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AQUILINAE, ii. 348

Ara, ii. 328

Arachnechthra, ii. 276

Arachnothera, ii. 277

ARAMIDAE, ii. 357

Aramides, ii. 352

Aramus, ii. 357

Arapaima, ii. 454

Arborophila, ii. 338

ARCADAE, ii. 534

Archaeomys, ii. 238

Archaeopteryx, Bavarian Oolite, i. 163

Archibuteo, ii. 848

Arctic shells, ii. 518
zone not a separate region, i. 68

Arctitis, ii. 195

Arctocebus, ii. 176

Arctocephalus, ii. 202

*:: European Eocene, i. 125

206

Anostomus, ii. 445
Anous, ii. 365
Anser, ii. 363
Anseranas, ii. 363
Anseres, arrangement of, i. 98
peculiar Palaearctic genera of, i. 250
peculiar Ethiopian genera of, i. 313
peculiar Australian genera of, i. 487
ANSERES, general remarks on the distribu-
tion of, ii. 367
Antarctia, ii. 490
ii. 492
Ant-eaters, ii. 247
Antechinomys, ii. 249
Antechinus, ii. 249
Auto: in the Indian Miocene deposits, i.
22

birthplace and migrations of, i. 155
Palaearctic, i. 182
ii. 221
Antelotherium, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Antennarius, ii. 431
Anteros, ii. 476
Anthia, ii. 491
Anthipes, ii. 270
Anthocharis, ii. 478
Anthochaera, ii. 275
Anthornis; ii. 275
Anthracotheridae, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Anthracotherium, European Miocene, i. 119
ii. 215
Anthreptes, ii. 276
Anthropoid apes, ii. 170
Anthropoides, ii. 357
Anthus, ii. 290
Antiacodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Antillean sub-region, ii. 61
mammalia of, ii. 62
birds of, ii. 64
illustration of zoology of, ii. 67
table of distribution of resident land-
birds of, ii. 68
reptiles and amphibia of, ii. 72
fresh-water fish of, ii. 78
insects of, ii. 73
land-shells of, ii. 75
t history of, ii. 78
Antilles, Pliocene Mammalia of, i. 148
land-shells of, ii. 526
Antilocapra, ii.223
ANTILOCAPRINAE, ii.223
Antilope, Post-Pliocene, i. 112
in Brazilian caves, i. 144
ii. 223

ii. 226
Antiquity of the genera of insects, i. 166
of the genera of land and fresh-water
shells, i. 168
Antrostomus, ii. 319
Ant-thrushes, ii. 297
A numbius. ii. 103
ANúñA. ii. 414
Anurosorer, ii. 190
Aonyx, ii. 199
Apalis, ii. 258
Apaloderma, ii. 314
Apatura, ii. 474
Aphanapteryx of Mauritius, i. 164
ii. 352
Aphantocera, ii. 107
Aphelotherium, European Eocene, i. 125
Aphneus, ii. 477
A i. 283

# ii. :
APHREDODERIDAE, ii. 425
Aphritis, ii. 428

ii. 549

Arctodus, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
ii. 202

Arctogale, ii. 195

Arctomys, European Pliocene, i. 113
ii. 285, 236

Arctonyx, ii. 199

Arctopithecus, ii. 244

Arctotherium in Brazilian caves, i. 144
S. American Pliocene, i. 146

Ardea, ii. 359

ARDEIDAE, ii. 359

Ardistomus, ii.490

Argentina, ii. 488

Arges, ii. 444

ARGONAUTIDAE. ii. 505

Argus pheasant, figure of, i. 339
peculiarity in display of plumage, and con-

firmation of Mr. Darwin's views, i. 340

Argusianus, ii. 340

Argutor, ii. 489

Argynnis, ii. 474

Aricoris, ii. 476

Ariella, ii. 195 -

Arinia, ii. 520

Arion, ii. 517

Aristobia, ii. 501

Arius, ii. 443

Armadillos, ii. 245

Artamia, ii. 268
ii. 271
ii. 288
ARTAMIDAE, ii. 288
Artamides, ii. 269
Artamus, ii. 288

