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As for your new rebus, or riddle, or crux, copy of any play of his published before that date

I will either explain or repay it in trucks, we find never this possessive, but always his or it and Sheridan To Swift' (cited by Todd),- instead, and if these editions were in great part Dear dean, since in cruxes and puns you and I deal,

surreptitious the probability that a word not in the Pray, Why is a woman a sieve and a riddle ?

author's vocabulary would in this way have crept Here the word has rather a trivial character ; but into a text professing to be his is much increased. it evidently gained seriousness with age, for in 1831 Yet this word never appears in it until 1623. Will the Edinburgh Review, vol. lii

. p. 183 (as quoted any reader of N. & Q. help me to the first by the “Stanford Dictionary'), has "idea has been appearance of this word? I am, at present, inthe cruz philosophorum since the clined to fix its date between very narrow limits. present day.” But in spite of this affected forcing

I believe it to be later than the death of Shakeof the word into a Latin phrase, I am told by speare, and to lie between 1616 and 1623. The philosophers that it is unknown to Latin writers clue which I am here indicating may lead us to the on philosophy or logic. In more modern use there hand which in this respect "modernized Shakehas been a tendency to bring it into quasi-relations speare, and may have wider consequences than I with crucial, and to use it for "crucial difficulty" at present venture to suggest. D. C. T. or the like; also to make the plural cruces, instead of Sheridan's " cruxes"; but the origin of the much obliged if any reader of 'N. & Q.' would

“LABORARE EST ORARE.”—I should be very sense remains as obscure as ever.

kindly let me know where in St. Augustine's J. A. H. MURRAY. Oxford.

writings occur the oft-quoted words, “ Laborare est orare."

ALICE. “Its."- I have often seen it confidently asserted

[See 6th S. xi. 267, 477 ; xii. 16, 135, 235.] (1) that the word its was used by Shakespeare ; PLATO ON REVOLUTIONS.—I am accustomed, (2) that this form was coming into use in his time. as I suppose most of us are, to quote Plato as I think I can almost disprove the first of these authority for the statement that revolutions occur assertions. May I here repeat an analysis I have in states about every 500 years. Bidden just now made elsewhere? In the folio of 1623 (seven stand and deliver chapter and verse, I find I can years after Shakespeare's death) the word is found only deliver this: That Sir Thomas Browne, in once in 'Measure for Measure' and 'Henry VIII.'; bis Hydriotaphia,' ch. iii., speaks of "great contwice in the Tempest'; five times in Winter's junctions and the fatal periods of kingdoms," and Tale' For all these plays the first folio is the that be adds, in a foot-note: “About 500 years, earliest extant authority; and the same form is Plato." Now, indexes to Plato-even to Jowett's found once more in the Tempest' and 'Winter's --are about “as bad as they make them"; still, it Tale in the folio of 1663. In the single place of is odd that no index I have seen points to such a 2 Henry VI.' in which this form occurs in the passage as this. Was Sir Thomas- have we all first (1623) and succeeding folios, the quartos been-quoting from some scholiast? Let the (1594 and 1600) read his. In 'Henry V? and erudition of N. & Q.' determine. Romeo and Juliet' the same word is found for

W. F. WALLER. the first time once, in 'Antony and Cleopatra' twice, in the folio of 1663; in Lear' for the first exact height of the late Lord Tennyson ? I think

HEIGAT OF LORD TENNYSON.- What was the time once in the quarto of 1655 ; in '2 Henry IV.' for the first time once in the folio of 1685. I have size is an important factor in the ideal picture of a exhausted all the instances of its to be found in man; and it might be a good thing to place on Schroidts 'Lexicon except two places in "Hamlet' record in N. & Q' authentic statements as to In one of these the word is found first in the

the personal appearance and peculiarities of wellquarto of 1637, and in the other first with absolute would be very valuable in the future.

known people of our time. Such information certainty of date in the same quarto. But in this

GEORGE BOWLES. second place it occurs also in a quarto which Mr. Collier would assign to 1607, but which the Cam

