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Sub-order-LEPIDOPTERA RHOPALOCERA, or BUTTERFLIES.
FAMILY 1.-DANAIDÆ. (24 Genera, 530 Species.)
The Danaidæ are now held to comprehend, not only the whole of the group so named by Doubleday, but a large portion of the Heliconidæ of that author. Their range is thus extended over the whole of the tropical regions. A few species spread northwards into the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, but these are only stragglers, and hardly diminish the exclusively tropical character of the group. The more remarkable genera are, -Hestia (10 sp.), and Ideopsis (6 sp.), confined to the Malayan and Moluccan districts ; Danais (50 sp.), which has the range of the whole family ; Euplæa (140 sp.), confined to the Oriental and Australian regions, but especially abundant in the Malayan and Moluccan districts; Hamadryas (4 sp.), Australian region only. The remaining genera constitute the Danaioid Heliconidæ, and are strictly confined to Tropical America, except a few species which extend into the southern parts of the Nearctic regiou. The chief of these genera are :
Ithomia (160 sp.), Melinda (18 sp.), Napeogenes (20 sp.), Mechanitis (4 sp.), Ceratina (32 sp.), Dircenna (10 sp.), and Lycorea (4 sp.). Florida, Louisiana, and Southern California, mark the northern extent of these insects.
FAMILY 2.-SATYRIDÆ. (60 Genera, 835 Species.)
This family has an absolutely universal distribution, extending even into the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Many of the genera are, however, restricted in their range.
Hætera, Lymanopoda, Calisto, Corades, Taygetis, Pronophila, Euptychia, and some allied forms (25 genera in all) are Neotropical, the last named extending north to Canada; Debis, Melanitis, Mycalesis and Ypthima, are mostly Oriental, but extending also into the Australian and the Ethiopian regions; Gnaphodes, Leptoneura, and a few other small genera, are exclusively Ethiopian ; Xenica, Hypocista, and Heteronympha, are Australian; Erebia, Satyrus, Hipparchia, Coenonympha, and allies, are mostly Palæarctic, but some species are Ethiopian, and others Nearctic; Chionabas, is characteristic of the whole Arctic regions, but is also found in Chili and the Western Himalayas. The peculiar genera in each region are,-Neotropical, 25; Australian, 7; Oriental, 11; Ethiopian, 5; Palæarctic, 3; Nearctic, O.
FAMILY 3.-ELYMNIIDÆ. (1 Genus, 28 Species.)
The genus Elymnias, which constitutes this family, is characteristic of the Malayan and Moluccan districts, with some species in Northern India and one in Ashanti. It thus agrees with several groups of Vertebrata, in showing the resemblance
of Malaya with West Africa independently of the Peninsula of India.
FAMILY 4. MORPHIDÆ. (10 Genera, 106 Species.)
The Morphidæ are a group of generally large-sized butterflies, especially characteristic of the Malayan and Moluccan districts, and of Tropical America ; with a few species extending to the Himalayas on the west, and to Polynesia on the east. The genera are :
Amathusia (6 sp.), Northern India to Java; Zeuxidia (9 sp.), the Malay district; Discophora (7 sp.), Northern India to Philippines, Java and Timor; Enispe (3 sp.), Northern India; Hyades (15 sp.), Moluccan and Polynesian districts, except one species in Java; Clerome (11 sp.), Northern India to Philippines and Celebes ; Æmona (1 sp.), Sikhim ; Hyantis (1 sp.), Waigiou; Thaumantis (10 sp.), Indo-Chinese and Malayan districts; Morpho (40 sp.), Neotropical region, Brazilian and Central American sub-regions.
FAMILY 5. BRASSOLIDÆ. (7 Genera, 62 Species.)
The Brassolidæ have the same distribution as the genus Morpho. The genera are :
Brassolis (5 sp.); Opsiphanes (17 sp.); Dynastor (2 sp.); Penetes (1 sp,); Caligo (21 sp.); Narope (5 sp.); and Dasyopthalma (3 sp.)
FAMILY 6.-ACRÆDÆ. (1 Genus, 90 Species.)
The genus Acræa is especially, abundant in the Ethiopian region, which contains two-thirds of all the known species; 3 or 4 species only, range over the whole Oriental, and most of the Australian regions; while all the rest inhabit the same districts of the Neotropical region as the Brassolidæ.
FAMILY 7.-HELICONIDÆ. (2 Genera, 114 Species.)
The true Heliconidæ are very characteristic of the Neotropical region ; one species only extending into the Southern States of North America as far as Florida. The genus Heliconius (83 sp.), has the range of the family; while Eueides (19 sp.), is confined to the Brazilian and Central American sub-regions.
FAMILY 8.-NYMPHALIDÆ. (113 Genera, 1490 Species.)
This is the largest and most universally distributed family of butterflies, and is well illustrated by our common Fritillaries,
Tortoise-shell, Peacock, Painted Lady, and Purple Emperor butterflies. They are found wherever butterfly-life can exist, and some single species—like the Painted Lady (Pyrameis cardui)-range almost over the globe. A few of the more extensive and remarkable genera only, can be here noticed :
Colonis, Agraulis, Eresia, Synchloe, Epicalia, Eunica, Eubagis, Catagramma, Callithea, Ageronia, Timetes, Heterochroa, Prepona, Hypna, Paphia, and Siderone, are wholly Neotropical, as well as many others which have a smaller number of species. Euryphene, Romaleosoma, Aterica, and Harma, are exclusively Ethiopian. Terinos, Athyma, Adolias, and Tanæcia, are Oriental, but they mostly extend into the Moluccan region; the last however is strictly Malayan, and Adolias only reaches Celebes. Mynes alone, is exclusively Australian, but Prothoe is almost so, having only one outlying species in Java. Eurytela and Ergolis are confined to the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, but the latter reaches the Moluccas. Cethosia, Cirrhochroa, Messaras, and Symphoedra, are both Oriental and Australian ; while Junonia, Cyrestis, Diadema, Neptis, and Nymphalis, are common to the three tropical regions of the Fastern Hemisph ere, the latter extending into the Mediterranean district, while Junonia occurs also in South America and the Southern United States.
The most cosmopolitan genus is Pyrameis, which has representatives in every region and every district. Apatura is found in all but the Ethiopian and the Australian, although it just enters the confines of the latter region in Celebes ; Limenitis is abundant in the Oriental region, but extends eastward to Celebes and westward into Europe, North America, and even into South America. Argynnis, Melitoa, and Vanessa, are almost confined to the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions; the former however occurs in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Java, and also in Chili and in Jamaica. Two genera-Dicrorrhagia and Helcyra—have both one species in North India and another in the island of Ceram. The number of genera peculiar to each region is as follows:
Neotropical, 50; Australian, 2; Oriental 15; Ethiopian, 14 ; Palæarctic, 1; Nearctic, 0.