Australian region, mammalia of, i 390
birds of, i. 391
reptiles of, i. 896
amphibia of, i. 397
fresh-water fish of, i. 397
summary of vertebrata of, i. 397
supposed land-connection of with S. Am.
rica, i. 398
insects of, i. 403
lepidoptera of, i.404
coleoptera of, i. 405
land-shells of, i. 407
sub-regions of, i. 408
early history of, i. 465
Australian sub-region, mammalia of, i. 438.
illustration of mammalia of, i. 439
birds of, i. 440
illustration of fauna of, i. 441
Australian hedgehog, ii. 254
Auto sub-region, physical features
of, i 388

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Ariocerces, ii. 477

Azores, visited by European birds, i. 17
birds of, i. 207
butterflies of, i. 207
beetles of, i. 207, 209
peculiarly modified birds of, i. 207
stragglers to, i. 208
how stocked with animal life, i. 208

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Arthroleptis, ii. 421
Artiodactyla, European Eocene, i. 126
N. American Tertiary, i. 137
S. American Pliocene, i. 146
Artomyias, ii. 270
Arundinicola, ii. 100
Arvicola, European Pliocene, i. 113
in Brazilian caves, i. 145
S. American Pliocene, i. 147
S. American Eocene, i. 148
Arvicola, ii. 230, 231

Aspidoparia, ii. 452
Aspidorhinus, ii. 391
Aspidura, ii. 374
Aspius, ii. 453
Aspredo, ii. 444
Aspro, ii. 425
Astarte, ii. 535
Astathes, ii. 501
Asterophys, ii. 421
Asterophysus, ii., 443
Asthenodipsas, ii. 381
Astropio, ii. 274
Astrob , ii. 444
Astur, ii. 348
Asturina, ii. 348
Asturinula, ii. 348
ATELEOPODIDAE, ii. 440
Ateles, ii. 174
Atelopus, ii. 416
Atelornis, ii. 312
Aterica, ii. 474
Athene, ii. 350
Atherina, ii. 434
Atherinichthys, ii. 434
ATHERINIDAE, ii. 434
Atheris, ii. 386
Atherwra, ii. 240