10, Lady Margaret Road, N.W. bridge editors believe to be printed from the RHYMED DEEDS. — Descriptions in my 'Still quarto of 1611. The evidence of this tell-tale Life of the Middle Temple of some rare books word convinces me that Collier is wrong. The have brought to light the existence of other copies statement, then, that the word is to be found in of them, of the importance of which their possessors Shakespeare will only be true so long as Shake- were previously unaware. Thus, the fifth known speare is reprinted with the alterations which later copy of The Bloudy Court, a contemporary hands have foisted upon him. We are not even pamphlet which settles the doubt as to the position sure that the word was coming into use in Shake-in which Charles I. met his fate, has turned up in speare's time, if by Shakespeare's time is meant a the possession of Capt. Lindsay, of the Guards, in period which ended April 23, 1616. In every whom bis hereditary bookworm" nose ” and luck

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appear to unite, as he writes me he purchased it from all others “ by that scientific accuracy of among a lot of other tracts for fourpence. As I description......which makes the mere reading Cof presented my own copy to Her Majesty, his is the them].....a delight to the instructed bibliophile," only one now in private hands.

may I ask what is the authority for the statement À. Luiken's Theatre des Martyres' has also that the MS. marked No. 467 in Catalogue been found in the library of a gentleman in Dorset- No. 129, and containing works by Ælianus and shire. But, in addition to these, my insertion of Onosander is “ from the Library of King Mathias the Burgoyne rhymed grant has induced a lady Corvini [sic]” ? in Somersetshire to send me a parallel one, which, I have very carefully examined the MS. before when a child, she heard from her great-grand- the sale, the other day, of the Apponyi Library, to mother. It runs thus:

which it formerly belonged, and have failed to disI, John of Gaunt,

cover any internal evidence to prove that the MS. By this deed do grant

ever belonged to the Corvina Library. I noticed a Unto John Burgoyne

pencil note in a modern hand on the inside of the And the heir of his loin The Barton and Fee

cover, but, of course, catalogues aiming at scientific Of Umberleigh.

accuracy are not supposed to copy, or even to take Can any of your readers supplement these in- notice of, random pencil notes in nineteenth censtances of a self-acting and very permanent local tury characters when they refer to the history of a land registry? Their number is necessarily glad to have chapter and verse for the assertion;

MS. in the fifteenth century. Hence I should be limited by the exigencies of rhyme. All names which neither the pencil note nor Mr. Quaritch's cannot be fitted with a jingle, and those which can might not effect the passing of the legal estate

L. L. K.

catalogue supplies. sought to be conveyed. For instance, my own CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN FRANCE.-In the namo would be useless for a grant in fee, as

London Magazine of 1732, p. 157, there is an Whitefield shall be Thorpe's

account of a reformed minister named Durand Until he's a corpse,

suffering death by hanging at Montpelier "for would only pass a life interest.

holding private assemblies of devotion."

W. G. THORPE. of your readers tell us what is the date of the last * AUSTIN BERNHER. The following passage formed opinions ?

capital execution in France for teaching the reoccurs in the late Canon Gresley's Forest of

N. M. & A. Arden,' published by Burns, 1841 :

SCHOLA VERLUCIANA.—Where was it? “ We find Austin Bernher, soon after the accession of

W. O. B. Elizabeth, rector of Southam, a renowned proacher, and conforming to the ordinances of the Reformed Church, “THE TRUE METHODIST; OR, CHRISTIAN IN having been ordained probably by Latimer, at the timó EARNEST.'—For the last fifteen years or so I have of the troubles. He employed his leisure hours in cold had in my possession a small 4to. MS. of some given to the world a volume, containing many valuable importance bearing the above title, and consisting passages, illustrative of the times."-P. 259.

of 205 numbered leaves, written on one side only. I should be much obliged for any information It commences with the words, “A wise and that would verify the above statements, as the approved Antient tells us," &c., and is apparently name of Austin Bernher does not appear in any of a fair copy for the press made by another hand, the registers or records of the parish of Southam. but with notes and the words at end, “Revised A correspondent tells me that he is referred to 6 July, 1755, after reading of Mr. [Rev. James] under the name of Anstey, in the 'Privy Council Hervey's Dialogues on Theron and AspatioRecords,' by Mr. Dagent." Is it at all possible that savours strongly of Methodism," in the author's he may have exercised bis ministry at Southam, autograph. On a loose inserted sheet, and written for some reason or other, under an assumed name i probably c. 1829; by_the Rev. W. Valentine,

W. S. S.

Chaplain to London Hospital, is a schedule of Dorsington Rectory, Stratford-on-Avon.

