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SUB-CLASS IV.-CHONDROPTERYGII. (SHARKS

AND Rays.)

Order 1.-HOLOCEPHALA. (Chimæras.)

FAMILY 98.—CHIMÆRIDÆ. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) “Shark-like marine fishes, snout of the male with a prehensile

organ."

DISTRIBUTION.—Northern and Southern temperate seas. Chi- . moera is British.

Order II.-PLAGIOSTOMATA.

Sub-order.—SELACHOIDEA. (Sharks.)

FAMILY 99.-CARCHARIIDÆ. (11 Genera, 59 Species.) “ Sharks with two dorsals and a nictitating membrane."

DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of the Arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Species of Galeus and Mustelus have occurred on our coasts.

Family 100.—LAMNIDÆ. (5 Genera, 7 Species.) “ Sharks with two dorsals and no nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.— Temperate and tropical seas. Species of Lamna, Alopecias, and Selache have occurred in British seas.

FAMILY 101.-RHINODONTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “Sharks with two dorsal fins, the second small, and no nictitating membrane."

DISTRIBUTION.—South and East Africa.

FAMILY 102.—NOTIDANIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) “ Sharks with one dorsal fin and no nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas, from the North Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope and California. One species has occurred on our southern coasts.

FAMILY 103.-SCYLLIIDÆ (7 Genera, 25 Species.) “Sharks with one dorsal fin and no nictitating membrane."

DISTRIBUTION.— All temperate and tropical seas. Species of Scyllium and Pristiurus are British.

FAMILY 104.-CESTRACIONTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) “Sharks with two dorsal fins and no nictitating membrane."

DISTRIBUTION.—Pacific Ocean from Japan to New Zealand, Moluccan Sea.

FAMILY 105.—SPINACIDÆ. (10 Genera, 21 Species.) “ Sharks with two dorsal fins and no nictitating membrane, no anal fin."

DISTRIBUTION.— Arctic, teniperate, and tropical seas. Species of Acanthias, Lomargus, and Echinorhinus have occurred on our coasts.

FAMILY 106.-RHINIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) “Sharks with depressed flat body and large expanded pectoral fins.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas, from Britain to California and Australia.

FAMILY 107.—PRISTIOPHORIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.)

“Sharks with produced flat snout, armed with teeth on each edge."

DISTRIBUTION.-Seas of Japan and Australia.

Sub-order BATOIDEI. (Rays.)

FAMILY 108.—PRISTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) “Rays with produced snout and lateral saw-like teeth.” DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of tropical and sub-tropical regions.

Family 109.—RHINOBATIDÆ. (3 Genera, 15 Species.) “Rays with long and strong tail, having a caudal and two dorsal fins.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical and sub-tropical seas.

FAMILY 110.—TORPEDINIDÆ. (6 Genera, 15 Species.)

“Rays with broad smooth disc, and an electric organ.”

DISTRIBUTION. — Tropical and temperate seas, from Britain to Tasmania.

FAMILY 111.-RAIIDÆ. (4 Genera, 29 Species.) “Rays with broad rhombic disc and no serrated caudal spine.”

DISTRIBUTION.—All temperate and tropical seas. Several species of Raia are found on our coasts.

FAMILY 112.—TRYGONIDÆ (6 Genera, 43 Species.) “ Rays with the pectoral fins extending to end of snout.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Seas of all temperate and tropical regions, and rivers of Tropical America. A species of Trygon has occurred on our Southern coast. Ellipesurus and Tæniura are found in the fresh waters of the interior of South America, while the latter genus occurs also in the Indian seas, but not in the Atlantic.

FAMILY 113.—MYLOBATIDÆ. (5 Genera, 22 Species.) “ Rays with very broad pectoral fins not extending to end of snout."

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas. A species of Myliobatis is British, but most of the species and genera are confined to tropical seas. Dicerobatis and Ceratoptera are very large Rays, commonly called Sea-devils.

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“ Cartilaginous fishes, with suctorial mouths and without lateral fins."

FAMILY 114.—PETROMYZONTIDÆ. (4 Genera, 12 Species.)

“ Marine or fresh-water eel-like fishes, with suctorial mouths and without barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Coasts and fresh waters of temperate regions of both hemispheres. Three species of Petromyzon (Lampreys), are British

FAMILY 115–MYXINIDAE. (2 Genera, 5 Species.) “Marine eel-like fishes, with four pairs of barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of the temperate regions of both hemispheres.

SUB-CLASS WI.-LEPTOCARDII.

FAMILY 116–CIRRHOSTOMI. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“A small marine fish with no jaws or fins, and with rudimentary eyes.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The only species, the Lancelet (Amphioxus), is the lowest form of living vertebrate. It is found in the temperate regions of both hemispheres, and has occurred on our southern coast.

Remarks on the Distribution of Fishes.

Marine Fish.-There are about 80 families of marine fishes, and of these no less than 50 are universally, or almost universally, distributed over the seas and oceans of the globe. Of the remainder many are widely distributed, some species even ranging from the North Atlantic to Australia. Six families are confined to the Northern Seas, but four of these consist of single species only, the other two being the Discoboli (2 genera, 11 sp.), and the Accipenseridae (2 genera and 20 sp.). Only one family (Acanthoclinidae) is confined to the Southern oceans, and that consists of but a single species. Four families (Sternoptychidae), Stomiatidae, Alepocephalidae and Halosauridae) are confined to the Atlantic Ocean, while 13 are found only in the Pacific; and of the remainder several are more abundant in the Pacific than the Atlantic. Two families (Lycodidae and Gadidae) are found in the Arctic and Antarctic seas only, though the

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