ATLANTIDAE, ii. 531

Atlapetes, ii. 284

ATRACTASPIDIDAE, ii. 383

Atractaspis, ii. 383

Atretium, ii. 375

Atrichia, 299 -

ATRICHIIDAE, ii.299

Atropos, ii. 385

Attagis, ii. 354

ATTALINAE, ii. 293

Atthis, ii. 108

Atticora, ii. 281

Attila, ii. 102

Auchenaspis, ii. 443

*: N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130
i. 217

Auchenipterus, ii. 443 -

Auckland Islands, birds of, i. 455

Au , ii. 108
Auks, ii. 367
Aulia, ii. 102

Aulacodes, ii. 239

Aulacodon, ii. 239

Aulacorhamphus, ii. 307

Aulopoma, ii. 520

Aulopyge, ii. 452

Auricula, ii. 519, 527 -

AURICULIDAE, ii. 518

Auriparus, ii. 266

Australia, physical features of i. 387

Australia and S. America, supposed land con-

nection between, i. 898

Australian region, description of... i. 887

zoological characteristics of, i. 390

Babirusa of Celebes, peculiarities of, i. 428

Babirusa, ii. 215

Badger, figure of, i. 195

Badis, ii. 433

Boeotis, ii. 475

Bagarius, ii. 443

Bagrichthys, ii. 442

Bagroides, ii. 442

Bagrus, ii. 442

Baird, Foo, on fauna of Cape St. Lucas
onFontative birds of United States,

*.* Pliocene, i. 112

Balaeniceps, ii. 360
BALENIDAE, ii. 207
Balaenodon, European Pliocene, i. 112
Balaenoptera, 207
Balaenopteridae, ii. 207
Balea, ii. 516
É.i. ii. 357
y, Mr., on o of Japan, i. 230
Banca, its peculiar species and solution of a
roblem in distribution, i. 356
Band-fish, ii. 435
Bandicoots, ii. 250
Barangia, ii. 199
Barbatula, ii. 306
Barbets, ii. 305
Barbichthys, ii,452
Barbus, ii. 451
Barilius, ii. 452
Barissia, ii. 392
Barriers, as affecting distribution, i. 6
{..". of, as affecting distribution,i.7
the dispersal of birds, i. 17

Baryphthengus, ii. 313
- 492

Batara, ii. 104
Bates, Mr., on Carabidae of Japan, i. 228
on Longicorns of Japan, i. 230
Bathmodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 136
Bathrodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Bathyerges, ii. 231
BATOIDEI, ii. 462
BATRACHIDAE, ii. 431
Batrachocephalus, ii. 443
Batrachoseps, ii. 413
Batrachostomus, ii. 318
Bats, powers of flight of, i. 15
classification of, i. 87
of New Zealand, i. 450
Baucis, ii. 108
Baza, ii. 349
Bdeogale, ii. 195
Bearded Reedling, ii. 262
Bears, probable cause of absence of, from
tropical Africa, i. 291
ii. 20.1
Beaver, N. American Tertiary, i. 140
Beavers, ii. 234
Bee-eaters, ii. 312
Beetles, families selected for study, i. 103
from the Lias, i. 167
of Azores, i. 207
of Japan, i. 228
of S. Temperate America. ii. 44
BELEMNITIDAE, ii. 506
Belennoziphius, European Pliocene, i. 112
Belideus, ii. 252
Belionota, ii. 497
Belodontichthys, ii. 441
Belone, ii. 450
Belonesor, ii. 450 -
Belt, Mr., his theory of a great Siberian lake
during the glacial epoch, i. 218; ii. 206 |
on change of climate caused by diminu-
tion of obliquity of ecliptic, i. 466
Beluga, ii. 209
Bembecidium, ii. 489
Berardius, ii. 208
Berenicornis, ii. 317
Bermudas, zoology of, ii. 134
Bernicla, ii. 363
Bernieria, ii. 258
BERYCIDAE, ii. 424
Bessomornis, ii. 256
Bettongia, ii. 251
Bhringa, ii. 269
Bhutanitis, ii. 479
Bias, ii. 270
Biatas, ii. 104
Bibos, ii. 222
Bison, ii. 222, 225
Binney, Mr., on Air-breathing Molluscs of
N. America, ii 528
Birds, means of dispersal of, i. 15
dispersal of by winds, i. 16
American, found in Europe, i. 16
reaching the Azores, i. 17
barriers to dispersal of, i. 17
limited by forests, i. 17
classification of, i. 93 -
Miocene of Greece, i. 116
extinct, i. 160
fossil of Palaearctic region, i. 161
European of Miocene period, i. 161
Eocene of Europe, i. 162
relations of, i. 162

