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but a few species of Belone and Hemiramphus are found in rivers in various parts of the world.

FAMILY 73.-CYPRINODONTIDÆ. (20 Genera, 106 Species.)

“Fresh-water fishes, covered with scales, the sexes frequently differing, mostly viviparous

DISTRIBUTION.—Southern Europe, Asia, Africa and North America, but most abundant in Tropical America.

The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Cyprinodon (11 sp.), Italy, North Africa and Western Asia to Persia, also North America from Texas to New York; Fitzroya (1 sp.), Montevideo; Characodon (1 sp.), Central America ; Tellia. (1 sp.), Alpine pools of the Atlas: Limnurgus (1 sp.), Mexican plateau; Lucania (1 sp.), Texas ; Haplochilus (18 sp.), India, Java, Japan, Tropical Africa, Madagascar, and the Seychelle Islands, Carolina to Brazil, Jamaica ; Fundulus (17 sp.), North and Central America and Ecuador, Spain and East Africa ; Rivulus (3 sp.), Tropical America, Cuba and Trinidad ; Orestias (6 sp.), Lake Titacaca, Andes ; Jenynsia (1 sp.), Rio Plata; Pseudoxiphophorus (2 sp.), Central America ; Belonesox (1 sp.), Central America; Gambusia (8 sp.), Antilles, Central America and Texas ; Anableps (3 sp.), Central and Equatorial America ; Pæcilia (16 sp.), Antilles, Central and South America ; Mollienesia (4 sp.), Louisiana to Mexico; Platypæcilus (1 sp.), Mexico; Girardinus (10 sp.), Antilles and South Carolina to Uruguay; Lepistes (1 sp.), Barbadoes.

Family 74.—HETEROPYGII. (2 Genera, 2 Species.) “Fresh-water fishes, with posterior dorsal fin, and very small scales.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Fresh waters of the United States.

Amblyopsis (1 sp.) is a blind fish found in the caverns of Kentucky; while Chologastes (1 sp.), which only differs from it in having perfect eyes, is found in ditches in South Carolina.

FAMILY 75.—CYPRINIDÆ. (109 Genera, 790 Species.) “Fresh-water fishes, generally scaly, with no adipose fin, and pharyngeal teeth only, the mouth being toothless.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Fresh waters of the Old World and North America, but absent from Australia and South America.

This enormous family is divided by Dr. Günther into fourteen groups, the distribution of which is as follows:

Catostomina (4 genera), North America and North-east Asia ; Cyprinina (39 genera), same range as the family ; Rohteichthyina (1 genus), Malay Archipelago ; Leptobarbina (1 genus), Malay Archipelago ; Rasborina (5 genera), East Africa to China and Borneo; Semiplotina (2 genera), Western Asia; Xenocypridina (3 genera), Eastern Asia ; Leuciscina (10 genera), Palæarctic and Nearctic regions; Rhodeina (3 genera), Palæarctic region ; Danionina (9 genera), India to China and Japan; Hypophthalmichthyina (1 genus), China; Abramidina (16 genera), same range as the family; Homalopterina (2 genera), India to Java ; Cobitidina (10 genera), Palæarctic and Oriental regions.

The following is the distribution of the genera :

Catostomus (16 sp.), Nearctic region and Eastern Siberia ; Moxostoma (2 sp.), Eastern United States ; Sclerognathus (5 sp.), Temperate North America to Guatemala, also Northern China; Carpiodes (1 sp.), United States ; Cyprinus (2 sp.), Temperate parts of Palæarctic region (1 sp. British); Carassius (3 sp.), Temperate Palæarctic region (1 sp. British); Catla (1 sp.), Continental India ; Cirrhina (5 sp.), Continental India to China; Dangila (6 sp.), Java, Sumatra, Borneo; Osteochilus (14 sp.), Siam to Java and Sumatra; Labeo (27 sp.), Tropical Africa and Oriental region; Tylognathus (10 sp.), Syria, India to Java ; Abrostomus (2 sp.), South Africa ; Discognathus (4 sp.), Syria to India and Java, mostly in mountain streams; Crossochilus (9 sp.), India to Sumatra and Java; Gymnostomus (7 sp.), Continental India; Epalzeorhynchus (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Capoeta (13 sp.), Western Asia; Barbus (163 sp.), Temperate or Tropical

parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa (1 sp. British); Thynnichthys (2 sp.), Pegu, Borneo, and Sumatra ; Barbichthys (1 sp.), Java, Sumatra, and Borneo ; Amblyrhynchichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Albulichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo; Oreinus (3 sp.), Himalayan region; Schizothorax (13 sp.), Himalayan region and west to Afghanistan and Persia ; Ptychobarbus (1 sp.), Thibet; Gymnocypris (1 sp.), loc. unknown ; Schizopygopsis (1 sp.), Thibet; Diptychus (1 sp.), Himalayas and Thibet; Aulopyge (1 sp.), Western Asia; Gobio (2 sp.), Temperate Europe (1 sp. British); Pseudogobio (4 sp.), China, Japan, and Formosa ; Ceratichthys (9 sp.), Temperate North America ; Bungia (1 sp.), Western Asia, Herat ; Pimephales (2 sp.), Eastern United States; Hyborhynchus (3 sp.), Eastern United States; Ericymba (1 sp.), United States; Pseudorasbora (1 sp.), Japan, China ; Cochlognathus (1 sp.), Texas; Exoglossum (2 sp.), United States ; Rhinichthys (6 sp.), Eastern United States; Rohteichthys (1 sp.), Borneo and Sumatra ; Leptobarbina (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Rasbora (12 sp.), East Coast of Africa, India, to Java and Borneo; Luciosma (3 sp.), Java, Sumatra, and Borneo; Nuria (2 sp.), India, Tenasserim, and Ceylon; Aphyocypris (1 sp.), North China; Amblypharyngodon (3 sp.), India to Tenasserim; Cyprinion (3-sp.), Syria and Persia ; Semiplotus (1 sp.), Assam ; Xenocypris (1 sp.), China ; Paracanthobrama (1 sp.), China; Mystacoleucus (1 sp.), Sumatra; Leuciscus (84 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions (5 sp. are British); Ctenopharyngodon (1 sp.), China; Mylopharodon (1 sp.), California; Paraphoxinus (2 sp.), South-eastern Europe; Meda (1 sp.), River Gila; Tinca (1 sp.), Europe (Britain to Constantinople); Leucosomus (8 sp.), Nearctic region ; Chondrostoma (7 sp.), Europe and Western Asia; Orthodon (1 sp.), California; Acrochilus (1 sp.), Columbia River ; Achilognathus (6 sp.), China, Japan, and Formosa ; Rhodeus (3 sp.), Central Europe and China; Pseudoperilampus (1 sp.), Japan; Danio (8 sp.), India and Ceylon; Pterosarion (2 sp.), Central India and Assam ; Aspidoparia (3 sp.), Continental India ; Barilius (15 sp.), East Africa and Continental India ; Bola (1 sp.), Ganges to Bramahputra; Schacra (1 sp.), Bengal; Opsariichthys (5 sp.), Japan and Formosa ; Squaliobarbus (1 sp.), China ; Ochetobius (1 sp.), North China; Hypophthalmichthys (2 sp.), China; Abramis (16 sp.), North America, Central Europe, and Western Asia (1 sp. is British); Aspius (3 sp.), East Europe, Western Asia, China ; Alburnus (15 sp.), Europe and Western Asia (1 British sp.); Rasborichthys (1 sp.), Borneo; Elopichthys (1 sp.), China ; Pelotrophus (2 sp.), East Africa ; Acanthobrama (3 sp.), Western Asia; Osteobrama (5 sp.), Continental India; Chanodichthys (6 sp.), China and Formosa ; Smiliogaster (1 sp.), Bengal; Culter (2 sp.), China ; Pelecus (1 sp.), Eastern Europe ; Eustira (1 sp.), Ceylon ; Chela (16 sp.), India to Siam, Java and Borneo ; Pseudolabuca (1 sp.), China; Cachius (1 sp.), Continental India; Homaloptera (8 sp.), India to Cochin China, Java, and Sumatra ; Psilorhynchus (2 sp:), North-eastern India; Misgurnus (5 sp.), Europe to India, China, and Japan; Nemachilus (37 sp.), Europe and Asia ; Cobitis (3 sp.), Europe, India, Japan; Lepidocepalichthys (3 sp.), India, Ceylon, and Java; Acanthopsis (2 sp.), Tenasserim, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo; Botia (7 sp.), India to Japan and Sunda Isles; Oreonectes (1 sp.), China ; Lepidocephalus (1 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Acanthopthalmus (2 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Apua (1 sp.), Tenasserin; Kneria (2 sp.), Tropical Africa.

· FAMILY 76.-GONORHYNCHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“A marine fish with spiny scales, mouth with barbels, and with short dorsal fin opposite the ventrals.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate parts of Southern Oceans, and Japan.

FAMILY 77.—HYODONTIDA (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “A fresh-water fish with cycloid scales and posterior dorsal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.— Fresh waters of North America.

FAMILY 78.-OSTEOGLOSSIDÆ. (3 Genera, 5 Species.) “Fresh-water fishes, with large hard scales, and dorsal fin opposite and equal to the anal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical rivers.

The genera are:- Osteoglossum (3 sp.), Eastern South America, Sunda Islands, and Queensland; Arapaima (1 sp.), Eastern South America—the “Pirarucú” of the Amazon ; Heterotis (1 sp.), Tropical Africa.

FAMILY 79.-CLUPEIDÆ. (18 Genera, 161 Species.) “ Marine scaly fishes, without barbels, and with the abdomen often compressed and serrated.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Seas of the whole globe, many species entering rivers. They are most abundant in the Indian seas, less so in America, scarce in Africa, while they are almost absent from Australia. The Herring, Sprat, Shad, and Pilchard, are British species of Clupea, a genus which contains 61 species and ranges all over the world.

FAMILY 80.-CHIROCENTRIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“A marine fish, with thin deciduous scales, no barbels, and posterior dorsal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The Eastern seas from Africa to China.

FAMILY 81.-ALEPOCEPHALIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

"A marine fish, covered with thin cycloid scales, no barbels, and posterior dorsal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Deep waters of the Mediterranean.

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