"Tracts in MS.," referring to this as No. 12,

and stating : “Sans PAVIOURS."-Sans Paviours, or Sands “Of the true Methodist, we may form some opinion Paviours, is the old name of a street or place in both of the style and matter, by some letters addressed Sheffield. It is said to means "without paviours." to Mr. Broughton, a transcript of which I have already I have been told that this name occurs in other committed to the inspection of the Public...... The Com. English towns, and I should be glad to know

in position alluded to [No. 12] is not I believe in existwhat towns.

ence. Not any other of these papers (meaning not any S. O. ADDY.

of the thirteen others mentioned in the schedule) have 3, Westbourne Road, Sheffield,

fallen into my bands, neither has it been Communicated OORVINUS MSS.—As the catalogues issued by they now are, in all probability the greater part of them

to me with any degree of Certainty in whose possession Mr. Quaritch are supposed to be distinguished are either inadvertently lost or carelessly destroyed.".




This MS. appears to have been written by a In the following pretty verses from the fifth book
Church of England minister, in opposition to the headed “I Giardini ”) of Alamanni's 'La Colti-
teachings of the Wesleys and Whitefield. Can vazione,' printed in 1546, Damascus is coupled
any reader state whether it has been printed, and for its rosaria with Pæstum*:-
furnish the name of the author ?

Prima'a tutte altre sia la lieta é fresca,
W. I. R. V.

Amorosa gentil lodata rosa ; " COLIAR - HOLDERS 6 WOODICH - SILVER

La vermiglia, la bianca, o quella insieme

Ch'in mezzo ai due color l'aurora agguaglia ; HOLDERS." -These were a certain class of tenants

Sicché 'l campo pestano e 'l damasceno holding under the Manor of Framlingham. What Di bellezza e d' odor non vada innanzi. is the meaning of the terms; and what was the Bacon's notice of damask roses (Natural His. character of their service!

H. A. W.

tory, § 659) as “translated” plants, “that have JAMES WALES. -Redgrave states that in 1788 not been known in England above an hundred and 1789 this artist exhibited portraits, at the years, and now are so common,” is interesting on Royal Academy. I am anxious to know whose

account of its concluding words. portraits these were. Please reply direct.

The verse quoted by Mr. Mount from ShakeHAROLD MALET, Colonel.

speare's sonnet may be compared with another 12, Egerton Gardens.

from Autolycus's song in the 'Winter's Tale,'

IV. iv.:“DAMNER.”—In the glossary of the “ Waverley

Gloves as sweet as damask roses, Novels " there is the following: "Dammer, stun and But I think that the two Italian quotations exconfusion by striking on the head." Where has clude the possibility of “another interpretation," Scott used the word ?

O. B. MOUNT. and that we may accept without question what

Thomas Fuller writes (Pisgah Sight, bk. iv. ch. i. AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.

p. 9, ed. 1650): Critics are like a kind of bird (y) that breed ::

“Modern Damascus is a beautifull city. The first In wild fig trees, and when they 're grown up feed On the ripe fruit of the nobler kind.

Damask-rose had its root here, and name hence. So all

Damask silk, linen, poulder, and plumbos called Damas. L. BROUGHTON.

cens. So music past is obsolete,

The writer of the article “Rosa " in Rees's And yet 'twas sweet ! 'twas passing sweet.


Cyclopædia' observes with respect to the Rosa Saxon Edith please me best.


HOLLY. "Perhaps it may be what is reported to have been And earth was bitter, and heaven, and even the sea

brought from Syria by a Comte de Brie, at his return Sorrowful as be;

from the crusades, of which the abbé Rozier speaks in And the wind helped not, and the sun was dumb,

his Cours complet d'Agriculture; though that author's And with too long, strong stress of grief to be

description accords with the common R. gallica, and His heart grew sere and dumb.

