coris, have occurred in British seas, and all of these, except the last, are confined to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic as far as Madeira. Eight other genera are characteristic of the Atlantic, most of them being West Indian, but one from the coasts of North America. Seven genera are common to all the great oceans; the remainder being confined to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from Japan to New Zealand, but being far more abundant between the Tropics.
FAMILY 50.-EMBROTOCIDÆ. (2 Genera, 17 Species.)
“Marine viviparous fishes, with compressed elevated bodies covered with cycloid scales, and with small teeth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Pacific Ocean from Japan and California. northwards. One species enters the fresh waters of California.
FAMILY 51.-GERRIDÆ. (1 Genus, 28 Species.) “Marine fishes, with compressed oblong bodies covered with minutely serrated scales, and with small teeth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical seas; ranging south as far as the Cape of Good Hope and Australia, and north to Japan and (one species) to New Jersey, U.S.
FAMILY 52.-CHROMIDÆ. (19 Genera, 100 Species.) “Fresh-water herbivorous or carnivorous fishes, with elevated or elongate scaly bodies, and small teeth.”
DISTRIBUTION.—The Oriental, Ethiopian, and Neotropical regions.
Eutroplus (2 sp.) is from the rivers of Southern India and Ceylon; Chronis (15 sp.), Sarotherodon (2 sp.), and Hemichromis (4 sp.), are from the rivers and lakes of Africa, extending to the Sahara and Palestine. The remaining 15 genera are American, and several of them have a restricted distribution. Acara (17 sp.) inhabits Tropical South America and the Antilles ; Theraps (1 sp.), Guatemala ; Heros (26 sp.), Texas and
Mexico to La Plata; Mesonauta (1 sp.), Brazil ; Petenia (1 sp.),
FAMILY 53.-GADOPSIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “Fresh-water fish, with rather elongate body covered with very small scales, the upper jaw overhanging the lower, forming an obtuse snout.”
DISTRIBUTION.–Rivers of Australia and Tasmania.
FAMILY 53a.-LYCODIDÆ. (3 Genera, 14 Species.) "Marine fishes, with elongate bodies, and the dorsal united with the anal fin.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Arctic seas of America and Greenland, and Antarctic seas about the Falkland Islands and Chiloe Island.
FAMILY 54.—GADIDÆ. (21 Genera, 58 Species.) “Marine fishes, with more or less elongate bodies covered with small smooth scales.”
DISTRIBUTION.—Cold and temperate regions of both hemispheres; in the North extending as far south as the Mediterranean, Canary Islands, New York and Japan (and one species to the Philippines and Bay of Bengal), and in the South to Chili and New Zealand.
Gadus (Cod), Merluccius (Hake), Phycis, Lota, Molva, Couchia, Motella, and Raniceps, are British. Lota inhabits fresh waters.