Birds, extinct of North America, i. 163
recently extinct in New Zealand, i. 164
Cretaceous of N. America, i. 164
remains of in Brazilian caves, i. 164
recently extinct in Madagascar and the
Mascarene Islands, i. 164
cosmopolitan groups of, i. 176
numerous Palaearctic genera, i. 183
of the European sub-region, i. 193
northern range of in Europe, i. 193
of the zone of pine forests, i. 194
of Iceland, i. 198
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i.203
of Malta, i. 206 (note)
of the Azores, i. 207
of the Cape Werd Islands, i. 215
of the Siberian sub-region, i. 219
Oriental found in Siberia, i. 219
extreme northern Asiatic, i. 219
of northern Asiatic forests, i. 220
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 223
Palaearctic genera of, in the Manchurian
sub-region, i. 224
Oriental genera of, in the Manchurian
sub-region, i. 224
characteristic of N.W. China and Mon-
golia, i. 226
table of Palaearctic families of, i. 235
of West Africa, i. 243
list of Palaearetic genera of, i. 243
of the Ethiopian region, i. 253
of the East African sub-region, i. 260
S. African, i. 267
genera of, peculiar to Madagascar, i. 275
common to Madagascar and Oriental or
Ethiopian regions, i. 276
species common to Madagascar and Africa
or Asia, i. 277
table of Ethiopian families of, i. 295
table of o genera of, i. 306
of the Oriental region, i. 316
of the Indian sub-region, i. 323
Oriental genera of in Central India, i. 324
Palaearctic and Ethiopian genera in
Central India, i. 325
of Ceylon, i. 327
of the Indo-Chinese sub region, i. 330
of the Indo-Malayan sub-region, i. 337
illustration of o: Malayan, i. 339
of the Philippine Islands, i. 346
table of Oriental families of, i. 366
table of Oriental genera of, i. 375
of Australian region, i. 391
specially organized Australian families of,
i. 392
of the Papuan Islands, i. 410
uliarities of, i. 413
rilliant colours of, i. 413
remarkable forms of, i. 414
of the Moluccas, i. 418
peculiarities of, i. 421
of the Timor group, i. 423
of Celebes, i. 428
of Australia, i. 440
of New Zealand, i. 451
peculiar to New Zealand, i. 452
of Norfolk Island, i. 458
of Lord Howe's Island, i. 453
of the Chatham Islands, i. 454
of the Auckland Islands, i. 455
table of families of Australian, i. 471
table of genera of Australian, i.478
of the Neotropical region, ii. 6
distinctive characters of Neotropical, ii. 7
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 52
of the Antilles, ii. 64

Birds, table of distribution of, ii. 68
table of families of Neotropical, ii. 86
table of genera of Neotropical, ii. 86
of the Nearctic region, ii. 116
list of typical genera of, ii. 118
of California, ii. 127
of Central N. America, ii. 130
of Eastern United States, ii. 132
of Canada, ii. 136
table of Nearctic families of, ii. 141
table of Nearctic genera of, ii. 148
and Mammals, parallelism of distribution
of, ii. 545
lines of migration of, ii. 545
peculiar development of, in islands, ii.
546

contrast of distribution in tropical and
temperate oceanic islands, ii. 546
Biziura, ii. 364
Blacicus, ii. 102
Black ape of Celebes, i. 427
Piano Thomas, on Antillean land-shells,
i. 19
ii. 526
Blanford, Mr. W. T., on the “Indian”
region, i. 60
on relations of Indian sub-region with
Africa, i. 321
Blapsidium, Oolitic insect, i. 167
Blarina, ii. 191 .
Blaumeria, ii. 519
BLENNIDAE, ii. 431
Blenniops, ii. 431
Blennius, ii. 431
Blethisa, ii. 489
Blind burrowing snakes, ii. 372
Blunt-heads, ii. 380
Blyth, Mr., on zoological regions, i. 60
on the relations of Indian sub-region with
Africa, i. 321
Boa, ii. 381
Boardon, ii. 380
Boas, ii. 381
Bola, ii. 452
Bolborhynchus, ii. 328
Boleosoma, ii. 425
BOMBINATORIDAE, ii. 416
Bombinator, ii. 417
Bonasa, ii. 339
Bonnet-limpets, ii. 511
Bony Pikes, ii. 459
Bootherium, ii. 225
Borneo, probable recent changes in, i. 357
Bos, Post-Pliocene, i. 112
Indian Miocene, i. 122
ii. 222, 225
Botaurus, ii. 359
Bothriodon, ii. 215
Botia. ii. 453
Bourbon, zool of, i. 280
reptiles of, i. 281
Bourcieria, ii. 108
ii. 521
Bovidae, European Miocene, i. 120
BOVIDAE, ii. 221
BOVINAE, ii.222
Brachinus, ii. 489
BRACHIOPODA, ii. 532
Brachiurophis, ii. 383
Brachiurus, ii. 175
Brachyalestes, ii. 445
Brachycephalus, ii. 414
Brachygalba, ii. 311
Brachylophus, ii. 401
Brachymeles, ii. 397
Brachymerus, ii. 416