J. C. M.

not with our damascena, and he calls it moreover
R. provincialis......We cite Rozier to shew that some
particular sort of Rose was brought from Syria to


He adds, however, that the Rosa moschata,“which

is certainly an oriental Rose," has been termed (8th S. iii. 88.)

damascena by many old authors. F. ADAMS.

105, Albany Road, S.E. The fact that Linacre's travels did not extend beyond Italy is no reason for discrediting Hakluyt's

Canon Ellacombe ( Plant-Lore of Shakspeare,' statement that Linacre introduced the damask p. 252) gives Hakluyt's assertion as authority for rose into England at the beginning of the sixteenth the introduction of this rose from Damascus, but century; for the rosa damaschina was at that adds the following note :time celebrated, as well as cultivated, in Italy, and "The Damask Rose was imported into England at an Lipacre may have brought it thence. In proof of earlier date, but probably only as a drug. It is men. what I say I quote a verse from Berni's Orlando tioned in a Bill of Medicynes furnished for the use of Innamorato,' lib. iii. canto i. st. xxxviii., where, 16. xl. iiili." - Archæological Journal, vol. xiv. p. 271."

Edward I., 1306–7: “ Item pro aqua rosata de Damasc, describing an enchantress's pavilion, the poet says: 'It does not follow from the above that damask Pieno è di fiori e rose damaschine.

roses were themselves introduced into England at Berni died in 1636, but the poom must have that time. The water only may have been im. been composed earlier. Rose damascene, too, are ported. described in Stefano's "Trattato de gli horti,' pub- Dodoncus and Gerarde both have something lished posthumously in a little book with the title upon this subject; but they do not appear to agree ‘Di Carlo Stefano le herbe, fiori,' &c., Venice, 1545 ; see fol, 16 recto.

* See Virgil, Georg.,' iv. 119,

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as to the identity of the damask rose. Dodoncus of the word to express colour, nothing is more says (Lyte's translation, p. 655) :

common in the earlier ages, since we have "her " The first kind of garden Roses [previously described damask cheek,” by Shakespeare ; “ her damask 28 " the White Rose......of colour white, with divers late, now changed to purest white," by Fairfax ; yellow heares or threddes in the middle") is called in the damaske meadowes,” by Corbet ; " mingled Italy Rosa Damascena, in this Countrie, Rosa alba."

metal damask'd o'er with gold," by Dryden ; Gerarde describes the damask rose as differing damasking the ground with Rowers,” by Fenton; from the white rose

and "paintyog and damaskyng of their bodies," "in the colour and smell of the flours: for these are of by Speed. JNO. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON. a pale red colour, of a more pleasant smel, and fitter for Barnes Common. meat and medicine "; and says, moreover (p. 1262) :

MEDIÆVAL DIPTYCHS OF THE DECALOGUE (8 “ The Damaske Rose is called of the Italians Rosa S. iii. 8, 116). --ASTARTE refers to Archeologia, French of some, Melesia : the Rose of vol. xlv. p. 119, as evidence “of the Ten ComMelaxo, a city of Asia, from whence some have thought mandments being

exhibited in an English church it was first brought into those parts of Europe.”

in 1488." O. C. B.

The passage to which reference is made occurs Dr. Johnson, in his 'Dictionary,' gives two in a very important paper by Dr. Freshfield on meanings to damask :

the ‘Parish Books of St. Margaret, Lothbury, St. “1. Linen or silk woven in a manner invented at Christopher-le-Stocks, and St. Bartholomew-by. Damascus, with a texture by which part bas regular the-Exchange,' three adjacent parishes in the City figures. " 2. of the colour of the rose so called, a red rose."

of London. The appendix to the paper contains a

list of the “Ornaments of the Church of St. ChrisShakspeare, in addition to the quotation given, also uses it in the latter sense in 'Twelfth Night": | topher, 1488"; and amongst these

“ Ther be xii Tables in the Churcbe the xxvio daie of “But let concealment, like a worm i' th’ bud, feed on the moneth of March, Ao. 88; of the whiche is oon of her damask cheek.”-Act II. sc. iv.

the x comanndements, a nother hanging undro Oure Cowper, in ‘Paradise Lost,' book iv.:- Lady of Pitie with dyvers good prayers of Oure Lady On the soft downy bank damask'd with flowers.

and the sauter of charite, and a nother of reynt Gre

gorie's Pitie of James Wellis giftie, a nother of Seynt There is a damask rose, bearing the names of Crasynns, a nother of Seynt Kateryn of dyvers good York and Lancaster, supposed to have existed at prayers, 'nother of Seynt Anne, a nother of Seynt the time of the reconciliation of the rival roses of Jamys, and iij of Seynt Christofre, and ij of Seynt the houses of York and Lancaster.

From town to town, from tower to tower,

I am afraid that Astarte is not warranted in con-
The red rose is a gladsome flower;

cluding that the table containing the Ten ComHer thirty years of winter past,

mandments was a diptych. It may have been. The red rose is revived at last :

It is no more than might have been expected
She lifts her head for endless Spring,
For everlasting blodsoming;

that the church dedicated to St. Christopher Both roses flourish, red and white,

should have three tables or pictures of that saint. In love and sisterly delight.

But who was St. Crasynns ? The name reminded me The two that were at strife are blended,

at once of St. Grasinus, who forms the subject of a And all old sorrows now are ended;

query at p. 107. Can they be one and the same Joy ! joy to both ! but most to her

person ? Who is the flower of Lancaeter !-Wordsworth, In the index to 'Les Petits Bollandistes' I find

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. “S. Gérasine, Gerasina, tante de s. Ursule, 71, Brecknock Road.

honorée à Trèves et à Cologne, 12 fevrier.” But Sir Francis Bacon says, in his ' Essay on Gar- I do not find, as I had hoped, a St. Gerasinus. Is dening," Damask-roses have not been known in it possible that Crasyons may represent Crescens ? England above one hundred years, and now are so

Dr. Freshfield remarks upon the conservative common,” which statement justifies Hakluyt

as to manner in which our first reformers reformed the their introduction into this country. Then, as

Church," and adds that “it is not unlikely that regards Linacre, it seems almost certain that he an investigation would show that in ordering the it was who introduced them to us, only, in most Ten Commandments to be bang up in Churches, references to him and them, he is said to have they were perpetuating an existing custom” (p. 61). done so from southern Europe about 1495. On

W. SPARROW SIMPSON. the other hand, Paxton gives the damascena rose REINTERMENT OF WILLIAM HARVEY (6th S. as coming from Syria in 1573, which, if he means viii

. 321).-Permit me-as present on this memorthe damask, must be wrong, considering that able occasion, although taking no part in the Bacon was, when talking of " one hundred years," ceremony, as having doubtless expended more dating back from about 1600. As regards the use time and money than any other individual in researches into the history of the family, and as says of the Latin form is, that the phrase "De the one to whom the discovery of almost every mortuis nil nisi bene" is "probably a translation" new fact in the life of Harvey brought to light of the sentiment of Chilon. during the last twenty-six years or so was origin- I have a reference in my note-book, which I ally due—to make a few remarks. Dr. Baldwin cannot at the moment verify, for want of a copy Hamey was wrong in stating ('Bustorum Aliquot of Camerarius : “De mortuis nil nisi bonum. Reliquiæ,' MS. penes Coll. Phys. Lond.) that Suidas e Pausania de statua Niconis Thasii. CaHarvey died “tertio Idus Junii” (=June 11), merarius, 'Opera Subseciva,' cent. i. cap. iii. p. 45." the true date, as given on the coffin and monu- The statue of Nicon, a famous victor in the games, ment at Hempstead, being June 3. Whether the fell and killed someone who struck it. It is burial took place, or, in other words, the coffin was possible that Camerarius, in speaking of this, may actually deposited in the vault on the 26th of that have made use of the phrase. Ed. MARSHALL. month is doubtful; more probably (considering the distance from London) it was on the 27th