Brachymys, European Miocene, i. 120
ii. 232

ii. 236
Brachymystar, ii. 447
Brachypteryr, ii. 256
Brachyptermus, ii. 303
Brachytarsomys, ii. 230
Brachypteracias, ii. 312
Brachyrhamphus, ii. 367
Bradybates, ii. 413
Bradycellus, ii. 489
Bradyornis, ii. 271
BRADYPODIDAE, ii. 244
Bradyptetus, ii. 258
Bradypus, ii. 244
Bradytus, ii. 489.
Brama, ii. 429
Progium, Miocene of Perim Island, i. 122
ii. 226
Branchiosteus, ii. 442
Branta, ii. 364
BRASSOLIDAE, ii. 472
Brassolis, ii. 472
Brazilian cave-fauna, i. 143
remarks on, i. 145
Brazilian sub-region, description of, ii. 21
mammalia of, ii. 23
birds of, ii. 24
illustration of mammalia of, ii. 23
illustration of birds of, ii. 28
islands of, ii. 29
Breviceps, ii. 416
Breyeria borinensis, Carboniferousinsect, i. 168
Britain, peculiar species in, i. 197
British Isles, zoology of, i. 197
Broad-bill, Malayan, figure of, i. 340
Broad-bills, ii. 294
Bronchocela, ii. 402
Brontes, ii. 444
Brontotheridae, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Brontotherium, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Brotogerys, ii. 328 -
Brush-turkeys, ii. 341
. Brycon, ii. 445
Brycomops, ii. 445
Bryttus, ii. 425
Buarremon, ii. 99
Bubalus, ii. 222
Bubo, European Miocene, i. 162
ii. 350
BUCCINIDAE, ii. 507
Buccinum, ii. 507
Bucco, ii. 310
BUCCONIDAE, ii. 310
Bucephala, ii. 364
Bucephalus, ii. 379
Buceros, ii. 317
BUCEROTIDAE, ii. 316
Bucorvus, ii. 317
Budorcas, ii. 224
BUDoRouxAF, ii. 224
Budytes, ii. 290
Buffaloes, ii. 221
Bufo, ii. 415
BUFONIDAE, ii. 415
Bulbuls, ii. 267
BULLIDAE, ii. 530
Buliminus, ii. 514
Bulimulus, ii. 514
Bulimus, Eocene, i. 169
ii. 514,523
Bunaelurus, N. American Tertiary, i. 134
Bungarus, ii. 383
Bungia, ii. 452
Bunocephalichthys, ii. 444
| Burtocephalus, ii. 444

Buphaga, ii. 288
BUPRESTIDAE, ii. 495
Buprestidium, Oolitic insect, i. 167
Busarellus, ii. 348
Bush-shrikes, ii. 297
Bustards, ii. 356
Butalis, ii. 270
Butastur, ii. 348
Buteo, ii. 348
Buteogallus, ii. 348
BUTEONINAE, ii. 348
Buteola, ii. 348
Buthraupis, ii. 98
Butterflies, arrangement of, i. 103
Palaearctic, i 187.
of Central Europe, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of Azores, i. 207
peculiar to Siberian, sub-region, i. 220
of Japan and North China, i. 227
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255
number of Ethiopian species, i. 256
of Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 342
of the Australian region, i. 404
of the Austro-Malay sub-region, i.404
of the Moluccas, i. 419