or 1672), “Mortuis non conviciandum," followed by

I find in Parcemiologia Anglo-Latina'(London, 28th. The church register, dating from 1664, does not help to determine the question. Indeed,

a contraction of the author's name, which I take to although apparently wanting none of the leaves, it

mean Erasmus. fails to record no fewer than five of the Harvey

ALFRED Chas. Jonas, F.R.H.S. burials at Hempstead during the period which it Tom LEGGE (8th S. iii. 23). — According to comprises. In the inner and outer of the family Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica,' the date of pubvaults (communicating) there were, at the time of lication of 'Low Life ; or, one half of the World. my, visitation, fifty-one (not forty-six *) coffins, knows not how the other lives' (Lond., Legg, 8vo. including that of Harvey, who was the third 18.), was 1752. There was a Thomas Legge, who member buried there. Those desiring further published a book entitled 'Law of Outlawry,' &c., information respecting this interesting family, from in 1779, but he is hardly likely to be the Tom original sources, would do well to consult my two Legge in question.

J. F. MANSERGH. communications of some years since to Misc. Gen. Liverpool et Her, on the subject;

or, better still, my forthcoming Genealogical History of the Family of ABBOTSFORD (85 S. iii. 68).— I remember, in or Harvey of Folkestone,' &c. W. I. R. V. about the year 1851, my late friend John Richard

Walbran, the distinguished Ripon antiquary, “DE MORTUIS NIL NISI BONUM” (8th S. iii. 28). Speaking of Abbotsford as "a romance in stone - I am not able to return a satisfactory answer to and lime," and when he did so attributing the MR. BIRKBECK TERRY's kind appeal. The senti- phrase to Washington Irving. ment occurs very early, but the exact expression

A YORKSHIREMAN. of it in Latin I cannot trace to its source. For the sentiment there is in Homer, 'Od.,' z. 412;- is well enough known hereabouts in the sense

“CATTLE-CREEP" (8th S. ii. 448,538).—This word 'Ovxovin KrapéVOLOLV &A’åv&páow évyerda olan given by L. L. K, a low arch, just high enough to Similar to which, and referred to by commentators enable cattle to pass under a railway, but, someon the line, is that of Archilochus, in Clem. Alex., what to my astonishment, I found it applied the Stromateis,' vi. :

other day to a sort of gangway designed to enable ου γάρ έσθλά κατθανούσι κερτομεϊν επ' ανδράσι. | cattle to pass over a hatch railway which is to be Again, there is, among the 'Excerpta’ of Grotius: worked by an endless rope. Can either man or θνητός πεφευκώς μη γέλα τεθνηκότα; ;

beast creep over an obstacle? We would generally

say creep under or creep along, but are apt to conThen there is the law of Solon, to which Demos- sider creep over wrong. I see the first definition thenes refers in bis 'Oration against Leptines' of creep, in Webster, is “ To move along the ground (488, 21), un Néyelv kaks tòy teve@ta (cf. or on any other surface as a worm or reptile does, Plutarch's "Life of Solon '). So also the sentence to move as a child does on its hands and knees, to of Chilon, c. 590 A.C.

, Tòv TETE EUTÝKOTA un crawl." Now, if either worm, reptile, or child kakodóyei, åldà jakápice. But there is no need met with an obstacle that it could not creep under, to enumerate such passages, for there is a collection would it not creep over it? So a cattle-creep over from Greek writers in Stobæus, 'Serm.,'cclxxix., a railway may be right enough, after all. It is p. 900, Francof., 1581, “Io defunctos non exer- rather a nice question. J. B. FLEMING. cendam esse contumeliam.”. All that Büchmand, in the last issue, 1892, of his "Geflügelte Wörte, PORTRAITS OF ROBERT BURNS (8th S. ii. 428 ; This number appears to be thus miscalculated : Robert Chambers was a conscientious and very

iii. 29, 95). - EFFIGIES will doubtless admit that Coffins in vault with inscriptions of prior date to commencement of church register, 5; burials of the family careful compiler, and that he rigidly excluded recorded in such register, 41; total, 46.

from his life of the poet all statements that

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