of Celebes, peculiarities of, i. 434
of New Zealand, i.457
ii. 470

general remarks on the distribution of, ii.
483

fossil, ii. 486
of S. Temperate America, ii. 43
Bycanistes, ii. 317

Cabalus, ii. 352

Cabrita, ii. 391

Cacatua, ii. 325

CACATUIDAE, ii. 324

Caccabis, ii. 339

Cachius, ii. 453

Cacomantis, ii. 309

Cacophis, ii. 383

Cacopitta, ii. 261

Cacopus, ii. 416

Cacotus, ii. 417

Cactormis, ii. 284

Cadurcotherium, European Eocene, i. 125

Caecilia, ii. 411

CAECILIADAE, ii. 411

Corcum, ii. 509

Coelodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145

Coelogenys, in Brazilian caves, i. 144
ii. 241

Coenopithecus, European Eocene, i. 124
ii. 178

Coentropus, ii. 445

Cainotherium, European Miocene, i. 120
European Eocene, i. 126

Cairina, ii. 364

Caica, ii. 328

Calamanthus, ii. 258

Calamaria, ii. 374

CALAMARIIDAE, ii. 374

Calamodon, N. American Eocene, i. 139

Calamodus, ii. 258

CALAMoHERPINAE, ii. 287

Calamoichthys, ii. 458

Calamospiza, ii. 285

Calandrella, ii. 289

Calao, ii. 317

Calathus, ii. 489

Caledonica, ii. 487

Calendula, ii.289
Calicalicus, ii. 271
Calictis, ii. 195
Calidris, ii. 353
Caliecthrus, ii. 809
California, illustration of zoology of, ii. 128
Californian sub-region, ii. 127
mammalia of, ii. 127
birds of, ii. 127
reptiles of, ii. 128
amphibia of, ii. 128
fresh-water fishes of, ii. 128
Caligo, ii. 472
Calinaga, ii. 479
Calisto, ii. 471
Callacas, ii. 287
Callia, ii. 521
Callichroma, ii. 501
Callichrous, ii. 442
Callichthys, ii. 444
Callida, ii. 490
Callidryas, ii. 478
Callionymus, ii. 430
Calliope, ii. 259
Callipepla, ii. 339.
Calliperidia, ii. 108 -
Calliphlox, ii. 198
Callirhynus, ii. 375
Callisaurus, ii. 401
Calliste, ii. 98
Callisthenus, ii. 489
Callithea, ii. 474
Callithrix, in Brazilian caves, i. 184
ii. 175
ii. 178
Callocephalus, ii. 204
Callochen, ii. 363
Callomystar, ii. 443
Callophis, ii. 383
Callophysus, ii. 443
Callopistes, ii. 390
Callorhinos, ii. 202
Calloselasma, ii. 385

. Callosune, ii. 478

Callula, ii. 416

Calobates, ii. 290

Calocitta, ii. 273

Calodromas, ii. 344

Calaenas, ii. 333

Caloperdir, ii. 339

Calophena, ii. 490

Calopsitta, ii. 325

Caloragia, ii. 375

Calorhamphus, ii. 305

Calornis, ii. 288

Calosoma, ii. 489

Calostethus, ii 419

Calotes, ii. 402

Calothoraz, ii. 108

Calydna, ii. 476 *

Calypte, ii. 108

Calyptocephalus, ii. 421

Calyptomena, ii. 295

Calyptorhynchus, ii. 825

CALYPTRAEIDAE, ii. all

Calyptura, ii. 102

Camarhynchus, ii. 284

Camaroptera, ii. 258

Camel, fossil in Indian Miocene, i. 122
birth-place and migrations of, i. 155
Palaearctic, i. 182

Camelidae, essentially extra-tropical, i. 112
N. American Tertiary, i. 138

CAMELIDAE, ii. 216

CAMELOPARDALIDAE, ii. 221

Camelopardalis, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

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